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Book part
Publication date: 20 March 2001

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Edwin Seligman's Lectures on Public Finance, 1927/1928
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-073-9

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2002

James Reardon and Denny E. McCorkle

With the phenomenal growth of direct order marketing with the Internet and catalogs as alternative channels, customers increasingly face more choices of where to purchase…

Abstract

With the phenomenal growth of direct order marketing with the Internet and catalogs as alternative channels, customers increasingly face more choices of where to purchase goods and services. This paper develops a formal consumer model to explain channel switching behavior. Becker’s theory of time allocation is expanded to consumer decision making between distribution channels. The final model suggests that consumers face a tradeoff when deciding where to buy goods and services. From this tradeoff an indifference curve is developed where the consumer chooses between alternative distribution channels on the basis of the relative opportunity costs of time, costs of goods, pleasure derived from shopping, perceived value of goods, and relative risk of each channel. Strategies for direct and multi‐channel marketers are developed using this model.

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International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Book part
Publication date: 31 July 2008

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Documents from F. Taylor Ostrander at Oxford, John R. Commons' Reasonable Value
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84663-906-7

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International Journal of Public Sector Management, vol. 24 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0951-3558

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Dongfeng Liu

The purpose of this paper is to develop a scale to measure the legacy of psychic income associated with the Olympic Games.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a scale to measure the legacy of psychic income associated with the Olympic Games.

Design/methodology/approach

Using the 2008 Beijing Games as an example, data were collected from Beijing residents through structured questionnaires. A scale of measuring psychic income (SPI) was developed through conducting a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) based on a sample of 375.

Findings

In the CFA estimation, a seven-factor SPI was identified with 24 pertinent items retained. This seven-factor model displays good fit to the data, construct validity, and reliability.

Originality/value

Despite the importance of psychic income widely recognized in the existing literature, there has been a lack of valid scales to measure major sports events psychic income in general and Olympic psychic income in particular. This paper develops a multidimensional scale from the host community perspective, which can provide academics and local organizers with a reliable and valid tool to assess Olympic psychic income.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 18 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

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Book part
Publication date: 11 November 1994

E. Eide

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Economics of Crime: Deterrence and the Rational Offender
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-44482-072-3

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2006

Evan J. Douglas and Robyn J. Morris

There is a lack of theoretical development on the question of why people work long hours and the nature of “workaholism”. This paper seeks to demonstrate a variety of…

Abstract

Purpose

There is a lack of theoretical development on the question of why people work long hours and the nature of “workaholism”. This paper seeks to demonstrate a variety of reasons that induce a person to work “excessively”.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper discerns three subcategories of the “work enthusiast”: “materialist”, “the low‐leisure” and the “perkaholic” hard workers. It is demonstrated that these work enthusiasts work long hours for relatively high job satisfaction, while workaholics gain relatively low job satisfaction. Inflicting negative externalities on fellow workers is argued to be a separate issue – any one of the hard workers might irk their fellow workers by working “too hard” or by their individual mannerisms. This paper uses the economist's utility‐maximization model to build a conceptual model of voluntary work effort that explains the work effort decision of individuals.

Findings

Individuals will work long hours when motivated to do so by the satisfaction they derive separately and collectively from income (materialism); leisure; perquisites; and work per se. It is argued that only the person who is strongly motivated by the latter reason is properly called a workaholic, and that the imposition of negative externalities on co‐workers is a separate issue that might also involve work enthusiasts.

Originality/value

The paper advances the understanding of work motivation and workaholic behavior and presents a series of researchable propositions for empirical testing.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 11 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 6 April 2012

Olga Verkhohlyad and Gary N. McLean

This study aims to bring some additional insight into the issue of emigration by establishing a relationship between emigration and psychic return of citizens to their…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to bring some additional insight into the issue of emigration by establishing a relationship between emigration and psychic return of citizens to their human capital investment in the country.

Design/methodology/approach

The article adopts a quantitative research strategy. It applies organizational commitment and human capital theories to the study of emigration.

Findings

The article provides evidence for the fact that psychic return to human capital investment in the country has significant relationship with emigration level from this country. At the same time, of all variables that comprise this type of return to HC investment, only two variables were found to be statistically significant: national GDP and access to education in the country.

Research limitations/implications

The findings provide some evidence for the fact that emigration from a country cannot be reduced unless people in the country have the ability to lead an economically comfortable life and have access to education. Those countries that experience significant emigration need to turn their attention to developing and implementing sound economic and educational reforms. Emigration will be reduced as a result. A significant limitation of this research is the fact that not all the world countries were included in the analysis. Although the authors did their best to get data for as many countries as possible, the absence of data for some countries allowed for the research using fewer countries than desired.

Originality/value

This article utilizes organizational commitment and human capital theories. The combination of these two theories of social research allows a unique look at emigration.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. 36 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2015

Jonathan B Dressler and Loren Tauer

A family member may work for the family business even though the direct financial benefits he or she may receive in the form of a salary may be lower than what could be…

Abstract

Purpose

A family member may work for the family business even though the direct financial benefits he or she may receive in the form of a salary may be lower than what could be earned working for a non-family business. The lower amount may be accepted because of benefits of association with the family business. This psychic non-pecuniary return has been called socioemotional wealth in the family business research literature. The purpose of this paper is to propose a method to estimate socioemotional wealth and apply that technique to a group of family dairy farms to estimate socioemotional wealth for those family farms.

Design/methodology/approach

A panel regression method was used to empirically allocate net farm income to the unpaid factors of equity, labor, and management provided by a family member in a family farm partnership. The estimated returns of labor plus management are compared to the market salary earned by farm managers who manage farms. The difference between the higher hired farm manager salary and what the family manager earns in the family farm from labor and management is an estimate of the non-pecuniary return the family member receives from managing the family farm as compared to managing the non-family farm.

Findings

Differences in managers’ salary working for the non-family farm and the implied family manager financial compensation estimates indicate that family business managers’ non-pecuniary return from managing the family farm had an implied economic value averaging $22,026 per year over 1999-2008. Assuming that the manager would be indifferent between working for the family farm or the non-family farm if the sum of pecuniary and non-pecuniary returns were the same, the non-pecuniary annual benefits of $22,026 accrues in the form of socioemotional wealth associated as a member in the family business.

Originality/value

Although the literature discusses how family members may accept a lower salary working for the family business than they could earn doing comparable work in a non-family business because of non-financial rewards they experience working for the family business, there have been no estimates of the value of this pecuniary benefit. The authors arrive at an estimate using a group of family dairy farm businesses that have multiple family managers.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 75 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2017

Dongfeng Liu, Christopher Hautbois and Michel Desbordes

Using Beijing’s bid for the 2022 Winter Olympic Games as an example, the purpose of this paper is to explore the expected social impact of mega-sporting events, as…

Abstract

Purpose

Using Beijing’s bid for the 2022 Winter Olympic Games as an example, the purpose of this paper is to explore the expected social impact of mega-sporting events, as perceived by non-host city residents, and the way in which this perception affects attitudes toward bidding.

Design/methodology/approach

An empirical survey study was conducted in which data were collected from residents in Shanghai, comprising a sample of 483 respondents. An exploratory factor analysis identified 40 items loaded on eight distinctive factors that underlie the expected social impact of the 2022 Winter Olympic Games. A multiple regression analysis was conducted to determine the effect of the perceived impact on residents’ attitudes toward the bid to host the Olympics.

Findings

Among the eight identified impact factors, six were found to be positive and two negative. While all factors were significantly higher above the point of indifference, perceived positive impact factors tended to outweigh those that were negative. In addition, seven out of the eight factors were found to be significantly predictive of support for Beijing’s bidding: while the effect of “tourism and environment,” “social capital and psychic income,” “international cooperation and exchange,” “infrastructure,” “national image,” and “sport development” was positive, the effect of the “higher living cost” factor was negative with regard to the support of the bidding. This study seeks to contribute by taking a non-host community perspective.

Originality/value

A growing body of literature has documented perspectives on events and their specific timing during event cycles, i.e., during the bidding stage. In addition, it also offers insight into the perception and attitudes of citizens from emerging markets toward event bidding and hosting, both of which play an increasingly important role in global sports but, on the whole, remain relatively under researched.

Details

International Journal of Sports Marketing and Sponsorship, vol. 18 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1464-6668

Keywords

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