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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1995

Sue Peattie

Over the last thirty years, wine has taken an increasingly large share of the UK alcoholic drinks market with sales volume growing at a rate of 4.2% per annum. However…

Abstract

Over the last thirty years, wine has taken an increasingly large share of the UK alcoholic drinks market with sales volume growing at a rate of 4.2% per annum. However, although the market has expanded there is now increasing competitiveness within this market from the new wine producing areas. More recently, competition is emerging from new drinks such as speciality beers and alcoholic soft drinks. The implications for the wine marketer is that there is a need to make full use of all the ‘tools’ within the marketing management toolkit. One of the most popular responses for marketers under competitive pressure in a range of industries is sales promotion. But despite being popular, sales promotion is poorly understood compared to advertising. This is partly because it has never enjoyed the academic scrutiny afforded to the more glamorous field of advertising. However, promotional techniques are now being studied individually and their appropriateness for different markets and marketing tasks is being discussed. Price‐based promotions have been the most popular in the drinks market, as in many other markets, but there is growing awareness that non‐price based promotions can add value for the consumer while meeting a range of marketing communications objectives. This article looks at the use of consumer competitions, one of the most popular non‐price promotional tools, with a survey of 319 competitions run by the drinks industry.

Details

International Journal of Wine Marketing, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-7541

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Book part
Publication date: 28 December 2016

Crystal C. Lewis and Cristina H. Jönsson

It is observed that many destinations are implementing sport tourism offerings to enhance their ability to attract visitors through satisfying their desires of new…

Abstract

Purpose

It is observed that many destinations are implementing sport tourism offerings to enhance their ability to attract visitors through satisfying their desires of new experiences. This has led to a highly competitive sport tourism market and as a result destinations engage in various marketing techniques and promotional tools to gain an advantage. For that reason this research was undertaken to acquire a greater understanding of the importance of promotional tools to successfully and efficiently market sport tourism experiences.

Methodology/approach

The construct of this study comprises of two stages. The aim of the first stage is to evaluate the specific tools used to promote sport tourism and sport tourism experiences in Barbados by examining the responses of various sporting and tourism bodies. The second stage of this research was conducted to present and analyze how marketing/promotional tools could contribute to better market sport tourism experiences.

Findings

The research found that many of the promotional tools implemented in Barbados during their marketing process correspond with those used internationally. However, problems of poor and insufficient sporting facilities as well as little collaboration between tourism and sporting entities, hamper the success of Barbados as a sport tourism destination. This further minimized Barbados’ ability to market favorable tourism experiences. This therefore shows that while promotional tools are essential in attracting tourists, other elements must also be taken into consideration to ensure sport tourists have positive experiences which would lead to a successful sport tourism destination.

Originality/value

Few studies in this area have been undertaken in the Caribbean. This study attempts to fill this gap by examining the implementation of sport tourism offerings to attract visitors to Barbados.

Details

The Handbook of Managing and Marketing Tourism Experiences
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-289-7

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1974

George B. Kibedi

Uniqueness is one of the principal tourism attraction in every nation and region.

Abstract

Uniqueness is one of the principal tourism attraction in every nation and region.

Details

The Tourist Review, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0251-3102

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1981

Present day literature on the general topic of export planning for international markets appears to be a repetition of standard works. It does not seem to be geared to the…

Abstract

Present day literature on the general topic of export planning for international markets appears to be a repetition of standard works. It does not seem to be geared to the needs of managers of small exporting manufacturing concerns. The small businessman needs ways of analysing export markets, the potential exportability of his product, and, equally important, tools for predicting which products are likely to be threatened by import competition, and the appropriate marketing strategies to use in exporting.

Details

Management Research News, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

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Article
Publication date: 9 February 2015

Charlotte Gaston-Breton and Lola C. Duque

This paper aims to explore not only the utilitarian but also the hedonic persuasive effects of promotional techniques like 99-ending prices and the influence of consumers…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore not only the utilitarian but also the hedonic persuasive effects of promotional techniques like 99-ending prices and the influence of consumers’ decision style when evaluating these appeals. Evidence suggests that retailers use 99-ending prices as a promotional technique, based mostly on its savings appeal.

Design/methodology/approach

Three complementary studies were performed. A first field study among 317 shoppers allows to test the hypotheses for two groups of decision-makers (intuitive and analytical) using structural equation modeling based on the partial least squares algorithm. Then, a laboratory experiment assigned to 123 respondents manipulates the decision-making style and, in turn, tests more precisely the proposed hypotheses. Finally, the third study replicates the laboratory experiment with 104 respondents without manipulating decision-making; rather it is measured, which allows to test the effect of internal-based versus contextual-based decision style.

Findings

First, the 99-ends are not strictly associated to utilitarian benefits (savings, quality or convenience) but also to hedonic benefits fulfilling consumer’s needs for exploration, value expression and entertainment. Second, a better understanding of the moderating role of the decision-making style is obtained: consumers in an intuitive decision mode give importance only to hedonic benefits; and there are differences in the analytical decision mode: when the decision-making style is internal (measured as a personal trait), consumers give importance to both utilitarian and hedonic benefits; however, when the decision-making style is contextual (manipulated), consumers focus only on utilitarian benefits.

Research limitations/implications

It is necessary to check the robustness of the results depending on other marketing variables (e.g. product category knowledge, purchase frequency) and individual consumers’ differences in price-sensitivity (e.g. price consciousness).

Practical implications

The findings help to better understand the image effect of 99-ends underlying both consumers’ individual differences and contextual effects. Findings also help retailers and pricing managers in their use of 99-ends as a promotional technique.

Originality/value

This research contributes to a better understanding of the persuasive promotional effect associated to 99-ends. The study demonstrates that utilitarian benefits cannot fully explain consumers’ responses to 99-ends, as 99-end prices can also provide stimulation, entertainment and help fulfill consumers’ needs for information, exploration and self-esteem. The authors further examine the moderating role of the decision-making style between promotional benefits and proneness to buy 99-ends products. The intuitive mode, either internal or contextual, activates hedonic benefits, whereas the analytical mode activates both utilitarian and hedonic benefits when the mode of processing is internal and only utilitarian benefits when the mode of processing is contextual.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 49 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2019

Abid Mahmood Muhammad, Mohamed Bilal Basha and Gail AlHafidh

The purpose of this paper is to develop, measure and empirically validate the promotional techniques adopted by Islamic banks and the effect of these methods on consumer…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop, measure and empirically validate the promotional techniques adopted by Islamic banks and the effect of these methods on consumer interest in Islamic banking products and services in the UAE (United Arab Emirates).

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected through 250 questionnaires distributed randomly to customers of five leading UAE Islamic banks and, following outlier analysis, the final sample size was reduced to 205, representing a sample of 82% of polled respondents. Multiple regression analysis was used on four key factor determinants that contributed towards the customers’ attitude in determining the most influential promotional strategies adopted by the Islamic banks.

Findings

The study found that the promotional strategies adopted by the UAE Islamic banking sector are having a significant impact on customer attitude towards Islamic banking products and services. The use of mass media has been partially successful, while the use of social media as a promotional tool is predicted to further enhance competitiveness for the UAE Islamic banking industry.

Research limitations/implications

This paper is limited to five leading UAE Islamic banks and a specified set of promotional techniques nevertheless its findings have potential implications and can be extended and validated through studying the customers’ attitude towards promotion techniques used by Islamic banks in the GCC and MENA regions.

Originality/value

This paper adds value to the limited research on modern marketing and promotional strategies adopted by UAE-based Islamic banks and while regionally specific, it is valuable in its potential application to the Islamic banking sector in the entire GCC and MENA region.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 11 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

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Book part
Publication date: 27 November 2014

Debashis ‘Deb’ Aikat

Interactive media strategies and digital tools have enabled advertisers to target children with promotional offers and creative appeals.

Abstract

Purpose

Interactive media strategies and digital tools have enabled advertisers to target children with promotional offers and creative appeals.

Design

Based on theories related to metaphors in advertisements, cognitive comprehension by children, promotional appeals, and presentation techniques, the research for this study comprised a content analysis of 1,980 online banner advertisements with reference to use of metaphors, promotional appeals, creative content, and selling techniques.

Findings

The research study concludes that online advertising to children, in contrast to traditional advertising vehicles, is characterized by (a) a vibrant visual metaphor, (b) surfeit of animated content, (c) interactive features, (d) myriad product types, and (e) creative content for a mixed audience of adults and children.

Originality

This study argues that the impact and content of the Internet as a new advertising medium are distinctly different from traditional characteristics of television and print.

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Article
Publication date: 15 August 2019

Arpita Khare, Subhro Sarkar and Shivan Sanjay Patel

The exponential growth of organised retail has led to competition among mall retailers with the use of promotions to increase traffic to the stores. The footfall in the…

Abstract

Purpose

The exponential growth of organised retail has led to competition among mall retailers with the use of promotions to increase traffic to the stores. The footfall in the malls is dependent on the sales generated by various retail stores located in the malls. The current research analyses the role of promotions used by the retailers located in Indian malls in improving consumers’ commitment towards the mall. The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of culture, personality traits like value consciousness, price consciousness and coupon proneness, and promotions used by retailers in malls on consumers’ commitment towards the malls.

Design/methodology/approach

Eight malls from six cities were selected by popularity and footfall. Mall-intercept technique along with systematic sampling was used to collect data from 453 mall shoppers using a self-administered questionnaire. Structural equation modelling was used to analyse the data.

Findings

Retailer promotions were categorised under discounts, promotional offers and loyalty cards. The findings suggest that cultural values of long-term orientation and masculinity have an impact on consumers’ perceptions towards discounts, promotional offers and loyalty programmes. Different promotional strategies had varied responses from consumers.

Practical implications

Mall retailers can use the findings to design promotions according to the cultural values of masculinity and long-term orientation. Loyalty programmes can symbolise status and long-term relationship with retailer. Commitment towards retailers and consequently malls could be enhanced through discounts and promotional offers. Different promotional strategies can be used to target price-conscious consumers and increase footfall in the stores. The linkages between cultural dimensions and promotional techniques would be helpful in targeting different consumer groups by designing promotions which are in line with cultural values.

Originality/value

The research extends the existing literature on mall retailing by analysing the importance of cultural dimensions on sales promotions strategies used by retailers in malls. The study establishes that perceptions towards retailer promotions differ across cultures. Different promotions offered by retailers generate varied response from consumers across different cultures which would influence their commitment towards malls.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 47 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1994

Carol King and Charles Oppenheim

This paper reports the results of a survey of UK electronic information vendors regarding the importance of marketing to them, and reports the results of an examination of…

Abstract

This paper reports the results of a survey of UK electronic information vendors regarding the importance of marketing to them, and reports the results of an examination of the readability, structure and information content of a sample of marketing materials produced by electronic information vendors. This analysis was of advertisements from professional journals and direct mail literature comprising leaflets, folders and brochures. The results demonstrated that the ‘average’ adult ought to have no problem in reading and understanding the marketing literature. Additionally, this study demonstrated that the marketing literature is feature‐oriented. Benefits are of much lesser significance. The UK‐based electronic information industry regards marketing as of crucial importance and believes that the marketplace is becoming more competitive. The favoured promotional techniques of the industry are identified.

Details

Online and CD-Rom Review, vol. 18 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1353-2642

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2005

Begoña Alvarez Alvarez and Rodolfo Vázquez Casielles

This study evidences the influence that sales promotion has on brand choice behaviour. Establishments wish to influence consumers' buying behaviour, and thus they launch…

Abstract

Purpose

This study evidences the influence that sales promotion has on brand choice behaviour. Establishments wish to influence consumers' buying behaviour, and thus they launch strong promotional campaigns or introduce changes in their price policies, among other actions. However, they are not always capable of achieving their goal, since, although they may reach their objective in the short term, when the longer term is considered there are undesirable consumer actions.

Design/methodology/approach

The problem of consumer brand choice can be adequately described with logit models that allow the use of discrete dependent variables. The probability that the consumer chooses a brand depends directly on the capacity of satisfaction that the brand holds for him/her. In this case, the dependent variable is the brand, and the independent variables are price, reference price, losses and gains, and the different types or techniques of sales promotion. With the aim of obtaining the necessary information for the present study, a regional consumer panel was used.

Findings

The results show that it is necessary to consider the product's promotional state at the moment of purchase as an explanatory element of the process. Promotion is a tool that can help manufacturers and/or retailers in the achievement of their objectives (try the brand, help to decide what brand to buy, etc.). Immediate price reduction is the technique that exerts greatest influence on the brand choice process. It is possible that the consumer perceives a promotion, for example, coupons or rebates, but does not modify his or her behaviour. In this case, manufacturers and/or retailers will be investing their resources in promotional actions that do not have any effect on the consumer.

Originality/value

Presents a regional consumer panel that has been elaborated and planned by the authors. Because of this, the information collected is just what was necessary for this study. On the other hand, the paper shows that is very important to know the consumer's preferences and the actions that influence his or her behaviour. Considering the results, it seems that promotions based on price have the greatest effectiveness.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 39 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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