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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2015

Jens Hirsch, Thomas Braun and Sven Bienert

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the functionality and main results of the ImmoRisk tool. The aim of the project of the Federal Ministry for Transport, Building…

1807

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the functionality and main results of the ImmoRisk tool. The aim of the project of the Federal Ministry for Transport, Building and Urban Development (BMVBS), in corporation with the Federal Institute for Research on Building, Urban Affairs and Spatial Development (BBSR), was to develop a user-friendly tool that provides a sound basis with respect to the risk situation caused by extreme weather events.

Design/methodology/approach

The tool calculates the annual expected losses (AEL) for different types of extreme weather hazard and the damage rate as the proportion of AEL on building value, based on a trinomial approach: natural hazard, vulnerability and the value of the property.

Findings

The paper provides property-specific risk profiles of both the present and future risk situation caused by various extreme weather events.

Research limitations/implications

The approach described in the paper can serve as a model for the realization of subsequent tools in further countries bound with other climatic risks.

Practical implications

The real estate industry is affected by a significant rise in monetary damages caused by extreme weather events. Accordingly, the approach is suitable for implementation in the companies’ real estate risk management systems.

Social implications

The tool offers homeowners a profound basis for investment decisions with regard to adaptation measures.

Originality/value

The approach pioneers fourfold: first, by meeting the needs of the housing and real estate industry based on a trinomial approach; second, by using a property-specific bottom-up approach; third, by offering both a comprehensive risk assessment of the hazards storms, flood and hailstorm and finally, by providing results with respect to the future climatic risk situation.

Details

Property Management, vol. 33 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7472

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2004

Robby Soetanto and David G. Proverbs

Flood damage to domestic properties can be considered as a function of two key factors, that is, the flood characteristics and characteristics of the property. A thorough…

1776

Abstract

Flood damage to domestic properties can be considered as a function of two key factors, that is, the flood characteristics and characteristics of the property. A thorough literature review identified that little or no consideration is given to the characteristics of flood when assessing flood‐damaged domestic properties. This paper presents the perceptions of 289 building surveyors regarding flood characteristics as part of a 2‐year research project to benchmark the assessment of flood‐damaged domestic properties in the UK. Surveyors perceived the sewage, fasciae and contaminant content, and depth of the floodwater. Findings also revealed that methods to determine these factors were primarily a function of individual subjective perceptions. Definitive guidance is therefore, needed to minimise variations in subsequent repair and reinstatement works.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 22 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2001

J. Nicholas, G.D. Holt and D.G. Proverbs

Presents a conceptual model for assessing flood damage to UK domestic properties. The model originates from a critique of existing knowledge in the field and from…

1333

Abstract

Presents a conceptual model for assessing flood damage to UK domestic properties. The model originates from a critique of existing knowledge in the field and from discussions held with practitioners responsible for surveying and recommending strategies for repair of such properties. Flood damage assessment is a complex task requiring consideration of many factors. Subsequently, the model takes into account building characteristics along with the characteristics of the flood. Presently, recommendations in the literature for repairing flood damaged properties are very general in nature so “convenient” and circumspect inferences tend to be made by surveyors. In turn, professional guidance in this respect exhibits substantial variance regarding, for example, their specific recommendations for repair work. Because of this variance, it is difficult to confirm whether any repair strategy implemented is optimal, in terms of, for example, cost expended or methods used. The model presented progresses knowledge towards standardising the assessment of flood damaged UK domestic properties.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2001

Mike Crilly

Describes the format and scope of a database of predominantly technical information relating to subsidence and heave claims on shrinkable/expansible clay soils. The…

1121

Abstract

Describes the format and scope of a database of predominantly technical information relating to subsidence and heave claims on shrinkable/expansible clay soils. The database includes information on 484 individual subsidence claims, comprising details of the property and its structure, the damage, ground and foundation conditions, vegetation, and monitoring and remedial measures. The data are analysed and implications for the investigation of subsidence claims are examined. The analyses indicate that, among other results: detached properties have greater susceptibility to subsidence or heave claims than non‐detached properties; properties built prior to 1900 are less susceptible to damage than those built in the 1900‐1944 period; there are no reasons to be concerned over current minimum depth requirements for construction in shrinkable/expansible clays; and London clay is the most commonly encountered “problem” soil.

Details

Structural Survey, vol. 19 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-080X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 July 2011

Robert T. Burrus, Christopher F. Dumas and J. Edward Graham

The purpose of this paper is to contrast the behavior of a US homeowner exposed to hurricane risk with government policies designed to limit hurricane losses. Owners limit…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to contrast the behavior of a US homeowner exposed to hurricane risk with government policies designed to limit hurricane losses. Owners limit these losses by selecting structural improvements or mitigation and wind and flood insurance.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses mitigation costs, hurricane probabilities, and insurance premiums to frame rational cost‐minimizing choices for the homeowner.

Findings

First, even though nationwide hurricane damage costs are large, the cost‐minimizing response for an individual property owner may be to buy no mitigation or structural improvements, no flood insurance and minimal wind insurance, as probabilities of strong hurricanes striking particular locations are extremely low. Second, additional insurance is a less costly defense than structural improvement, even under much higher insurance premiums and hurricane strike probabilities. Third, federally subsidized flood insurance may reduce the effectiveness of government programs encouraging structural mitigation.

Originality/value

The last few years were underscored by the catastrophic damages of Hurricanes‐Katrina, Ike and Wilma. Enormous costs suffered by the public and private sectors could have been avoided with greater mitigation by homeowners. This paper examines the financial incentives for such mitigation. Those incentives are examined in a previously untested framework.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 April 2018

Robert Lee and Radek Stech

This paper aims to explain the changes to the liability regime for nuclear installations before reviewing the traditional heads of damage under the 1965 Act. It argues…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explain the changes to the liability regime for nuclear installations before reviewing the traditional heads of damage under the 1965 Act. It argues that while there is some welcome clarification of what amounts to an “occurrence” in the purposes of the 1965 Act, disappointingly, little has been done to clarify how concepts of personal injury and property damage under the Act sit alongside traditional tort notions leaving the law highly dependent on earlier, but not always consistent, case law. The paper then goes on to consider the impact of the new categories of compensation, introduced by the Order, evaluating the extent to which these draw upon EU law structures for environmental impairment liability. Again, it questions whether this approach will achieve sufficient clarity and certainty.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is a desk-based legal research.

Findings

This study is a discussion of statutory material and case law.

Originality/value

This paper is a first in-depth treatment of changes to liability principles in the Nuclear Installations Act 1965.

Details

Journal of Property, Planning and Environmental Law, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9407

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 2001

Kaspar Willam and Inkyu Rhee

In this study we examine the spectral properties of stiffness degradation at the constitutive level and at the levels of finite elements and their assemblies. The…

Abstract

In this study we examine the spectral properties of stiffness degradation at the constitutive level and at the levels of finite elements and their assemblies. The principal objective is to assess the effects of defects on the elastic stiffness properties at different levels of observation. In particular, we are interested in quantitative damage measures, which characterize the fundamental mode of degradation in the form of elastic damage at the level of constitutive relations and at the level of finite elements and structures.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 18 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 July 2018

Hau Ching Phyllis Chung and Kemi Adeyeye

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate the flood impact on a detached dwelling based on physical attributes related to the positioning, form and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, to investigate the flood impact on a detached dwelling based on physical attributes related to the positioning, form and orientation of the house, and second, to investigate the effectiveness of property-level protection (PLP) to mitigate the direct structural damage of the house and the degree of floodwater ingress within the house.

Design/methodology/approach

The methods included modelling and simulation within the ANSYS Fluent® computational fluid dynamics software. Flooding scenarios with constrained parameters using theoretical modelling methods/tools were used to test the research hypotheses. Therefore, the results obtained will match the what-if scenarios considered if/based on the standard equations and assumptions made in the idealised model.

Findings

It was found that the position, orientation and form of an individual dwelling with brick and block construction informs the impact of the applied pressure on the structure and water ingress. Increase in pressure on the structure was noted from 0.3 m. All examined PLP mitigated the risk of structural damage if applied in consideration with other interventions e.g. mortar sealing. The use of non-return valves could potentially increase the pressure on the structure, but was also found to be effective in reducing water ingress. Findings should be considered in conjunction with the assumptions and exceptions of this study.

Research limitations/implications

The limitations of this study are that the findings are based on an idealised model of a single detached house, with no landscape obstruction to the watercourse. This mathematical approach concerned with developing the normative models may therefore not fully describe the real-world complex phenomena. But it provides the first vision and an objective basis to answer the questions under study, and to propose usable outputs. Flooding caused from internal sources (e.g. bursting of pipes, roof leaks) or seepage from the ground and moisture through the walls were excluded. Building content was not modelled.

Practical implications

Common property-level flood interventions are typically tested to mitigate water ingress to the house. This study extends this approach to include the prevention of structural damage to the external walls; this can help to avoid the indiscriminate use of property-level flood prevention solutions without full understanding of their degree of effectiveness or impact on the building’s structural integrity. This study is practically significant because it provides outputs and means to examine which intervention(s) are better for delivering flood protection to a standard brick/block detached house type. This knowledge is highly beneficial for relevant stakeholders who can use it to deliver effective property-level flooding resilience measures.

Originality/value

The study provides useful insights for property owners and building professionals to explore suitable, cost-effective single property-level protection against flooding. Furthermore, the effective implementation of interventions can be used to achieve a customised, “fit for purpose” resilience retrofit.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. 36 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 October 2020

Huawei Wang

The purpose of this study is to investigate the understanding and application of crime of sabotaging production and operation in internet era, and, at the same time…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the understanding and application of crime of sabotaging production and operation in internet era, and, at the same time, discuss the basic position for criminal law interpretation in cyberspace.

Design/methodology/approach

Doctrinal analysis and case study.

Findings

Along with the advent of the internet era, how to apply the traditional crime of sabotaging production and operation in virtual space has attracted people’s attention. The controversy caused by the conviction of malicious application of fake transactions is a typical example. The legal interest protected here includes not only the property value of the means of production itself, but also the expectation interest that can be obtained by normal production and operation activities. There is no reliable basis to believe that overlap of articles between special provision and general laws occurs in crime of sabotaging production and operation and crime of intentional damage of property. The production and operation activities carried out online can also be covered by crime of sabotaging production and operation, without doubt. Ejusdem Generis Rule should be fully respected, but crime of sabotaging production and operation has a dual structure of means behavior and purpose behavior, where the purpose behavior, sabotaging production and operation, is the key to the conviction. However, it is not necessarily premised on physical damage and violent characteristics. The understanding and application of traditional crimes should keep pace with the times in the internet era, and we should not stick to a completely rigid subjective interpretation.

Originality/value

This study demonstrates the possible application of crime of sabotaging production and operation in cyberspace, and clarifies many misunderstandings about this crime.

Details

Journal of Financial Crime, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-0790

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1979

In order to succeed in an action under the Equal Pay Act 1970, should the woman and the man be employed by the same employer on like work at the same time or would the…

Abstract

In order to succeed in an action under the Equal Pay Act 1970, should the woman and the man be employed by the same employer on like work at the same time or would the woman still be covered by the Act if she were employed on like work in succession to the man? This is the question which had to be solved in Macarthys Ltd v. Smith. Unfortunately it was not. Their Lordships interpreted the relevant section in different ways and since Article 119 of the Treaty of Rome was also subject to different interpretations, the case has been referred to the European Court of Justice.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

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