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Article
Publication date: 11 November 2019

Milena Casagranda, Priscila Berti Zanella, Alexandra Ferreira Vieira and Rodrigo Cauduro Oliveira Macedo

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the acute effect of milk proteins supplementation, compared to another nitrogen compound on muscle protein synthesis.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the acute effect of milk proteins supplementation, compared to another nitrogen compound on muscle protein synthesis.

Design/methodology/approach

The search was conducted on MEDLINE® (via PUBMED®), Cochrane and Embase databases, using the terms “whey proteins,” “caseins,” “milk proteins,” “protein biosynthesis,” “human” and its related entry terms. The selected outcome was fractional synthetic rate (FSR) before (0) and 3 h after consumption of milk proteins, compared to supplementation with other protein sources or isolated amino acids.

Findings

The results were expressed as mean difference (MD) of absolute values between treatments with confidence interval (CI) of 95 per cent. Of the 1,913 identified studies, 4 were included, with a total of 74 participants. Milk proteins generated a greater FSR (MD 0.03 per cent/h, CI 95 per cent 0.02-0.04; p <0.00001), compared to control group. Acute consumption of milk proteins promotes higher increase in FSR than other protein sources or isolated amino acids.

Originality/value

This paper is a systematic review of the effects of milk proteins supplementation, which is considered an important subject because of its large consumption among athletes and physical exercise practitioners.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. 49 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 21 December 2020

Khaled M. M. Koriem and Mahmoud S.S. Arbid

This paper aims to evaluate hematological parameters, blood glutathione (GSH), serum glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6-PD) and liver function in favism animals' models…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to evaluate hematological parameters, blood glutathione (GSH), serum glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6-PD) and liver function in favism animals' models after oral intake with a mixture of pickled olives and Vicia faba (V. faba) seeds.

Design/methodology/approach

Favism is a life-threatening hemolytic crisis. It results from the ingestion of V. faba by the individuals. The hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), serum glucose, blood GSH, serum G6-PD, serum thiobarbaturic acid reactive substances (TBARS), liver protein and liver function were evaluated after oral administration with a mixture of pickled olives with V. faba seeds in favism animals' models.

Findings

The favism-, vicine- and convicine-treated animals showed a significant decrease (p < 0.01) in Hb (6.42, 7.23 and 5.96 g/dl), Hct (25.4, 26.4 and 25.1%), RBCs (2.56, 2.45 and 2.60 106 cells/mm3, WBCs (4.35, 4.25 and 4.30 103 cells/mm3), serum glucose (95.8, 97.1 and 96.5 mg/dl), blood GSH (24.7, 26.6 and 23.8 mg/dl), serum G6-PD (15.8, 15.9 and 15.7 U/L), serum aspartate aminotransferase (6.35, 6.59 and 5.97 U/L), alanine aminotransferase (4.49, 4.61 and 4.50 U/L), total protein (6.54, 6.59 and 6.40 g/dl), albumin (3.84, 3.91 and 3.75 g/dl), globulin (2.70, 2.48 and 2.65 g/dl) and liver protein (3.37, 3.10 and 3.42 g/g tissue) but a significant increase (p < 0.01) in serum TBARS (38.7, 38.9 and 39.4 nmol/dl), alkaline phosphatase (275, 271 and 281 U/L) and total bilirubin (0.93, 0.89 and 0.91 mg/dl) compared to Hb (16.3 g/dl), Hct (45.3%), RBCs (5.80 106 cells/mm3), WBCs (9.45 103 cells/mm3), serum glucose (96.5 mg/dl), blood GSH (39.7 mg/dl), serum G6-PD (36.1 U/L), serum TBARS (18.0 nmol/dl), serum aspartate aminotransferase (19.8 U/L), alanine aminotransferase (9.23 U/L), alkaline phosphatase (214 U/L), total bilirubin (0.57 mg/dl), total protein (8.76 g/dl), albumin (4.85 g/dl), globulin (3.91 g/dl) and liver protein (6.28 g/g tissue) in control group. The oral administration with pickled olives + V. faba, pickled olives + vicine and pickled olives + convicine into favism animals' models, vicine-treated animals and convicine-treated animals, respectively pushed all the above-mentioned parameters to near the control levels.

Originality/value

V. faba contains vicine and convicine glycosides. Vicine and convicine glycosides in V. faba are hydrolyzed by intestinal microflora to aglycones divicine and isouramil, respectively. Divicine and isouramil are highly reactive compounds generating free radicals where divicine and isouramil are the main factors of favism. The ß-glucosidase in pickled olives converts both vicine and convicine glycosides into aglycones divicine and isouramil, respectively, in aerobic condition outside the human body (in inactive forms) and prevent these glycosides to cause favism.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2015

Rick L. Edgeman and Zhaohui Wu

Enterprise activities are often harmful to the natural environment or societal fabric, yet approaches that are environmentally constructive or socially responsible can be…

Abstract

Purpose

Enterprise activities are often harmful to the natural environment or societal fabric, yet approaches that are environmentally constructive or socially responsible can be challenging and may not be rewarded by the marketplace. Enterprises that are not sufficiently financially successful perish. The purpose of this paper is to present a model and methodology referred to as sustainable enterprise excellence, resilience and robustness (SEER2) that provides enterprises with a means of balancing financial, social, and environmental considerations. These considerations form the classic elements of the triple bottom line and are central formation of enterprise responses to climate change and social strain.

Design/methodology/approach

A model referred to as the Springboard to SEER2 is introduced. SEER2 explicitly considers societal and environmental performance and impacts that are driven by strategy and implemented through processes. As such criteria associated with the Springboard that address strategy, processes, performance, and impact are also introduced.

Findings

Humanity is at individual, enterprise, and societal levels partially or wholly responsible for many critical and time-sensitive social and environmental challenges. Due to their vast collective resource consumption and resource base, enterprises should also contribute to solving such challenges. The presented Springboard to SEER2 model and associated criteria provide a rigorous, yet defined path for enterprises that have the determination to confront such challenges.

Originality/value

This is among the first explorations of enterprise self-assessment in general and SEER2 in particular that explicitly consider strategies, processes and activities important to mitigation of climate change and social strain.

Details

The TQM Journal, vol. 27 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2731

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2015

Rick Edgeman

This paper aims to address wicked sustainability issues lurking behind sensational headlines: “Humanity faces significant and unprecedented challenges on grand, global

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to address wicked sustainability issues lurking behind sensational headlines: “Humanity faces significant and unprecedented challenges on grand, global scales”. Such headlines refer to the span of such challenges as well as their complex roots and consequences. In a cosmic version of the “chicken or the egg” issue, causes and consequences of these grand global challenges are often difficult to distinguish from one another, although distinction is critical to solution derivations. Sustainable Enterprise Excellence, Resilience & Robustness (SEER2) is discussed relative to selected wicked challenges, including ones associated with climate change and human security.

Design/methodology/approach

Roots of grand global challenges and the present and future reality they portend are discussed relative to intersections with enterprise strategy, performance and impact.

Findings

Social-ecological innovation, big and small data analytics and intelligence and supply chain proficiency are identified as key drivers of enterprise response to grand global challenges. These are embedded in a holistic model for enterprise sustainability, resilience and robustness.

Social implications

The SEER2 approach to enterprise sustainability, resilience and robustness that emphasizes performance and impact has the capability to aid progress toward more sustainable futures for enterprises and humankind alike.

Originality/value

The SEER2 model leverages business excellence thinking to advance strategic and tactical approaches to enterprise excellence, sustainability, resilience and robustness. As such, the model is distinctly performance-oriented. Performance alone is not sufficient, however, so that impact – financial, societal and ecological – is also deeply embedded.

Details

Measuring Business Excellence, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-3047

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Article
Publication date: 24 May 2011

P. Prabuthas, P.P. Srivastav and H.N. Mishra

The purpose of this paper is to optimize the environmental growth factors for maximum yield of biomass and protein content of Spirulina platensis var lonor.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to optimize the environmental growth factors for maximum yield of biomass and protein content of Spirulina platensis var lonor.

Design/methodology/approach

Central composite design with four independent variables (namely, Temperature (°C), Light intensity (μmol m−2 s−1), incubation period (days) and inoculum concentration (per cent)) and two dependent variables (namely, Biomass yield (g/L) and Protein content (per cent)) were used for designing the experiment. The quadratic model was selected for analysis of data using analysis of variance and optimization was performed using response surface methodology (RSM). Central Food Technological Research Institute (CFTRI) medium was used for growing the organisms.

Findings

The predicted values of optimization showed that the maximum yield of dried biomass (1.13 g/L) and protein (57.45 per cent) were obtained at temperature of 33.6°C, light intensity of 67.50 μmol m−2 s−1, incubation period of 16 days and inoculum concentration of 20 per cent. The actual values of biomass (1.23 g/L) and protein (58.46 per cent) yield were almost similar to the predicted responses.

Practical implications

The data obtained with this optimization method help Spirulina researchers/producers to cultivate the S. platensis var lonor strain with maximum biomass and protein content using the CFTRI medium.

Originality/value

Earlier works on optimization of growth conditions for Spirulina biomass, revealed that maximum of two factors were employed at a time using factorial design. But unlike other studies here in this study, optimization of multi factors using at a time using RSM on better biomass and protein yield was employed.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 41 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

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Article
Publication date: 3 October 2016

Nahlaa Khalifa, Thanaa Abdel Fattah El-Kholy and Ahmed Al-Ghamdi

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of green tea extract on kidney function tests, in male rats that received different doses of acrylamide (AA).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of green tea extract on kidney function tests, in male rats that received different doses of acrylamide (AA).

Design/methodology/approach

Animals were dispensed at random to one of the following treatments: group 1 served as control, whereas groups 2, 3 received seven, 14 mg/100 g B.W/day of AA, respectively, in drinking water for 15 and 30 days. Group 4 received green tea 1.5 percent concentration and groups 5, 6 received seven, 14 mg/100 g B.W/day in a mixture with green tea for 15 and 30 days.

Findings

Serum urea and creatinine significantly increase with AA. However, Total protein, albumin and A/G ratio showed significant drop in all treated groups when compared with control. Supplementation of rats with antioxidant (green tea) enhanced the general health condition, reduced the severity of genotoxic effect and the alteration in blood and serum parameters produced by AA.

Practical implications

The authors suggest that green tea may deliver a cushion for long therapeutic option against toxins-induced nephrotoxicity without damaging side effects.

Originality/value

The study uses green tea as a natural antioxidant source. Epigallocatechin-3 gallate is the most plentiful catechin preserved in green tea and a high source of flavonoids. Flavonoids are a group of phenolic products of plant metabolism with high antioxidant properties to reduce nephrotoxicity without side effects.

Details

World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, vol. 13 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5945

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Article
Publication date: 20 April 2010

S. Sarkar

The purpose of this article is to attempt to highlight various approaches for enhancing the viability of probiotics, with special emphasis on micro‐encapsulation.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this article is to attempt to highlight various approaches for enhancing the viability of probiotics, with special emphasis on micro‐encapsulation.

Design/methodology/approach

Various techniques, such as selection of acid and bile resistant strains, use of oxygen impermeable packaging materials, two‐step fermentation, stress adaptation, inclusion of micro‐nutrient, sonication of bacteria and micro‐encapsulation, which could be employed for maintaining or enhancing probiotic viability are discussed, with special emphasis on micro‐encapsulation.

Findings

Probiotics lose their viability during gastro‐intestinal transit due to unfavorable intestinal environment. Amongst diverse techniques micro‐encapsulation could confer protection to the probiotics both in the product as well as in the gastro‐intestinal environment.

Originality/value

The paper shows that micro‐encapsulation of probiotics renders them stable both in the product as well as in the intestinal environment and application of encapsulated probiotics would result in a product with greater prophylactic activities.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 112 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 11 November 2020

Wenwen Zhang, Peifang Weng and Zufang Wu

Mixed fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces yeasts has become an oenlogical tool to improve wines’ organoleptic properties. However, the maximum…

Abstract

Purpose

Mixed fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces yeasts has become an oenlogical tool to improve wines’ organoleptic properties. However, the maximum utilization of this method is dependent upon understanding the influence of mixed cultures on the physiology of S.cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces yeasts.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the supernatants from 48 h mixed-culture fermentation were added to the pure cultures of Issatchenkia orientalis and Saccharomyces, respectively. And the authors used RNA sequencing to determine the transcriptome change of I.orientalis and S.cerevisiae in a mixed culture.

Findings

The results showed that multiple genes associated with cell growth and death were differentially expressed. Genes related to biosynthesis of amino acids were enriched among those upregulated in the mixed-fermentation supernatant. Meanwhile, the differential expression level of genes encoding enzymes essential for formation of aroma compounds was found in the single and in the mixed fermentation. The high expression level of molecular chaperones Hsp70, Hsp90 and Hsp110 suggests that metabolites of mixed-culture fermentation may lead to aggregation of misfolded proteins. Moreover, upregulation of ethanol dehydrogenase I ADH1 in the mixed-culture fermentations was highlighted.

Originality/value

This is the first time that RNA-seq was used to analyze changes in the transcriptome of mixed cultures. According to the results the authors’ manuscript provided, an integrated view into the adaptive responses of S.cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces yeasts to the mixed-culture fermentation is benefit for the potential application of S.cerevisiae and non-Saccharomyces yeasts in fruit wine brewing.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2000

Geetha C. Jayan and Joseph H. Herbein

The purposes of this study were to identify exogenous factors that would depress synthesis of saturated fats and enhance synthesis of unsaturated fats in the dairy cow’s…

Abstract

The purposes of this study were to identify exogenous factors that would depress synthesis of saturated fats and enhance synthesis of unsaturated fats in the dairy cow’s mammary gland. Certain long‐chain exogenous fatty acids are known to modulate endogenous fat synthesis within tissues. We analyzed the effects of two different long‐chain monounsaturated fatty acids, namely oleic acid and trans‐vaccenic acid (TVA), on activities of acetyl‐CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthetase (FAS) and stearoyl‐CoA desaturase (SCD) in bovine mammary epithelial cell cultures. The study was done using an established bovine mammary epithelial cell line, the MacT cells. ACC (EC 6.4.1.2) and FAS (EC 2.3.1.85) are two major enzymes involved in biosynthesis of saturated fatty acids in eucaryotic cells. SCD (EC 1.14.99.5) is the enzyme catalyzing the critical committed step in biosynthesis of unsaturated fatty acids from their saturated precursors. Data indicated depression of activity of enzymes responsible for mammary synthesis of saturated fatty acids (ACC and FAS), along with a simultaneous enhancement of mammary desaturase activity, by TVA.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 30 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 26 July 2012

J. Anke M. van Eekelen, Justine A. Ellis, Craig E. Pennell, Richard Saffery, Eugen Mattes, Jeff Craig and Craig A. Olsson

Genetic risk for depressive disorders is poorly understood despite consistent suggestions of a high heritable component. Most genetic studies have focused on risk…

Abstract

Genetic risk for depressive disorders is poorly understood despite consistent suggestions of a high heritable component. Most genetic studies have focused on risk associated with single variants, a strategy which has so far only yielded small (often non-replicable) risks for depressive disorders. In this paper we argue that more substantial risks are likely to emerge from genetic variants acting in synergy within and across larger neurobiological systems (polygenic risk factors). We show how knowledge of major integrated neurobiological systems provides a robust basis for defining and testing theoretically defensible polygenic risk factors. We do this by describing the architecture of the overall stress response. Maladaptation via impaired stress responsiveness is central to the aetiology of depression and anxiety and provides a framework for a systems biology approach to candidate gene selection. We propose principles for identifying genes and gene networks within the neurosystems involved in the stress response and for defining polygenic risk factors based on the neurobiology of stress-related behaviour. We conclude that knowledge of the neurobiology of the stress response system is likely to play a central role in future efforts to improve genetic prediction of depression and related disorders.

Details

Mental Illness, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2036-7465

Keywords

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