Search results

1 – 10 of over 75000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 20 October 2021

Al Sentot Sudarwanto and Dona Budi Budi Kharisma

The purpose of this paper is two-fold: to explore the legal issue of the importance of personal data protection in the digital economy sector and to propose a legal…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is two-fold: to explore the legal issue of the importance of personal data protection in the digital economy sector and to propose a legal framework for personal data protection as a consumer protection strategy and accelerate the digital economy.

Design/methodology/approach

This study is legal research. The research approach used was the comparative approach and statute approach. The legal materials used are all regulations regarding personal data protection that apply in Indonesia, Hong Kong and Malaysia. The technique of collecting legal materials is done by using library research techniques.

Findings

The value of Indonesia’s digital economy is the biggest in the Southeast Asia region, but data breach is still a big challenge to face. The Indonesian Consumers Foundation (Yayasan Lembaga Konsumen Indonesia) recorded 54 cases of a data breach in e-commerce, 27 cases in peer-to-peer lending and 5 cases in electronic money. Based on the results of a comparative study with Hong Kong and Malaysia, Indonesia has yet no specific Act that comprehensively regulates personal data protection. Indonesia also does not have a personal data protection commission. Criminal sanctions and civil claims related to data breaches have not yet been regulated.

Research limitations/implications

This study examines the data breach problem in the Indonesian digital economy sector. However, the legal construction of personal data protection regulations is built on the results of a comparative study with Hong Kong and Malaysia.

Practical implications

The results of this study can be useful for constructing the ideal regulation regarding the protection of personal data in the digital economy sector.

Social implications

The results of the recommendations in this study are expected to develop and strengthen the protection of personal data in the Indonesian digital economy sector. Besides aiming to prevent the misuse of personal data, the regulation aims to protect consumers and accelerate the growth of the digital economy.

Originality/value

Indonesia needs to create a personal data protection act. The act should at least cover such issues: personal data protection principles; types of personal data; management of personal data; mechanism of personal data protection and security; commission of personal data protection; transfers of personal data; resolution mechanism of personal data dispute and criminal sanctions and civil claims.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 29 September 2021

Zongda Wu, Shigen Shen, Huxiong Li, Haiping Zhou and Dongdong Zou

First, the authors analyze the key problems faced by the protection of digital library readers' data privacy and behavior privacy. Second, the authors introduce the…

Abstract

Purpose

First, the authors analyze the key problems faced by the protection of digital library readers' data privacy and behavior privacy. Second, the authors introduce the characteristics of all kinds of existing approaches to privacy protection and their application limitations in the protection of readers' data privacy and behavior privacy. Lastly, the authors compare the advantages and disadvantages of each kind of existing approaches in terms of security, efficiency, accuracy and practicality and analyze the challenges faced by the protection of digital library reader privacy.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the authors review a number of research achievements relevant to privacy protection and analyze and evaluate the application limitations of them in the reader privacy protection of a digital library, consequently, establishing the constraints that an ideal approach to library reader privacy protection should meet, so as to provide references for the follow-up research of the problem.

Findings

As a result, the authors conclude that an ideal approach to reader privacy protection should be able to comprehensively improve the security of all kinds of readers' privacy information on the untrusted server-side as a whole, under the premise of not changing the architecture, efficiency, accuracy and practicality of a digital library system.

Originality/value

Along with the rapid development of new network technologies, such as cloud computing, the server-side of a digital library is becoming more and more untrustworthy, thereby, posing a serious threat to the privacy of library readers. In fact, the problem of reader privacy has become one of the important obstacles to the further development and application of digital libraries.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 27 September 2021

Harlida Abdul Wahab, Asmar Abdul Rahim and Nor Anita Abdullah

This paper aims to study the elements of social protection, namely, the labour market policy (working conditions), social insurance and social assistance from the law and…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study the elements of social protection, namely, the labour market policy (working conditions), social insurance and social assistance from the law and policy standpoints to safeguard the rights and welfare of the frontline health-care workers (HCWs).

Design/methodology/approach

This study applies both doctrinal and non-doctrinal research methods with the legal and authoritative approaches by integrating the three elements of social protections, which are working conditions, insurance protection and social assistance for the protection of HCWs.

Findings

A pragmatic approach to the social protection system by integrating these elements can safeguard the rights and welfare of the frontline HCWs amid the pandemic. This approach should be made effective for the sustainability of the HCW and health industry in Malaysia.

Practical implications

This paper highlights the significance of initiating and empowering ad hoc approaches through the social protection system for the practical and effective protection of frontline HCWs who are the backbone of the nation, in the event of pandemic COVID-19. These practical needs and approaches are pivotal in response to HCWs demands in workplace.

Originality/value

While social protection commonly aims to address disadvantaged groups and to combat poverty, this research adopts the social protection approach with the aims to safeguard the rights and welfare of frontline HCWs amid the COVID-19 pandemic.

Details

International Journal of Human Rights in Healthcare, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-4902

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 3 August 2021

Radka Vaníčková and Stanislav Bílek

The purpose of this paper is to provide a legal analysis of some chosen aspects of protection of privacy of employee as one of its personal (personality) rights in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide a legal analysis of some chosen aspects of protection of privacy of employee as one of its personal (personality) rights in labour-law relations so how to follow from the actual legal state of legislation of property protection and other rightful interest of an employer.

Design/methodology/approach

Current legislation, in general, provides adequate privacy protection to employees in labour-law relations, but in the opinion of the authors is not quite adequately balanced with adequate legislative protection of property rights and employer private in the current legislative status of employee privacy protection. Employee privacy protection should be balanced by the increased protection of employer the interests who bears responsibility for the results of productive activities towards third parties and public power bodies, but responsible for any damage incurred to his employees. Authors of the paper are aware that the constitutional order of the Czech Republic, the Civil Code, EU legislation and the legal norms of labour law provides, in general, a sufficient guide for the fair and equitable application and interpretation of relevant law norms in the monitored area, next suggest realized legislative changes or additions in the area of employers protection of the interests and property in labour-law relations on the background of employee privacy protection.

Findings

The authors are of the opinion that the proposed change is not a denial of constitutional rules and legal provisions for the protection of personality under the Civil Code and consider it to be a balanced and professional experience to apply. Its purpose is to exhaustively identify the reasons for the introduction of control mechanisms, without prejudice to the principle of use only to the extent necessary and proportionate manner.

Research limitations/implications

Re-codified private law after 1st January 2014 is in many cases very a cased interpretation. For the issue of the interests and property protection of the employer on the backgrounds of the employee privacy protection would be appropriate to legislative more elaborate the particular legal passages and chapters of the legal text, and thus reduce the scope interpretation of the court decision. To stimulate discussion on the topic authors propose the following legislative adjustment provisions of §316 paragraph 1 and 3 of the Labor Code. The proposal allows for even that is rarely possible to get an audio recording that an employee in the course of his work, even without prior notice, if it is a compelling reason for involving the exercise and protection of employees.

Practical implications

Employees may not, without the consent of the employer to use it for their personal use, production and employment employer resources including computers nor its telecommunications equipment. Compliance with the ban in the first sentence, the employer is entitled to adequate controls. The employer shall not, except as noted below, interfere with the privacy of employees in workplaces and public areas of the employer that the employee undergoing open or covert surveillance, interception and recording of his telephone calls, checking e-mail or check the correspondence addressed to employees or making video and audiovisual recordings employee during his employment. These control mechanisms employer is entitled to a proportionate manner and to the extent necessary in the following cases: on grounds of legitimate interests and property of the employer against the threat or violation, on grounds of health and property and other employees and other serious reasons. If it is for the employer is no reason that justifies the implementation of control mechanisms under paragraph 2, the employer is obliged to inform employees directly about the extent of control by way of implementation. The obligation to inform employees not arise in cases where there is an imminent risk of injury to the health or property of the employer, the employee, other employees or third parties or in the case of sound recording employees when acquired or used for the exercise or protection of other rights or legally protected interests of others people.

Originality/value

The weaker subordination position of the employee in labour-law relations requires consistent protection and its personal interests towards employer follow from labour-law relations. These regulations have to have particular legal limits so that there was no threatened or even directly touched personal and personality rights of the employee such as honour, human dignity, ethics, morality, reverence, mutual tolerance and labour-law relations in relation to equality with participants with that employer carry responsibility for performance and results do work and it even towards to third persons when it has right to provide effectual protection property and personality rights. The proposal allows for even that is rarely possible to get an audio recording that an employee in the course of his work, even without prior notice, if it is a compelling reason for involving the exercise and protection of employees.

Details

International Journal of Law and Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-243X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 16 August 2021

Khairul Anuar Kamarudin, Wan Adibah Wan Ismail and Akmalia M. Ariff

This study aims to investigate whether auditor tenure has a significant influence on accounting quality and whether investor protection moderates the effect of auditor…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate whether auditor tenure has a significant influence on accounting quality and whether investor protection moderates the effect of auditor tenure on accounting quality.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses weighted least squares regression on a sample of 77,855 firm-year observations from 36 countries during the period 2010–2016. This study uses the absolute value of performance-matched discretionary accruals to measure financial reporting quality.

Findings

This study finds that a longer auditor tenure is associated with higher accounting quality, thus supporting the knowledge effect arguments. The results on the joint effect of investor protection and auditor tenure show evidence of the substitutive effect of investor protection, where the positive impact of auditor tenure on accounting quality is weaker in a high investor-protection environment.

Practical implications

These findings provide input for policy implications involving the auditing profession. Regulators may need to weigh the costs and benefits of mandatory audit rotation because country-level institutional factors influence auditing regulations and practices, as well as the auditors’ behaviors.

Originality/value

This study adds to the limited, albeit important, evidence on the joint effect of auditor tenure and country-level governance on accounting quality. The authors respond to the call by Brooks et al. (2017) for more evidence on the role of audits on financial reporting outcomes across various legal institutions for creating effective policies.

Details

Accounting Research Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1030-9616

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 11 January 2011

Hirokazu Ozaki, Atsushi Kara and Zixue Cheng

The purpose of this paper is to derive the user‐perceived availability of M‐for‐N shared protection systems composed of multiple user groups, each with a protection

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to derive the user‐perceived availability of M‐for‐N shared protection systems composed of multiple user groups, each with a protection‐switching priority.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper assumes a shared protection system with M protection units and N working units. The memoryless state transition diagram viewed from the system administrator, combined with combinatorial analysis of state probabilities on protection switching, yields a generic formula of the availability viewed from an arbitrary end user.

Findings

The numerical examples of availability reveal the effect of prioritized protection switching. It is observed that the total protection capacity is constant regardless of the ways of priority grouping. The shared protection system with multiple protection units enables more flexible availability allocation compared with the case of a single protection unit.

Research limitations/implications

User‐perceived reliability is still an unexplored research area. Many variations of the system treated in this paper can be applied to various applications.

Practical implications

The analysis provides useful information for the design and operation of, for example, telecommunication network devices. The analysis is applicable to general shared protection systems that are subject to service level agreement (SLA) involving user‐perceived reliability measures.

Originality/value

This paper establishes the model of the priority shared protection systems for the first time and shows a practical computation method of prioritized user‐perceived availability.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 April 1965

J.H. Morgan

Cathodic protection is an electrical technique for preventing the rusting of iron and steel, a phenomenon which is usually considered a chemical reaction. Because of this…

Abstract

Cathodic protection is an electrical technique for preventing the rusting of iron and steel, a phenomenon which is usually considered a chemical reaction. Because of this the subject advances hand in hand with developments in electrical engineering and in the electrochemical industry and is modified in conjunction with advances in the chemical techniques for preventing corrosion. Magnesium, aluminium and zinc can be used as sacrificial anodes to provide cathodic protection and the greatest advance in this field has been the discovery of a new series of aluminium alloys which in sea‐water become cheap and effective sacrificial anodes. Impressed current techniques require a permanent anode and the plating of a very thin film of platinum on to a titanium substrate has been found to make an ideal anode. Much of the exploitation of this anode has taken place with new electrical techniques such as automatic control, the individual adjustment of anode current and a considerable improvement in the instrumentation. The extended experience of cathodic protection has given the contracting industry a very much greater knowledge of the design problems, of the spread of protection, of the degree of control and of the economic balance between the various techniques. A wider use of cathodic protection to supplement organic coatings and the development of coatings which work more readily with cathodic protection are two of the exceptional economic advances. Cathodic protection, unlike most anti‐corrosive treatments, is a continuous process, and as such it has to be maintained: the realisation of this has perhaps done more to produce the good results of which cathodic protection is capable, than any other single scientific discovery.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 April 1994

JOHN LAMIDEY

This paper considers the effectiveness of the Data Protection Act since its launch in 1984. The National Audit Office prepared a report in 1993, which was critical of the…

Downloads
1432

Abstract

This paper considers the effectiveness of the Data Protection Act since its launch in 1984. The National Audit Office prepared a report in 1993, which was critical of the Data Protection Registrar, its implementation of the registration and the eight data protection principles of good practice. These criticisms are discussed here with a view to improving the Registrar's approach to data protection law, and its attitude to those who are required to register under the Data Protection Act.

Details

Journal of Financial Regulation and Compliance, vol. 2 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1358-1988

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 January 2016

Gan Cui, Zili Li, Chao Yang and Xiaoyong Ding

Under normal conditions, there are different protection objects inside and outside the gas station, so two sets of independent cathodic protection systems are adopted. At…

Abstract

Purpose

Under normal conditions, there are different protection objects inside and outside the gas station, so two sets of independent cathodic protection systems are adopted. At the same time, an insulating flange is applied at the position where trunk pipelines access to the gas station, which realizes electrical isolation of the structures inside and outside the station. However, as a result of short distance between the two cathodic protection systems, there will be stray current interference between them. The purpose of this paper was to study on the interference between cathodic protection systems of gas station and long distance trunk pipeline.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the above, in this paper, first, the mathematical model of interference between cathodic protection systems was established and the control equations solved using the boundary element method. Second, the influence of cathodic protection system of gas station on long distance trunk pipeline and the influence of cathodic protection system of long distance trunk pipeline on gas station were studied separately using BEASY software. Finally, a new thought of cathodic protection design for local station was put forward.

Findings

It was concluded that there were serious interference problems between the cathodic protection systems of gas station and long distance trunk pipeline. By moving the potential control point to area outside the influence scope of anode ground bed could avoid the influence of cathodic protection system of gas station on long distance trunk pipeline. By moving the auxiliary anodes away from gas station could avoid the influence of cathodic protection system of long distance trunk pipeline on pipelines in gas station. The new thought of cathodic protection design could avoid the interference between the cathodic protection systems effectively.

Originality/value

It is considered that the results can guide cathodic design for gas station and long distance trunk pipeline. The results can also avoid the interference corrosion between the structures in gas station and trunk pipeline.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 63 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 20 January 2012

M. Naughton, I. Callanan, A. Guerandel and K. Malone

Medical confidentiality derives from the Hippocratic Oath and has been affirmed in most codes of professional conduct, including the Irish Medical Council's guide to…

Abstract

Purpose

Medical confidentiality derives from the Hippocratic Oath and has been affirmed in most codes of professional conduct, including the Irish Medical Council's guide to professional conduct and ethics. The Irish Data Protection Act 1988 and Amendment 2003 bring this responsibility into a legal forum. The aim of this audit is to assess how comprehensively medical tutors/consultants instilled knowledge and appreciation of confidentiality and data protection to medical students in a prominent Dublin University Hospital.

Design/methodology/approach

Breaches in data protection legislation by final year medical students were identified by means of a questionnaire. Changes were made to the curriculum (presentations, notices on students' e‐learning interface and induction manual) and to the exams in psychiatry, to increase awareness of data protection legislation. Students at the same point in their education were re‐assessed one year later to see if the interventions were helpful in increasing knowledge and improving adherence to data protection legislation.

Findings

Significant breaches of the data protection legislation at baseline and follow up were identified. Examples include: “Data shall be kept for one or more specified, explicit and legitimate purposes” – when asked if they would inform patients that assessments were for submission of a case report, 44 per cent at baseline and 56 per cent at follow‐up said yes. “Appropriate security measures shall be taken against unauthorised access” – 52 per cent password‐protected their computer at baseline and 59 per cent did at follow‐up. Of those that had no password protection at baseline, 70 per cent of their computers were used by others, with little change in this at follow‐up (68 per cent). At baseline 52 per cent kept a copy of reports on USB devices compared to 46 per cent at follow‐up. 26 per cent admitted to losing a USB device in the past. “Data should not be kept longer than is necessary for that purpose” – 63 per cent admitting keeping electronic copies of case reports on their computers following submission at baseline and 64 per cent at follow‐up. “Data should be made anonymous” – 96 per cent at baseline and 100 per cent at follow‐up used initials when submitting case reports to make the data anonymous.

Practical implications

What was disappointing was that, while knowledge and awareness of obligations under data protection legislation improved following intervention, breaches in compliance still remained.

Originality/value

This is the first such audit in Ireland on the provision of educational training in the area of data protection legislation to medical students. It is likely that that such breaches by medical students reflect the tip of the iceberg in relation to probable breaches amongst registered healthcare professionals. The challenge now facing the medical profession and healthcare services is to effect behavioural change to improve compliance with data protection legislation.

Details

Clinical Governance: An International Journal, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7274

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 75000