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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2017

Selin Hanife Eryuruk, Burçak Karagüzel Kayaoglu and Fatma Kalaoglu

Surgical gowns should be designed and produced using special techniques to provide barrier properties against potential risks during surgery and healthcare procedures…

Abstract

Purpose

Surgical gowns should be designed and produced using special techniques to provide barrier properties against potential risks during surgery and healthcare procedures. Ultrasonic welding is one of these methods used to produce surgical gowns with determined barrier properties. The purpose of this paper is to analyse bond strength and permeability properties of ultrasonically welded nonwoven fabrics and compare them with traditional sewing techniques.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, ultrasonic welding of nonwovens was performed to demonstrate its use as an assembly method. Performance requirements in the design of surgical gowns were determined. Fabric strengths and bond strengths of ultrasonic-welded and traditionally sewn fabrics were analysed. The performance properties, i.e., bond strength, air and water resistance of the fabrics and the joints obtained by ultrasonic and classical sewing methods were studied.

Findings

As a result, it was found that ultrasonic welding technique is a suitable method for joining layers in surgical gown production bringing the advantages of high water resistance together with acceptable bond strength.

Originality/value

The current study focuses on the use of ultrasonic welding of nonwovens used for disposable protective surgical gowns. Ultrasound welding technique was presented as an alternative to classic assembly methods and ultrasonic welding technology was applied to different fabric combinations simulating different layers in different joining sections of a surgical gown.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 29 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 18 April 2017

Donatas Petrulis and Salvinija Petrulyte

The purpose of this paper is to propose the materials structure-wetting behaviour relationships and to show their peculiarities for some types of surgical woven fabrics…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose the materials structure-wetting behaviour relationships and to show their peculiarities for some types of surgical woven fabrics and applications of liquids.

Design/methodology/approach

To show the effects of fabrics structure on wetting behaviour of surgical textile materials, the special structural indices in terms of yarns and filaments lateral area were used.

Findings

It was shown good correlation between total lateral area of filaments in unit area of woven fabrics and wetting contact angle of liquid drops on the tested samples. Probably due to different structure of woven fabrics at a level of fibres, another index, i.e. total lateral area of yarns in unit area of fabrics, is not suitable to show clear effect on wetting behaviour of the samples. The possibilities of applications of relationships for several types of textile materials and liquids were indicated.

Originality/value

To date there are no investigations concerning relationships between special structural properties of the surgical woven fabrics and their wetting behaviour. On a basis of the proposed approach into fabrics structure evaluation, this study developed analysis and some types of new equations for prediction of wetting contact angle of the materials.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 5 October 2010

Wei Cao and Rinn Cloud

Surgical gown fabrics are categorized for liquid penetration resistance by standard tests under specified laboratory conditions, which can be different from the conditions…

Abstract

Purpose

Surgical gown fabrics are categorized for liquid penetration resistance by standard tests under specified laboratory conditions, which can be different from the conditions encountered in the surgical environment. The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of temperature and challenge liquid (CL) type on the effectiveness of liquid penetration resistance of surgical gown fabrics.

Design/methodology/approach

One disposable and one reusable surgical gown fabric were tested for liquid penetration using standard methods required in American Society for Testing Materials F2407 for classifying the materials used in Levels 1‐3 surgical gowns. Standard test conditions were compared to varied conditions of ambient/fabric temperature (AFT), CL type and challenge liquid temperature (CLT). Analysis of variance was used to determine the effects of variables on liquid penetration.

Findings

AFT, CL type and CLT were significant (p<0.05) variables for liquid penetration for at least one of the test fabrics. Higher ambient temperature, fabric and liquid temperature conditions resulted in greater liquid penetration. Use of synthetic blood as the CL resulted in higher liquid penetration than observed with distilled water.

Research limitations/implications

Results suggest that temperatures within the range of body heat or ambient surgical environments are sufficient to affect liquid penetration of surgical gown fabrics. Also, the use of CLs other than distilled water and the use of CLs warmed to body temperature may be needed to accurately assess the liquid penetration resistance of surgical gown fabrics. Level of protection afforded by surgical gowns may be compromised by variability in these conditions.

Originality/value

Conventional wisdom has held that differences between standard testing temperatures and body temperature or ambient temperature in the surgical theatre were insufficient to influence liquid penetration. This study has shown otherwise. No previous studies were found that addressed these variables but our study illustrates their effect on selected materials.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 22 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2003

M.J. Abreu, M.E. Silva, L. Schacher and D. Adolphe

Hospitals will continue to be the largest consumers of disposables, because of the diverse range of procedures they provide. Favourable growth is forecast for non‐wovens…

Abstract

Hospitals will continue to be the largest consumers of disposables, because of the diverse range of procedures they provide. Favourable growth is forecast for non‐wovens. Increasing concern over contamination and nosocomial infections will boost the demand for consumable and disposable surgical gowns and drapes. But, until now neither the manufacturers nor the end users of surgical gowns and drapes could agree on standards. So, a mandatory European standard is being developed to establish basic requirements and test methods for disposable and reusable materials used for surgical gowns and drapes. Once this standard has been adopted, the continued use of cotton textiles and conventional cotton‐polyester mixed textiles will become questionable.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 12 June 2009

Marie Schacher, Youssef Haïkel, Stéphane Berger, Laurence Schacher and Dominique C. Adolphe

For years, the main reason for using textiles in the health care sector was to protect the patient from the medical staff. Nowadays, the garment has to play another role…

Abstract

Purpose

For years, the main reason for using textiles in the health care sector was to protect the patient from the medical staff. Nowadays, the garment has to play another role and protect the wearer. For dentists, risks can come from saliva which is considered potentially infectious because it frequently contains blood. This paper aims to define dentist gown specifications according to the new situation, and to propose new garments providing safety protective function as well as comfort.

Design/methodology/approach

Enquiries, direct interviews as well as internet forums have been used to extract dentists' requirements taking into account their need of barrier and their comfort concerns. Studies of the spraying area on the gowns have been performed to define the location of the required protection. A study of the warmer zone of the garment via IR camera has been done. Two prototypes have then been constructed and tested.

Findings

Images of impacts of drops that could cause cross‐infection allow defining the zones which are to be specifically protected. Thermographic images provide maps of hot zones of the garment when worn in working conditions, and information is obtained of desired open space zones which have been designed to create preferential ventilation required for comfort improvement. A second prototype was designed to improve results of the first one.

Practical implications

Replacement of current dentists garment in routine situation.

Originality/value

Dentists' gowns used in dental care have not been studied and not been redesigned yet, whereas new dentists are facing new risks and eagerly looking for personal protective equipment providing safety protective function as well as comfort.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 21 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2003

Flora Philippe, Maria José Abreu, Laurence Schacher, Dominique C. Adolphe and Maria Elisabete Cabeço Silva

More and more disposable goods are available in surgical rooms. Rules and standards have been proposed in order to prevent infection from patient to surgical team and vice…

Abstract

More and more disposable goods are available in surgical rooms. Rules and standards have been proposed in order to prevent infection from patient to surgical team and vice versa. A proposed mandatory European standard prEn 13795 “Surgical drapes, gowns and clear air suits used as medical devices, for patients, clinical staff and equipment”, is being developed by the Committee of European Normalisation and specifies the basic performance requirements and test methods for single‐use and reusable materials after sterilisation process. Therefore, the performances of the surgical gowns demand a balance between barrier and comfort properties. In comfort evaluation, tactile feeling is one of the most primary and important aspects with regard to the grading of the products. Therefore, the influence of the sterilisation process on the tactile perception is important to be evaluated. Subsequently, the final aim of this paper is to contribute to the knowledge of influence of sterilisation treatment on the tactile perception.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 15 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2001

George Stylios

Discusses the 6th ITCRR, its breadth of textile and clothing research activity, plus the encouragement given to workers in this field and its related areas. States that…

Abstract

Discusses the 6th ITCRR, its breadth of textile and clothing research activity, plus the encouragement given to workers in this field and its related areas. States that, within the newer research areas under the microscope of the community involved, technical textiles focuses on new, ‘smart’ garments and the initiatives in this field in both the UK and the international community at large. Covers this subject at length.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 13 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2002

George K. Stylios

Looks at the eighth published year of the ITCRR and the research, from far and near, involved in this. Muses on the fact that, though all the usual processes are to the…

Abstract

Looks at the eighth published year of the ITCRR and the research, from far and near, involved in this. Muses on the fact that, though all the usual processes are to the fore, the downside part of the industry is garment making which is the least developed side. Posits that the manufacture of clothing needs to become more technologically advanced as does retailing. Closes by emphasising support for the community in all its efforts.

Details

International Journal of Clothing Science and Technology, vol. 14 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0955-6222

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Article
Publication date: 29 June 2020

Peivand Bastani, Mostafa Sheykhotayefeh, Ali Tahernezhad, Seyyed Mostafa Hakimzadeh and Samaneh Rikhtegaran

Healthcare governance places medical ethics at the forefront of defining and maintaining the quality of care. Examples of serious ethical issues include sexual abuse of…

Abstract

Purpose

Healthcare governance places medical ethics at the forefront of defining and maintaining the quality of care. Examples of serious ethical issues include sexual abuse of patients (Dubois, Walsh, Chibnall et al., 2017), criminal prescription of opioids (Johnson, 2019) and unnecessary surgical procedures (Tayade and Dalvi, 2016) or shortages in service delivery because of little knowledge or experience especially during pandemic outbreaks (Hay-David et al., 2020). In many cases involving medical ethics, patients are identified as the first victims; however, this study aimed to consider clinicians and other healthcare practitioners as other probable victims (Ozeke et al., 2019).

Design/methodology/approach

The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that tens of millions of patients worldwide suffer disabling injuries or death every year due to unsafe medical practices and services. Nearly, one in ten patients is harmed due to preventable causes while receiving health care in well-funded and technologically advanced hospital settings (WHO, 2016). Much less is known about the burden of unsafe care in non-hospital settings, where most healthcare services are delivered (Jha et al., 2013). Furthermore, there is little evidence concerning the burden of unsafe care in developing countries, where the risk of harm to patients is likely to be greater, due to limitations in infrastructure, technologies and human resources (Elmontsri et al., 2018).

Findings

While these problems are endemic in health care, they are exacerbated in times of health and social crises such as the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This pandemic has few precedents, being most closely paralleled with the global influenza pandemic of 1918 (Terry, 2020). Initially compared to the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak of 2002–2003 (Parrym, 2003), COVID-19 is already proving much more deadly. The WHO’s estimates of the number of SARS cases from the start of the outbreak in 2002, until it was brought under control in July 2003, was 8,437 cumulative cases, with 813 deaths (WHO, 2003). The European Center for disease prevention and Control estimated that as of May 15, 2020, that 4,405,680 cases of COVID-19 have been reported with 302,115 deaths (ECDC, 2020)

Research limitations/implications

The outbreak of COVID-19 was declared in February 2020 in the Islamic Republic of Iran, and up to March 2020, the cases of morbidity reached 12,729, with 611 deaths (Bedasht, 2020). The current figure at the time of editing (May 16, 2020) is 118,392 cases, with 6,937 deaths (Worldometer, 2020). Acting in cognizance of its ethical responsibility to the citizens of Iran, the Iranian government has taken the following action to attempt to mitigate the deleterious effects of the virus: in each province, one or more hospitals have been evacuated and allocated to patients with pulmonary problems with suspected to COVID-19. Access to intensive care units and specialist equipment is a primary ethical issue that concerns the Iranian healthcare system. The issue is exacerbated by the knowledge that these facilities are not distributed equitably in the country. Therefore, equity is the first ethical concern in this situation.

Practical implications

All nurses, clinicians, practitioners and specialists have been asked to volunteer their services in hospitals in the most infected areas. This raises ethical concerns about access to personal protective equipment (PPE) such as appropriate masks, gowns, gloves and other equipment to protect healthcare workers from infection. Access to PPE was restricted because of government failure to stockpile the necessary amount of disposable medical equipment. This was related to lack of domestic capacity to produce the equipment and problems accessing it internationally due to political-economic sanctions that were imposed on Iran by the USA and some European countries. Such shortages can quickly lead to a catastrophic situation; current evidence demonstrates that about 40% of healthcare workers are vulnerable to the COVID-19 infection (Behdasht, 2020). However, it should be noted that this is not a problem limited to Iran. As of March 2020, the WHO was already warning about PPE shortages and the dangers this posed for healthcare workers around the world (WHO, 2020).

Social implications

A Disaster Committee was created by the Iranian Ministry of Health to take responsibility for decision-making and daily information sharing to the community. The ethical dilemma that arises in terms of reporting the situation is the conflict between transparently presenting accurate and timely information and the creation of public panic and fear that this may cause in the community.

Originality/value

As a steward for public health, the Ministry of Health was afforded direct responsibility to maintain intra-sector relationships and leadership with other organizations such as political executive organizations, municipalities, military agencies, schools, universities and other public organizations to reach consensus on the best methods of controlling the COVID-19 outbreak. An important ethical issue is found in potential areas of conflict between the therapeutic and preventive roles of the Ministry of Health and those related to public health and the civil administrations.

Details

International Journal of Health Governance, vol. 25 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2059-4631

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2003

M.J. Abreu, M.E. Silva, L. Schacher and D. Adolphe

In the area of technical textiles, the products depend mainly on advanced materials and these, on the other hand, depend on textile know‐how. Textile materials in the…

Abstract

In the area of technical textiles, the products depend mainly on advanced materials and these, on the other hand, depend on textile know‐how. Textile materials in the health‐care sector gradually have taken on more important roles. As more research has been completed, textiles have found their way into a variety of medical applications. Examines the medical and related health‐care sector, and more precisely the products used in the operating theatre and hospital ward for the hygiene, care and safety of staff and patients. These textiles are not very well‐known, but have great potential for development in the fields of application. Owing to recent advancements in medical procedures and textile engineering, the use of textile materials in the health‐care industry is growing. Subsequently, aims to contribute to the knowledge and clarification of single use materials used in the operating theatre according to the new technical standards.

Details

International Journal of Health Care Quality Assurance, vol. 16 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0952-6862

Keywords

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