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Article
Publication date: 25 February 2021

Georgia Warren-Myers and Lucy Cradduck

The purpose of this research is to investigate Australian property valuers' identification and consideration of physical risks to properties in valuation practice. The…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this research is to investigate Australian property valuers' identification and consideration of physical risks to properties in valuation practice. The research further explores valuers' considerations of climate change-related risks.

Design/methodology/approach

The research approach comprised an online survey of Australian valuers who were members of the Australian Property Institute. The online survey included structured and unstructured questions to explore types and extent of risk investigations in valuation practice.

Findings

The analysis reflects that while valuers easily identified and engaged with physical risks, there is a lack of understanding of, and engagement with, climate change risks. This supports the need for better information sources and guidance to inform valuers of climate change risks per se, as well as the development of specific mechanisms for consideration of such risks to be included in valuation processes, practices and reports.

Research limitations/implications

The research is limited by the small sample size achieved due to the timing of the survey deployment, which occurred during the first wave of COVID-19 lockdowns in Australia. Thus, the findings are not necessarily representative of the Australian valuation profession, but they do provide indications of current approaches to risk identification in practice and the need for more guidance in relation to climate change risks.

Practical implications

This research identifies that more support, guidance, information and tools, as well as awareness-raising, are required to enable valuers to accurately identify all risks affecting a property.

Originality/value

The research provides a snapshot of current understandings of physical risk identification in valuation practice. As investors and other organisations integrate and build up their analysis of climate risks to their portfolios and organisations, this research indicates that valuers also need to be aware of changing market assessment of physical and climate risks associated with property for consideration in valuation.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 40 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 February 2021

Rotimi Boluwatife Abidoye, Wei Huang, Abdul-Rasheed Amidu and Ashad Ali Javad

This study updates and extends the current work on the issue of accuracy of property valuation. The paper investigates the factors that contribute to property valuation…

Abstract

Purpose

This study updates and extends the current work on the issue of accuracy of property valuation. The paper investigates the factors that contribute to property valuation inaccuracy and examines different strategies to achieve greater accuracy in practice.

Design/methodology/approach

An online questionnaire was designed and administered on the Australian Property Institute (API) registered valuers, attempting to examine their perceptions on the current state of valuation accuracy in Australia. The variables/statements from responses are ranked overall and compared for differences by the characteristics of respondents.

Findings

Using mean rating point, the survey ranked three factors; inexperience valuers, the selection, interpretation and use of comparable evidence in property valuation exercise and the complexity of the subject property in terms of design, age, material specification and state of repairs as the most significant factors currently affecting valuation inaccuracy. The results of a Chi-square test did not, however, show a significant statistical relationship between respondents' profile and the perception on the comparative importance of the factors identified. Except for valuers' age and inexperience valuers and valuers' educational qualification and inexperience valuers and the selection, interpretation and use of comparable evidence in property valuation exercise. Also, the three highly ranked strategies for reducing the level of inaccuracy are: developing a global mindset, use of advanced methodology and training valuers on market forecasting skills.

Practical implications

In order for valuers to provide state-of-the-art service to the public and to remain relevant, there is a need to accurately and reliably estimate valuation figures. Hence, the strategies highlighted in this study could be considered in a bid to reduce property valuation inaccuracy in practice.

Originality/value

This study provides an updated overview of the issue of property valuation inaccuracy in the Australia valuation practice and examines the strategies to reduce it.

Details

Property Management, vol. 39 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7472

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 December 2018

Lina Bellman and Hans Lind

The purpose of this study is to describe and analyse the methods and standards of valuation used by Swedish professional property valuers when appraising commercial…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to describe and analyse the methods and standards of valuation used by Swedish professional property valuers when appraising commercial properties and factors affecting those standards. The study builds on a 2002 comparative study of valuers in four European countries by McParland et al. (2002), but focuses specifically on property valuers in Sweden.

Design/methodology/approach

In 2010-2011, a questionnaire was used in face-to-face interviews with about half of the authorised property valuers in Sweden. Another questionnaire was emailed to all authorised property valuers in Sweden 2015 and again about half participated.

Findings

Analysis of the results shows some new trends in used and preferred standards and methods. Although Swedish valuers still rely mainly on local guidelines, they now increasingly use international standards and company guidelines, which may indicate a growing, if indirect, form of internationalisation. Swedish valuers still use discounted cash flow as their primary method, but their use of comparative methods has increased.

Originality/value

The data in this comparative study of valuation standards and methods over time used were collected from a specific group of property valuers authorised through the professional Swedish organisation Samhällsbyggarna (Swedish Professionals for the Built Environment), which contributes to an insight in the presiding of the harmonisation of valuation methods and standards.

Details

Journal of European Real Estate Research, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-9269

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 27 August 2019

Rotimi Boluwatife Abidoye, Ma Junge, Terence Y.M. Lam, Tunbosun Biodun Oyedokun and Malvern Leonard Tipping

Improving valuation accuracy, especially for sale and acquisition purposes, remains one of the key targets of the global real estate research agenda. Among other…

1322

Abstract

Purpose

Improving valuation accuracy, especially for sale and acquisition purposes, remains one of the key targets of the global real estate research agenda. Among other recommendations, it has been argued that the use of technology-based advanced valuation methods can help to narrow the gap between asset valuations and actual sale prices. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the property valuation methods being adopted by Australian valuers and the factors influencing their level of awareness and adoption of the methods.

Design/methodology/approach

An online questionnaire survey was conducted to elicit information from valuers practising in Australia. They were asked to indicate their level of awareness and adoption of the different property valuation methods. Their response was analysed using frequency distribution, χ2 test and mean score ranking.

Findings

The results show that the traditional methods of valuation, namely, comparative, investment and residual, are the most adopted methods by the Australian valuers, while advanced valuation methods are seldom applied in practice. The results confirm that professional bodies, sector of practice and educational institutions are the three most important drivers of awareness and adoption of the advanced valuation methods.

Practical implications

There is a need for all the property valuation stakeholders to synergise and transform the property valuation practice in a bid to promote the awareness and adoption of advanced valuation methods, (e.g. hedonic pricing model, artificial neural network, expert system, fuzzy logic system, etc.) among valuers. These are all technology-based methods to improve the efficiency in the prediction process, and the valuer still needs to input reliable transaction data into the systems.

Originality/value

This study provides a fresh and most recent insight into the current property valuation methods adopted in practice by valuers practising in Australia. It identifies that the advanced valuation methods could supplement the traditional valuation methods to achieve good practice standard for improving the professional valuation practice in Australia so that the valuation profession can meet the industry’s expectations.

Article
Publication date: 5 September 2018

Tu Thanh Le and Georgia Warren-Myers

The importance of sustainability in the property industry is well recognised, and many studies have proved the existence of sustainability premiums in real estate markets…

Abstract

Purpose

The importance of sustainability in the property industry is well recognised, and many studies have proved the existence of sustainability premiums in real estate markets. Valuers play the most pivotal role in reflecting the market, however despite the efforts of both academic and professional bodies to improve valuer knowledge and perceptions of sustainability there remains significant limitation of consideration of sustainability in valuation within the profession. The purpose of this paper is to investigate valuation practice through examining institutional grade commercial valuers’ approaches and consideration of sustainability in valuation.

Design/methodology/approach

This research used a case study approach and interviewed institutional grade commercial valuers in Melbourne, Australia, exploring their consideration of sustainability in their valuation reports for commercial properties. A semi-structured interview technique was utilised with responses using qualitative content analysis that investigated the processes used, knowledge and incorporation of sustainability in valuation practice.

Findings

The study has found substantial limitations in the incorporation of sustainability in property valuation in Melbourne’s real estate market, comprising valuers’ limited knowledge, reluctance to consider sustainability in the valuation process, poor verification or investigation of sustainability considerations, client instructions did not direct valuers to consider sustainability, lack of data and limited tools for detailed analysis.

Research limitations/implications

Although a small sample, the data redundancy found in this research suggests a level of consensus on certain aspects of practice within the sector in Melbourne. This corroborates similar findings from a large-scale study of valuers and property professionals in Europe and the UK (Michl et al. 2016).

Practical implications

There is urgent need for more education and direction in the consideration and incorporation of sustainability in valuation for valuers. Enhancing the enforcement of guidelines from professional bodies is also crucial in order to deepen the analysis of sustainability in property valuation.

Originality/value

The research has provided an in-depth perspective of valuation practice in the commercial sector, that identifies and expands on the barriers in regard to limited incorporation of sustainability in property valuation reports, physical reporting, comparative analysis and depth of discussion. Further, it highlights the limited consideration of guidance notes in regard to sustainability from professional bodies.

Details

Property Management, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7472

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 September 2008

David Lorenz and Thomas Lützkendorf

The purpose of this paper is to explain the rationale for integrating sustainability issues into property valuation theory and practice and to provide initial suggestions…

13683

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explain the rationale for integrating sustainability issues into property valuation theory and practice and to provide initial suggestions for valuers on how to account for sustainability issues within valuation reports.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors emphasise the key role of valuation professionals and of the valuation process itself in achieving a broader market penetration of sustainable construction. It is explained that, on the one hand, property valuation represents the major mechanism to align economic return with environmental and social performance of property assets, and thus to express and communicate the advantages and benefits of sustainable buildings. On the other hand, it is explained that gradual changes in market participants' perceptions in favour of sustainable buildings must be reflected within the property valuation and associated risk assessment process (otherwise valuers would produce misleading price estimates). The authors identify both the financial benefits and risk reduction potential of sustainable design as well as valuation input parameters that would allow these benefits to be reflected in property price estimates.

Findings

The authors show that the main reasons for immediately and rigorously integrating sustainability issues into property valuation are as follows: more sustainable patterns of behaviour are urgently necessary to sustain the viability of the Earth's ecosystems; a huge untapped market potential exists for sustainable property investment products and consulting services; sustainable buildings clearly outperform their conventional competitors in all relevant areas (i.e. environmentally, socially and financially); neglecting the benefits of sustainable design leads to distorted price estimates; and reflecting sustainability issues in property price estimates is already possible and the validity of this decision depends solely on the valuer's capability and sophistication to explain and justify his/her assumptions within the valuation report. However, it is also shown that efforts need to be undertaken to improve the description of property assets in transaction databases in order to provide the informational databases necessary to empirically underpin a valuer's decision to assign a “valuation bonus” to a sustainable building or a “valuation reduction” to an unsustainable/conventional one.

Originality/value

The paper postulates that valuation reports should be extended to include the following additional elements: a clear description of the availability of certain sustainability‐related property characteristics and attributes; a statement of the valuer's opinion about the benefits of these characteristics and attributes; and a statement of the valuer's opinion about the impact of these benefits and/or risks on property value.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 26 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1993

N.R. Mazure and J.C. Trigg Waddell

Seeks to tackle in the broadest possible terms the legal andpractical aspects of fraud and negligence claims in relation toresidential mortgage valuations and surveys…

Abstract

Seeks to tackle in the broadest possible terms the legal and practical aspects of fraud and negligence claims in relation to residential mortgage valuations and surveys carried out by the surveying profession. Includes underwriting, lenders claims, defective property and valuation for mortgage purposes. cites case law regarding the difference between open market value and mortgage calculation. Concludes that the valuation for mortgage purposes may lead to an entirely different conclusion from open market value.

Details

Journal of Property Valuation and Investment, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-2712

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 September 2016

Georgia Warren-Myers

The relationship between sustainability and value in property has been a major area of investigation over the past decade. However, in spite of the extant literature and…

2988

Abstract

Purpose

The relationship between sustainability and value in property has been a major area of investigation over the past decade. However, in spite of the extant literature and research, the connections made by valuers in practice of the value relationship are still unresolved. The purpose of this paper is to investigate, in the Australian context, valuers’ perception of the relationship between sustainability and value; and their experience and knowledge of sustainability in valuation practice.

Design/methodology/approach

The research investigates valuers’ perception and knowledge of sustainability and its inclusion in valuation practice in Australia. The approach uses a longitudinal survey of valuers from 2007 to 2015 tracking valuers’ knowledge, understanding, inclusion of sustainability reporting and the perceptions of the relationship between sustainability and market value.

Findings

This paper presents findings from a longitudinal survey that has been conducted in Australia since 2007, identifying changes between 2007, the height of the property market and sustainability engagement prior to the global financial crisis, and the subsequent years to 2015. The growth of sustainability in the property market is significant, however, valuers’ knowledge and reporting on sustainability is not demonstrating the same level of development. As a result, this is inhibiting valuers reporting on sustainability and has implications for practice and treatment of market values.

Practical implications

This research highlights the need to examine how to assist valuers to more rapidly develop knowledge and experience to reflect the implications of change in practice. Current approaches being developed in the UK and Europe, like the introduction of RenoValue professional development programs and guidance documents, to assist valuers to develop their knowledge needs to be implemented in the Australian environment as current approaches are inadequate, and steps need to be taken in order to assist their development of knowledge and experience as the market demonstrates growth and acceptance of sustainability. This research identifies the need to re-examine how professional development is undertaken and knowledge developed by those practicing in the profession in Australia.

Originality/value

This longitudinal survey is the only research that has spanned a substantial period of time attempting to ascertain valuers’ perception of the relationship between sustainability and value; and attempts to track the knowledge development of valuers in the context of sustainability. The findings identify how the market is developing and adhering to a product model development theory, however, also identifies more fundamental issues and implications for valuation praxis, in the development of knowledge and ability of valuers to adapt to change and reflect these valuations.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 34 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2005

Barry Gilbertson and Duncan Preston

This paper aims to stimulate debate amongst valuers and users of valuations over what action is needed to ensure the provision of the valuation services that the modern…

9157

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to stimulate debate amongst valuers and users of valuations over what action is needed to ensure the provision of the valuation services that the modern economy requires.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper looks at developments and trends affecting the nature of and the need for valuation services around the world in the short to medium term.

Findings

There is a bright future for those valuers who understand the dynamics in their market and anticipate or always respond to change. The consequence of failing to respond is inevitable decline in the long term. More automated valuation processes and products have an important role to play in the future provision of valuation services. The valuation community must rise to the challenge of developing a professional class of valuers in emerging economies. Governments should insist on good quality valuation in their jurisdictions as they have a major role to play in consumer protection. The leading professional organisations in the world must ensure that collectively and individually they attract the best possible candidates into it.

Originality/value

Whatever the drivers of change in the valuation marketplace, it is fundamental for the survival of professional valuation services that the public interest is protected. This paper considers the challenges and opportunities in a range of areas brought about by these changes – a vision for valuation.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 March 2022

Georgia Warren-Myers

The research investigates valuers' understanding of the value of sustainability in property and its' consideration in valuation practice in Australia. This paper explores…

Abstract

Purpose

The research investigates valuers' understanding of the value of sustainability in property and its' consideration in valuation practice in Australia. This paper explores valuers' perceptions of the relationships between sustainability and market values, sustainability and valuation variables, and the value influence of industry sustainability certification schemes. Further, this paper tracks prevalence of certified buildings in Australian commercial markets and the evolution of valuers' knowledge of sustainability certifications used in Australia.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper reports on the next rendition of a longitudinal study examining valuers’ practice in Australia. This research explores the evolution of Australian valuers' perception and knowledge of sustainability in valuation practice. The survey data has been periodically collected from practising valuers from 2007 to 2021. The survey questions investigate valuers' knowledge development, understanding, reporting and consideration of the relationship between sustainability and market value.

Findings

The results have identified the evolution of the influence of normative research on valuers' perceptions of the relationship between sustainability and value; with a clearer understanding emerging over time of where the value relationships are identified in valuation variables. Greater alignment between empirical Australian studies and valuers' perceptions of the influence of sustainability ratings on value, demonstrate the value connection for higher rated buildings under NABERS (energy rating) and Green Star. Whilst only 41% of the study's participants are including sustainability in their valuation reports, they include a higher level of commentary on building descriptions and initiatives, building ratings, and reporting of owner and tenant objectives, than in previous studies. Knowledge development relating to sustainability certification tool, NABERS was identified. This is likely linked to the introduction of mandatory disclosure legislation. This has also led to increased awareness and valuers' knowledge of the differences between the two key rating tools used in Australia.

Research limitations/implications

The research has several limitations: firstly, recruitment of valuers and the number of valuers' responses has varied over time; secondly, due to collection methods respondents have a greater likelihood of having an interest in and knowledge of sustainability creating potential for positive bias; thirdly, respondents may have responded to the survey in different years, but due to anonymity there has been no ability to track this. The results provide insights into the Australian valuation profession but may not be fully representative of the profession overall in Australia.

Practical implications

The broader agenda of net zero, climate change, mitigation and carbon requirements, whether driven by market forces or government legislation, are generating changes in property markets as investors' reconsider their positions and model the implications of carbon emissions on their bottom lines. Introductions of policy and legislation over time in the Australian context have led to changes in valuation practice and increasing consideration of energy efficiency and ratings in the valuation of assets. However, further guidance and research still is required in Australia to assist in the knowledge development of valuers, and their ability to consider the emerging effects of sustainability, net zero and other market driven objectives including legislation, and how these may affect or influence their evaluation of market evidence and thus property values.

Originality/value

The research has tracked valuers' understanding, knowledge, and consideration of sustainability and energy efficiency in valuation practice since 2007. In that time the research has found that, as the market has evolved and more rated buildings are built (or retrofitted), so too has valuers' knowledge and consideration in valuation practices evolved. Valuers are more engaged with industry rating tools such as NABERS. This suggests that the Australian mandatory disclosure policies have contributed to changes in the market, which are then interpreted by valuers and reflected in their perceptions and consideration of energy ratings in valuation practice.

Details

Journal of Property Investment & Finance, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-578X

Keywords

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