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Article
Publication date: 23 August 2018

Frederick Tawi Tabit

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the prevalence of Bacillus sporothermodurans in UHT milk brands in South Africa and to analyse the level of proteolysis in UHT…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the prevalence of Bacillus sporothermodurans in UHT milk brands in South Africa and to analyse the level of proteolysis in UHT milk due to the growth of B. sporothermodurans during short-term and long-term storage.

Design/methodology/approach

Different brands and batches of commercially available retail UHT milk packages were bought from different supermarkets, during different seasons and tested for the presence of B. sporothermodurans. Sterile UHT milk was spiked with B. sporothermodurans vegetative cells and incubated at 37°C for up to 172 hours. Total plate counts, pH, spore counts, UHT milk proteolysis and the headspace volatiles dynamics were analysed at different intervals.

Findings

The contamination of retail UHT milk packages by B. sporothermodurans was found to be prevalent. The growth of B. sporothermodurans in spiked UHT milk reached a maximum of 1.9×105 cfu/ml; however, the significant proteolytic activity in UHT milk due to B. sporothermodurans only occurred long after the exponential growth phase had been attained. Furthermore, the growth of B. sporothermodurans in UHT milk did not lead to significant changes in the headspace volatile profiles of spiked UHT milk samples. Proteolytic activity in retail UHT milk packages, contaminated with B. sporothermodurans, was significantly higher when the use-by dates were reached.

Practical implications

Significant proteolysis in UHT milk means the assurance of high-quality UHT milk with extended storage stability for up to 10-12 months is compromised. Proteolysis of casein may lead to rapid sedimentation in UHT milk compared to UHT milk without sedimentation.

Originality/value

This paper is of interest to manufacturers because it raises the awareness that UHT milk containing B. sporothermodurans may not have the same storage stability when compared those without B. sporothermodurans. The presence of B. sporothermodurans in commercial UHT milk packages may lead to international and national trade restrictions for manufacturers.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 120 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 August 2012

Huey‐Shi Lye, Sue‐Siang The, Ting‐Jin Lim, Rajeev Bhat, Rosma Ahmad, Wan‐Nadiah Wan‐Abdullah and Min‐Tze Liong

This study aims to evaluate the effect of cell immobilization on bioactive property of lactobacilli‐fermented soymilk.

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to evaluate the effect of cell immobilization on bioactive property of lactobacilli‐fermented soymilk.

Design/methodology/approach

Agrowastes from durian (Durio zibethinus), cempedak (Artocarpus champeden), and mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) were used as immobilizers for lactobacilli (Lactobacillus acidophilus FTDC 1331, L. acidophilus FTDC 2631, L. acidophilus FTDC 2333, L. acidophilus FTDC 1733, and L. bulgaricus FTCC 0411) in soymilk fermentation. Fermented soymilk was stored at different temperatures (4°C, 25°C and 37°C) for 168 h and sampled for analyses periodically.

Findings

Scanning electron micrographs showed that cells of lactobacilli were immobilized onto the matrix of agrowastes powder. The proteolytic activity was higher in soymilk supplemented with immobilized lactobacilli at 37°C and 25°C compared to that at 4°C. Soymilk fermented by cells immobilized on cempedak rind powder showed higher proteolytic activity (p<0.0001), followed by durian and mangosteen rinds powder (p<0.001). The highest ACE inhibitory activity was also found in soymilk fermented by cells immobilized on cempedak rind powder for all temperatures studied (p<0.0001). In addition, ACE inhibitory activity was higher in soymilk fermented at 37°C, compared to 25°C and 4°C (p<0.0001).

Originality/value

The results in the paper show that cell immobilization enhances the bioactive property of fermented soymilk, in terms of proteolysis and in‐vitro ACE inhibitory activity.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 114 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 4 September 2020

Hayriye Sekban and Zekai Tarakci

The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical, textural and sensory properties of some starter cultures fruit-added Golot cheese.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemical, textural and sensory properties of some starter cultures fruit-added Golot cheese.

Design/methodology/approach

Six types of Golot cheeses were produced in this study. While the control sample contained no starter cultures, five different starter culture combinations (GS1: Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris, L. lactis subsp. lactis and Lactobacillus bulgaricus; GS2: S. thermophilus and L. bulgaricus; GS3: S. thermophilus; GS4: S. thermophilus and Lactobacillus helveticus; and GS5: S. thermophilus, L. lactis subsp. cremoris and L. lactis subsp. lactis) were applied to the other cheese samples using an immersion technique. Then, all cheeses were vacuum-packed and ripened at 4 ± 1°C for three months and their chemical, biochemical, sensory and textural analyses were performed on the 2nd, 15th, 30th, 60th and 90th days of ripening.

Findings

Results indicated that generally starter cultures have positive effects on the chemical, biochemical and sensory properties of Golot cheese. Considering the final values, the addition of starter cultures enhanced the ripening index of Golot cheeses (8.4%–9.2%), except the GS3 (7.4%), compared to the control (8.1%). At the end of the ripening period, meltability values of GS4 (16.5 mm) cultured cheeses were higher than those of other cultured cheeses (13.0–15.5 mm) and control cheese (14.5 mm). While lipolysis values were low in fresh cheese, it increased during ripening. Overall, GS3 (2.46 acid degree value [ADV]) and GS4 (2.40 ADV) had the highest lipolysis rate, while GS1 (2.14 ADV) had the lowest (p = 0.07). Electrophoretograms indicated that the highest fragmentation of α- and ß-casein occurred in GS5 (48.43%) and GS1 (44.24%), respectively. Also, GS5 was the most appreciated and preferred cheese in terms of sensory. Regarding texture, hardness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, springiness and gumminess values were determined to be statistically important in terms of ripening time and cheese variety (p < 0.01).

Originality/value

Consequently, all starters had a positive impact on Golot cheese samples and among all S. thermophilus and L. helveticus starter were determined to be the most applicable one considering ripening, texture, sensory and melting properties.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 51 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 August 2013

Ewelina Węsierska, Marek Szołtysik, Krystyna Palka, Agnieszka Lipczyńska and Ewelina Lipczyńska‐Szlaur

The purpose of this paper is to estimate physico‐chemical, biochemical and microbiological changes during the three‐month ripening of the Polish traditional raw smoked…

638

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to estimate physico‐chemical, biochemical and microbiological changes during the three‐month ripening of the Polish traditional raw smoked fermented meat product Kumpia wieprzowa, produced from pork shoulder without fore‐shank.

Design/methodology/approach

After one, two and three months, the pH, aw, chemical composition, the content of nitrogen – total and soluble – as well as the profile of aromatic compounds and microflora, were evaluated.

Findings

During ripening, the water content decreased from 62.7 percent to 47.5 percent, while the protein and fat amount increased from 20.8 percent to 25.0 percent and from 9.7 percent to 16.3 percent, respectively; the aw decreased from 0.95 to 0.88 and pH from 5.80 to 5.35. The proteolytic changes, measured by free amine groups and Nsoluble content, as well as the quantity of free fatty acids and percentage of most of the volatile compounds increased, particularly during the first two months of ripening. The total number of aerobic microorganisms, and Lactobacillaceae decreased during ripening from 7.9 to 6.2 and 5.6 to 4.7 log cfu/g, respectively. The count of coagulase‐negative cocci changed from 5.3 to 5.2 log cfu/g.

Originality/value

Kumpia wieprzowa is a unique pork product, entered on the List of Polish Traditional Products in 2005. Up to the present, the properties of Kumpia wieprzowa were not recognized and published in the scientific literature, in spite of its very interesting raw material (shoulder spontaneously fermented as a whole large primal cut).

Article
Publication date: 11 November 2019

Thamiris Evangelista Silva, Priscila Alonso dos Santos, Thamara Evangelista Silva, Kamilla Soares Silva, André Luiz Borges Machado and Lismaíra Gonçalves Caixeta Garcia

The purpose of this study is to characterize and compare the results of the inspection mark of handmade and industrially processed Minas frescal cheese. It is one of the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to characterize and compare the results of the inspection mark of handmade and industrially processed Minas frescal cheese. It is one of the most commonly made and consumed cheeses in Brazil, and its production processes range from handmade cheeses produced in small household production sites to cheeses manufactured in large dairy factories subject to federal inspection.

Design/methodology/approach

The samples were stored for 10 days at 4°C in a biochemical oxygen demand chamber. Cheeses were analyzed using physicochemical analyzes, yield and syneresis indices and microbiological analyses.

Findings

The cheese A met the criterion of regulatory classification for very high humidity (65.32 g/100 g), while cheese B did not meet the criterion (54.38 g/100 g). Cheeses A (19.01 g/100 g) and B (24 g/100 g) showed average fat contents that did not comply with current legislation. The most probable number per g of thermotolerant coliforms was outside the acceptable range (>24 × 102 MPN/g), and Salmonella spp. were present in the tested samples. The highest yield was observed for handmade cheese (an average of 5.35 L of milk to produce 1 kg of cheese), which had the highest syneresis during the storage period (p = 0.004), reaching 14.26% on the 10th day of storage.

Originality/value

Municipal and state inspection certificates do not ensure the microbiological quality of Minas frescal cheese, indicating flaws in the good manufacturing practices and/or in the milk pasteurisation stage.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 49 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 March 2010

S. Sarkar and A.K. Misra

Prophylactic characteristics of plain acidophilus milk could be further enhanced with the incorporation of certain probiotic or beneficial organisms. This research…

447

Abstract

Purpose

Prophylactic characteristics of plain acidophilus milk could be further enhanced with the incorporation of certain probiotic or beneficial organisms. This research undertakes to evaluate the technological and dietetic characteristics of probiotic acidophilus milk containing Bifidobacterium bifidum and Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii during storage.

Design/methodology/approach

The effects of incorporation of Bifidobacterium bifidum NDRI and Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii MTCC 1371 as microbial additives during the manufacture and storage of acidophilus milk made from skimmed milk at 8±1 °C for seven days were evaluated. Probiotic acidophilus milk was evaluated on the basis of various technological (titratable acidity, volatile acidity, diacetyl and acetoin production and extent of proteolysis) and dietetic (lactic acid content, lactose hydrolyzing activity, antibacterial activity, viable population of lactobacilli, propionibacteria, bifidobacteria) characteristics.

Findings

Probiotic acidophilus milk obtained with the conjugated application of Lactobacillus acidophilus R, Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii MTCC 1371 and Bifidobacterium bifidum NDRI retained its dietetic characteristics up to seven days of storage at 8±1 °C and its consumption may be advantageous over plain acidophilus milk due to its enhanced prophylactic features.

Research limitations/implications

Mineral and vitamin estimation of probiotic acidophilus milk, animal and infant feeding trials must be conducted.

Practical implications

Conjugated application of Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii MTCC 1371 and Bifidobacterium bifidum NDRI as microbial additives during the manufacture of acidophilus milk may be suggested to enhance its prophylactic features.

Originality/value

Conjugated application of P. freudenreichii subsp. shermanii MTCC 1371 and B. bifidum NDRI as microbial additives with L. acidophilus R during the manufacture of acidophilus milk is suggested to enhance the prophylactic features of plain acidophilus milk. Consumption of probiotic acidophilus milk as a dietary adjunct can be recommended.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 112 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 October 2018

Marli Busanello, Marsilvio Lima De Moraes Filho, Karla Bigetti Guergoletto and Sandra Garcia

This paper aims to study the effect of addition of green banana flour (GBF) in skim milk, provides a nutritional and functional contribution to this matrix when added…

259

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study the effect of addition of green banana flour (GBF) in skim milk, provides a nutritional and functional contribution to this matrix when added. They have biological compounds like resistant starch, phenolic compounds, antioxidant compounds and others. The skim milk containing 1.08 per cent of GBF was chosen after a central composite rotational design and response surface methodology. The response variable was the growth of Lactobacillus plantarum (LP) and Lactobacillus helveticus (LH).

Design/methodology/approach

During the fermentation process, the antioxidant activity, plasmid DNA protection capacity, proteolytic activity and inhibitory activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) of the fermented milk was determined.

Findings

All variables were influenced by the fermentation time. The antioxidant activity evaluated by the ABTS radical presented values of 0.83 ± 0.04 µM Trolox.mL−1 and 0.79 ± 0.02 µM Trolox.mL−1, respectively, for the fermented LP and LH. The extracts fermented by L. plantarum and L. helveticus were able to inhibit the oxidation of plasmidial DNA. The proteolytic activity was higher in the fermented with LH (1.16 ± 0.03) than in the fermented with LP (0.71 ± 0.02). The ACE inhibitory activity was higher in the fermented LH (59.01 per cent) than in the fermented LP (54.45 per cent).

Originality/value

Fermented milk with 1.08 per cent GBF presented positive results in the analyzed variables and could be studied commercially as a functional food alternative.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 49 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 February 2015

Kavitha Rajagopal, George T Oommen, P. Kuttinarayanan, Sisilamma George and K.M. SyamMohan

This study aims to assess the effects of calcium chloride marination on buffalo meat tenderness, instrumental color and palatability traits and to compare the effects with…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to assess the effects of calcium chloride marination on buffalo meat tenderness, instrumental color and palatability traits and to compare the effects with that of aging, so as to suggest a cost-effective tenderizing method to meat retailers.

Design/methodology/approach

Buffalo longissimus thoracis (LT) steaks were marinated post-rigor with 200-mM (5 per cent w/w) calcium chloride solution and were subjected to aging at 2-4°C for eight days. The pH, water holding capacity (WHC), cooking loss, color, myofibrillar fragmentation index, Warner–Bratzler shear force and sensory quality attributes were assessed at 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 days post-mortem. The values were then compared with those of control steaks kept at the same storage conditions.

Findings

Marination was not found to affect pH, WHC, cooking loss or color as compared to the control steaks. Tenderness was found to be improved in marinated steaks by 53.44 per cent as against 35.59 per cent in those that aged without marination. The sensory panel evaluation showed that marinated steaks significantly improved (p < 0.01) in the scores for the different attributes, and no flavor problems or alterations in cooked color were noticed.

Research limitations/implications

The animals used in this study fall in the age group of four-eight years with one of them being four years old and the rest above the age of six years. Given the fact that, age-related increase in pyridinoline content of intramuscular collagen and cross-link formation influenced by sex can contribute to the toughness of meat in spent animals (Bosselmann et al., 1995), the variation in age of the animals under study could be regarded as a limitation of the study. But apart from one animal, all of them were more than six years old, forming more or less uniform samples.

Originality/value

This research is of value to the meat industry or retailers. The post-rigor marination of buffalo LT steaks with 200-mM CaCl2 (5 per cent w/w) appears to be a promising measure from the view of practicability. The relative ease of operation makes it superior to other successful techniques in reducing toughness, such as electrical stimulation.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 45 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 April 2021

Corine Sze Xuan Teo and See Wan Yan

Health promotion and disease prevention by means of functional foods have become more popular among consumers due to the rising trend of non-communicable diseases. Driven…

Abstract

Purpose

Health promotion and disease prevention by means of functional foods have become more popular among consumers due to the rising trend of non-communicable diseases. Driven by the increased demand, the authors aimed to investigate sensorial, nutritional and physicochemical properties of chicken nugget incorporated with unripe Cavendish banana and Flavourzyme® [Control (without banana and Flavourzyme®), F1 (banana only), F2 (Flavourzyme® only), F3 (banana and Flavourzyme®)].

Design/methodology/approach

Sensory evaluation was carried out by means of 9-point hedonic scale among consumer panels (n = 83) to evaluate control, F1, F2 and F3. These were then subjected to chemical (moisture, protein, fat, ash, carbohydrate, total dietary fibre, potassium and antioxidant contents) and physical (texture profile and water activity) analyses.

Findings

Sensory acceptance of control was significantly higher compared to other formulations. Fibre, antioxidant and potassium contents were significantly higher, although moisture, protein and fat contents were significantly lower in F1 and F3 compared to control. Remarkably, F1 and F3 were eligible to be declared as “source of dietary fibre”. Therefore, F1, F2 and F3 can serve as healthier alternatives with high antioxidant activity without compromising consumers' acceptance.

Originality/value

This innovative study generates unique findings pertaining to the nutritional values of novel functional chicken nugget and the formulation enables it to be declared as a source of dietary fibre. Results have contributed knowledge to existing literature as well as benefits food manufacturers in creating healthy functional food to better meet the needs and expectations of health-conscious consumers, healthcare providers, governmental organisations and consumer advocacy groups.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 123 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 June 2020

Rehab F.M. Ali, Ayman M. El-Anany and Hassan M. Mousa

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of partial or total substitution of milk fat by various levels of jojoba oil on the nutritional, physicochemical and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of partial or total substitution of milk fat by various levels of jojoba oil on the nutritional, physicochemical and sensory properties of Domiati cheese during cold storage at 6°C for 45 days.

Design/methodology/approach

The fat percentage of milk used for cheese manufacture was standardized to 4% fat. Five formulas were produced by replacing milk fat with 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of jojoba oil, respectively. The physicochemical and sensory properties of cheese samples at 0, 15, 30 and 45th days of cold store were evaluated.

Findings

No significant differences in moisture, fat, protein and acidity values amongst the control samples and those samples supplemented with different concentrations of jojoba oil. Significant differences (p = 0.05) in total volatile fatty acids were detected amongst experimental cheese samples. The highest values were recorded for control sample containing 100% milk fat, while the lowest values were recorded for cheese sample containing 100% jojoba oil (p = 0.05). Total nitrogen (TN), water-soluble nitrogen (WSN) and trichloroacetic acid soluble nitrogen (TCA-SN) levels of experimental cheeses were nearly same as for control. The results of fatty acids profile showed that jojoba oil has a unique structure of straight monounsaturated alcohols. Significantly (p = 0.05), the highest cholesterol content was recorded for control sample containing 100% milk fat; however, the lowest (p = 0.05) value was recorded for cheese sample containing 100% jojoba oil. At the end time of storage period, control sample manufactured with 100% milk fat had the highest (p = 0.05) values of free fatty acids, peroxide and thiobarbituric acid, while the lowest values were recorded for cheese sample with 100% jojoba oil as a source of fat. The sensory evaluation results demonstrated that blending milk fat with jojoba oil improved the sensory properties of Domiati cheese.

Practical implications

It is concluded that substitution of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of milk fat by equal amounts of jojoba oil enhanced the nutritional and sensory characteristics of Domiati cheese.

Originality/value

It is concluded that Domiati cheese formulated with substitution of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of milk fat by equal amounts of jojoba oil enhanced the nutritional characteristics and improved the sensory properties of produced cheese.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 51 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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