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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2015

Gopal Agrawal

Since inception, National Sample Survey (NSS) is the only large-scale household survey in India, periodically collecting data on morbidity and health care conditions in…

Abstract

Purpose

Since inception, National Sample Survey (NSS) is the only large-scale household survey in India, periodically collecting data on morbidity and health care conditions in the country. In these surveys, information for all members of sample households was gathered either from head or a key informant of the household. This paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This study was developed to examine whether the use of proxy respondents influences population estimates of morbidity prevalence rates and factors associated with morbidity prevalence rates among adults based on latest 60th round NSS data on morbidity and health care.

Findings

The results showed that use of proxy in this survey had severely affected morbidity prevalence rates among adult persons aged 18 years and above. The result showed that use of proxy in the NSS 60th round survey had resulted in underestimation of morbidity prevalence rates among adults in such a way that overall morbidity prevalence rate was 45 per cent higher in direct interviews (148 per 1,000 adult persons) compared to those answered by proxies (81, p<0.001). There were variations in underreporting of morbidities by socio-economic and demographic characteristics of proxies but the direction of the association was the same.

Research limitations/implications

The study conclude that morbidity data from the NSS can be used regardless of use of proxies and that the association between worse health condition and socio-economic and demographic factors persisted even when information was collected from a proxy. However, suitable adjustments for proxy-reporting should be made while estimating realistic population at risk from the NSS data.

Originality/value

This is the first manuscript that has made an attempt to examine the effect of proxy-reporting on morbidity prevalence in NSS data. Since its inception in 1955, NSS data are the only data source available in India on morbidity and health care conditions. A large number of research manuscripts have been published using this data and there were serious concerns among the researchers on data quality particularly about the reporting of health status. NSS 60th round first time provided information on reporting status, i.e. proxy vs self. In this context, the present study made an effort in this direction.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 May 2015

John E. Sorkin, Abigail Pickering Bomba, Steven Epstein, Jessica Forbes, Peter S. Golden, Philip Richter, Robert C. Schwenkel, David Shine, Arthur Fleischer and Gail Weinstein

To provide an overview of the guidance for proxy firms and investment advisers included in the Staff Legal Bulletin released this year by the Securities and Exchange…

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Abstract

Purpose

To provide an overview of the guidance for proxy firms and investment advisers included in the Staff Legal Bulletin released this year by the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) after its four-year comprehensive review of the proxy system.

Design/methodology/approach

Discusses briefly the context in which the SEC’s review was conducted; the general themes of the guidance provided; the most notable aspects of the guidance; and the matters that were expected to be, but were not, addressed by the SEC.

Findings

The guidance does not go as far in regulating proxy advisory firms as many had anticipated it would. The key obligations specified in the guidance are imposed on the investment advisers who engage the proxy firms. The responsibilities, policies and procedures mandated do not change the fundamental paradigm that has supported the influence of proxy firms – that is, investment advisers continue to be permitted to fulfill their duty to vote client shares in a “conflict-free manner” by voting based on the recommendations of independent third parties, and continue to be exempted from the rules that generally apply to persons who solicit votes or make proxy recommendations.

Practical implications

The SEC staff states in the Bulletin that it expects that proxy firms and investment advisers will conform to the obligations imposed in the Bulletin “promptly, but in any event in advance of [the 2015] proxy season.”

Originality/value

Practical guidance from experienced M&A lawyers.

Details

Journal of Investment Compliance, vol. 16 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1528-5812

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2003

Kathleen K. Clarke and Paul M. Miller

In late January 2003, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) adopted new rules for investment advisers under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 (Advisers Act…

102

Abstract

In late January 2003, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) adopted new rules for investment advisers under the Investment Advisers Act of 1940 (Advisers Act) requiring them to adopt and disclose to clients proxy voting policies and procedures. Concurrently, the SEC adopted new rules for registered investment companies (funds) under the Investment Company Act of 1940 (1940 Act) requiring them to disclose their proxy voting policies and procedures to their shareholders and to file their voting records with the SEC. The compliance dates for the new Rules are approaching fast. The Rules should have a significant impact on disclosure of proxy voting by advisers and funds. In a recent survey it conducted, Institutional Shareholder Services (ISS) noted that, of the approximately 3,700 fund groups that will be affected by the Rules, only eleven funds publicly disclose their proxy voting policies on their public websites. Of the eleven funds, seven disclose their proxy voting records and none discloses its policies with respect to conflicts of interest.

Details

Journal of Investment Compliance, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1528-5812

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 August 2022

Chenhui Wang, Suqi Li and Yu-Sheng Su

This study focused on parents' health anxiety by proxy about their children when they started learning online during the COVID-19 pandemic, to explore the impact of…

Abstract

Purpose

This study focused on parents' health anxiety by proxy about their children when they started learning online during the COVID-19 pandemic, to explore the impact of academic stress by parent-proxy on parents' learning support services with the mediating role of health anxiety by parent-proxy and the moderating role of parental educational level.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 8,940 primary school students' parents participated in the study. Bootstrapping was performed to test the constructed model.

Findings

(1) Academic stress by parent-proxy positively predicted health anxiety by parent-proxy. (2) Health anxiety by parent-proxy significantly positively predicted learning support services. (3) Academic stress by parent-proxy also significantly positively predicted learning support services. (4) Academic stress by parent-proxy positively predicted parents' learning support services through the mediating effect of health anxiety by parent-proxy. (5) Parental educational level moderated the relationship between academic stress by parent-proxy, health anxiety by parent-proxy, and learning support services. Academics and parents will benefit from the conclusions of this study in both theory and practice.

Originality/value

During the COVID-19 pandemic, offline learning has been replaced with online learning, which has brought with it many physical and mental health problems, including additional academic stress. Most studies on learning support services have focused on offline learning. However, this study explored the relationships between academic stress by parent-proxy, health anxiety by parent-proxy, learning support services, and parental educational level in the context of online learning. Results show that it is necessary to pay attention to academic stress and health to provide children with appropriate learning support services.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 26 April 2011

Bassem M. Hijazi and James A. Conover

We examine the empirical relationship between direct equity agency costs measures and corporate governance control mechanisms to control equity agency costs. We measure…

Abstract

We examine the empirical relationship between direct equity agency costs measures and corporate governance control mechanisms to control equity agency costs. We measure the three direct agency cost proxies commonly used in the literature: the operating expense; asset turnover; and selling, general, and administrative (SGA) ratios. Internal corporate governance control mechanisms examined are inside ownership (IO), outside ownership concentration (OC), the size of the board of directors (BODs), and the composition of the BODs (proportion of nonexecutive (NE) directors and separation of chief executive officer (CEO) and board chair). The external corporate governance control mechanism examined is the size of bank debt (short-term debt). Univariate and multivariate tests reveal that the only statistically significant relationship between corporate governance control mechanisms and direct equity agency cost measures is the negative relationship between the proportion of IO and direct agency costs. The asset utilization ratio (asset turnover) ratio is the best proxy for direct equity agency costs and can be useful for event studies of announcement period excess returns.

Details

Research in Finance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-541-0

Abstract

Details

Travel Survey Methods
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-08-044662-2

Article
Publication date: 15 June 2022

Jason Cavich

Following the traditions of stakeholder salience theory, this paper aims to contend that some institutional investor activists and tactics have more power, legitimacy and…

Abstract

Purpose

Following the traditions of stakeholder salience theory, this paper aims to contend that some institutional investor activists and tactics have more power, legitimacy and urgency than others.

Design/methodology/approach

The author undertakes an empirical test of a saliency table looking at the effects of institutional investor heterogeneity on portfolio firm responses using ordinal logistic regression.

Findings

This study found heterogeneity for institutional investor type to drive firm responses but not tactic type raising the importance of the attributes of each type of investor activist. The author found a rank ordering of public pension plans, hedge funds and then private multiemployer funds in saliency to portfolio firms. In addition, the use of proxy-based tactics did not help or hurt each investor type. Both findings challenge prior empirical work.

Originality/value

The rank ordering based upon the heterogeneity of institutional investor activists and their tactical interactions are tested providing empirical evidence of the most influential activist investors and tactics in one study, which is rare in the literature.

Details

Society and Business Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5680

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 2 December 2003

Richard L Constand

This paper presents an empirical analysis of trade credit supplied by Japanese manufacturing firms and General Trading Companies. After reviewing major trade credit models…

Abstract

This paper presents an empirical analysis of trade credit supplied by Japanese manufacturing firms and General Trading Companies. After reviewing major trade credit models and relevant Japanese literature, empirical tests examine the applicability of existing trade credit theories. Results indicate existing trade credit theory has little power to explain the level of trade credit supplied by Japanese firms. Instead, support is found for the information and risk sharing models in the Japanese keiretsu literature and the financial channeling process by which lending institutions supply General Trading Companies with liquidity that is, in turn, supplied to manufacturing firms.

Details

The Japanese Finance: Corporate Finance and Capital Markets in ...
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-246-7

Article
Publication date: 21 November 2008

Antônio Tadeu A. Gomes, Artur Ziviani, Bruno F. Bastos and Luciana S. Lima

Although wireless grids have been originally thought of as isolated processing clusters, the possibility of their approaching – and connecting to – a fixed network allows…

Abstract

Purpose

Although wireless grids have been originally thought of as isolated processing clusters, the possibility of their approaching – and connecting to – a fixed network allows for a huge expansion of their processing power, due to the resources available in wired grids potentially accessible through such a network. The interoperation of mobile ad hoc grids and resources available in wired grids is, however, a problem still to be tackled in the literature. The purpose of this paper is to tackle this problem.

Design/methodology/approach

A prototype is developed to demonstrate the feasibility of the interoperation between wireless and wired grids, thus providing a basis for the development of novel applications that can build on this interoperation.

Findings

The outcome of the paper comprises the analysis of the necessary requirements for the interoperation between wireless and wired grids, the proposal of two different interoperation approaches, and the provision of a qualitative assessment of the implications of these approaches.

Research limitations/implications

There are many points that the authors intend to address as future work. First, they are aware of the need for performing some quantitative analyses of their proxy implementations. Second, they intend to investigate the possibility of mobile ad hoc grids to process tasks coming from wired grids. Third, they are interested in allowing the submission of tasks that present interdependencies (workflows) from mobile devices in the mobile ad hoc grid.

Practical implications

The paper investigates the interoperation of wireless and wired grids. Such an interoperation may open new perspectives of practical use of wireless devices in scenarios such as emergency response networks and field research systems, to name a few.

Originality/value

The paper provides a first step into the interoperation of wireless and wired grids, thus yielding a basis for the development of novel applications that can build upon this interoperation. This is believed to be of interest to both the grid and mobile computing communities.

Details

International Journal of Pervasive Computing and Communications, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-7371

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 September 2020

I. Wayan Widnyana, I. Gusti Bagus Wiksuana, Luh Gede Sri Artini and Ida Bagus Panji Sedana

This study aims to analyze and explain the effect of financial architecture (with three dimensions: ownership structure, capital structure and corporate governance) and…

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Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to analyze and explain the effect of financial architecture (with three dimensions: ownership structure, capital structure and corporate governance) and intangible assets on performance financial and corporate value in the Indonesian capital market.

Design/methodology/approach

This research was conducted on nonfinancial sector companies that were registered in the Indonesian capital market, namely Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX) in 2015. This study used quantitative data and used secondary data sources, meaning that data were obtained, collected and processed from other parties. In this study, the hypothesis testing of the effect of financial architecture (included the dimensions of ownership structure, capital structure and corporate governance) and intangible assets on financial performance and corporate value using path analysis was performed.

Findings

The results of this study have provided findings that follow the research model that has been built (1) This research has been able to provide a theoretical model of the influence of financial architecture (with dimensions of ownership structure, capital structure and corporate governance), intangible assets, board processes on financial performance and company value in the Indonesian capital market. (2) To develop a theoretical model about the effect of corporate governance on financial performance in accordance with the two-tier system adopted by Indonesia. (3) An empirical study of the concept of financial architecture put forward by Myers (1999).

Originality/value

This research update lies in the research variable, which determines one value of the financial architecture variable comprehensively, combines the financial architecture variable and intangible assets to then be tested for its effect on company value and the use of the financial process variable as a board process as an intervening variable.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. 70 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

Keywords

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