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This study aims to include two major objectives. Firstly, Frederick’s leadership is explored and characterized. Secondly, it is examined as to why a leader may (or may…
This study aims to include two major objectives. Firstly, Frederick’s leadership is explored and characterized. Secondly, it is examined as to why a leader may (or may not) adopt servant leadership behavior in the case of Frederick II, King of Prussia.
The applied methodology is a historical examination of Frederick II’s leadership, an eighteenth-century’s monarch who has the reputation of being the “first servant of the state.” The analysis is conducted from the perspective of modern servant leadership research.
This study shows Frederick remains a rather non-transparent person of contradictions. The authors identified multiple reasons which explain why a leader may adopt servant leadership. Frederick’s motives to adopt a certain leadership behavior appear timeless and, thus, he most likely shares the same antecedents with today’s top executives.
The authors identified various antecedents of individual servant leadership dimensions, an under-research area to date.
To the best of authors’ knowledge, this study is the first to look at Frederick's leadership style through the lens of modern servant leadership.
Describes the development of the Austrian university system1875‐1914. German influence was detrimental to Austrian universities′hopes for improving standards, higher…
Describes the development of the Austrian university system 1875‐1914. German influence was detrimental to Austrian universities′ hopes for improving standards, higher status and autonomy. German scholarship was linked with German nationalism – increasing conflict between German‐speaking and non‐Germanspeaking institutions in Austria. German scholarship commanded high respect and German universities attracted professors away. University expansion created a market for professors and the Austrian universities were at a disadvantage.
Despite the popularity and potential of self‐leadership strategies in modern organizations, no acceptably valid and reliable self‐leadership assessment scale has…
Despite the popularity and potential of self‐leadership strategies in modern organizations, no acceptably valid and reliable self‐leadership assessment scale has heretofore been developed. The present study tests the reliability and construct validity of a revised self‐leadership measurement scale created on the basis of existing measures of self‐leadership. Results from an exploratory factor analysis (EFA) demonstrate significantly better reliability and factor stability for the revised scale in comparison to existing instruments. Further, results from a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) utilizing structural equation modeling techniques demonstrate superior fit for a higher order factor model of self‐leadership, thus providing evidence that the revised scale is measuring self‐leadership in a way that is harmonious with self‐leadership theory. Based on these results, the revised scale appears to be a reasonably reliable and valid instrument for the measurement of self‐leadership skills, behaviors, and cognitions. Implications for future empirical self‐leadership research are discussed.
Nobody concerned with political economy can neglect the history of economic doctrines. Structural changes in the economy and society influence economic thinking and…
Nobody concerned with political economy can neglect the history of economic doctrines. Structural changes in the economy and society influence economic thinking and, conversely, innovative thought structures and attitudes have almost always forced economic institutions and modes of behaviour to adjust. We learn from the history of economic doctrines how a particular theory emerged and whether, and in which environment, it could take root. We can see how a school evolves out of a common methodological perception and similar techniques of analysis, and how it has to establish itself. The interaction between unresolved problems on the one hand, and the search for better solutions or explanations on the other, leads to a change in paradigma and to the formation of new lines of reasoning. As long as the real world is subject to progress and change scientific search for explanation must out of necessity continue.
Investigates the importance of English language sources ofFriedrich Theodor Althoff (1839‐1908), a German of great influence bothin his own country and, indirectly, in the…
Investigates the importance of English language sources of Friedrich Theodor Althoff (1839‐1908), a German of great influence both in his own country and, indirectly, in the United States. Explores some measures of his influence in education and international understanding. Examines a wide variety of sources. Explains how it could happen that an influential person would end up in intellectual history with almost no recognition. Challenges several conventional assessments. Althoff′s most important contributions are in print and more almost certainly exist in university archives, but the material is scattered and unorganized. Because we do not yet have the full story of this remarkable and complex man, firm conclusions about his influence are not yet possible.
Lenin argued that nationalism should be supported againstcolonialism, though ultimately subordinated to the interests of theworking class. He admitted there were…
Lenin argued that nationalism should be supported against colonialism, though ultimately subordinated to the interests of the working class. He admitted there were linguistic and cultural issues, but associated the nation state chiefly with capitalist economics. Contrasts Lenin′s historical argument with that of Jacob Gould Schurman who emphasized linguistic and cultural sources of nationalism, and looks at both in the light of basically different kinds of nationalism which developed in Prussia, Caucasian Georgia and the Balkans. In all three cases, the nations have their origins earlier than Lenin supposed, and linguistic and cultural issues are mixed with economic issues in all of them. In at least some cases, nationalism poses insoluble problems unless it is subordinated to a federalist structure.
The purpose of this paper is to provide a thorough review of self‐leadership literature past and present, including a historical overview of how the concept was created…
The purpose of this paper is to provide a thorough review of self‐leadership literature past and present, including a historical overview of how the concept was created and expanded as well as a detailed look at more recent self‐leadership research trends and directions. The paper also presents a theoretical and conceptual explanation and differentiation of the self‐leadership concept relative to other related motivational, personality, and self‐influence constructs.
Self‐leadership research and related literatures of motivation, personality and self‐influence are discussed and described in order to present the current state of the self‐leadership body of knowledge and to suggest future directions to explore and study.
It is suggested that self‐leadership is a normative model of self‐influence that operates within the framework of more descriptive and deductive theories such as self‐regulation and social cognitive theory.
While self‐leadership research composes an impressive body of knowledge, it is a domain of study that has been under‐investigated in some aspects, both empirically and conceptually.
This paper suggests several future directions that researchers can undertake to advance self‐leadership knowledge.
This paper fills a void in the organizational literature by reviewing the body of self‐leadership knowledge, by stating how self‐leadership is a distinctive theory in its own, and by presenting directions for future self‐leadership research.
The study of policing in Anglo-American societies has been severely restricted in the last 20 years to quasi-historical overviews, studies of policing in times of stable…
The study of policing in Anglo-American societies has been severely restricted in the last 20 years to quasi-historical overviews, studies of policing in times of stable, non-crisis periods in democratic societies that in turn had survived the crisis as democracies. Perhaps the epitome of this is the sterile textbook treatment of policing in Canada and the United States – a sterile rubble of functions, duties, training surrounded by clichés about community policing. Scholarly writing on democratic policing and its features is severely limited by lack of inclusiveness of the range of contingencies police face, and many respects this work is non-historical and non-comparative. In the present world of conflict and strife that spreads beyond borders and challenges forces of order at every level, the role of police in democratic societies requires more systematic examination. In my view, this cannot be achieved via a description of trends, a scrutiny of definitions and concepts, or citation of the research literature. Unfortunately, this literature makes a key assumption concerning police powers in democratic societies: that the police are restricted by tradition, tacit conventions, and doctrinal limits rooted in the law or countervailing forces within the society. While these constraints are sometimes summarized as a function of “the rule of law,” this assumption is much deeper and more pervasive than belief in the rule of law. It is possible to have a non-democratic police system that conforms to the rule of law and reflects the political sentiments of the governed. It is also possible to have non-democratic policing emerge from a quasi-democratic system as I show in reference to the transformation of the police in the Weimar Republic to the police system of the Third Reich. The complex relationship between policing and a democratic polity remains to be explored.