Search results

1 – 10 of over 58000
Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 1 April 1988

Ellen R. Foxman, Patriya S. Tansuhaj and John K. Wong

Sales promotion is an important element of marketing communication strategy which accounts for more promotional expenditures than advertising in some countries. However…

Downloads
1354

Abstract

Sales promotion is an important element of marketing communication strategy which accounts for more promotional expenditures than advertising in some countries. However, sales promotion has been generally ignored by researchers. This article briefly reviews the criteria used in the US to evaluate sales promotions and these criteria are found inadequate to guide the formulation of sales promotion internationally. Environmental sensitivity factors are identified which are overlooked in domestic sales promotions and an audit approach to planning and evaluating cross‐national sales promotion strategy is presented.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 1 January 1985

Thomas A. Petit and Martha R. McEnally

The promotion mix is the combination of personal selling, advertising, and sales promotion used to achieve marketing objectives. The objective‐and‐task method is used in…

Downloads
4064

Abstract

The promotion mix is the combination of personal selling, advertising, and sales promotion used to achieve marketing objectives. The objective‐and‐task method is used in practice to develop a single promotion mix plan. This is practical but has drawbacks: (1) only one promotion strategy and mix is considered, and (2) decision making is taken out of the hands of senior marketing management. This paper sets forth a decision‐making process by which alternative promotion strategies and mixes are generated so that senior marketing management can choose the one that is most promising.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 1 January 2014

Enrique Manzur, Sergio Olavarrieta, Pedro Hidalgo‐Campos and Pablo Farías

The purpose of this paper is to examine two popular price promotion strategies – price matching guarantees (PMGs) and everyday low prices (EDLP) – and their effects on…

Downloads
1236

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine two popular price promotion strategies – price matching guarantees (PMGs) and everyday low prices (EDLP) – and their effects on Chilean consumer behavior in terms of consumer perceptions of low prices, search behavior and purchase intention.

Design/methodology/approach

A quasi experiment with three scenarios was conducted to test price promotion effects. Subjects were instructed to respond a questionnaire that included the dependent variables.

Findings

Results show that EDLP and PMG strategies increase perceptions of low prices and affect purchase intentions. These effects are significantly higher for stores offering EDLP than PMG. However, when consumers are exposed to two or more price promotion strategies (rather than one) they reduce their purchase intentions for a specific store and increase their search intentions.

Research limitations/implications

This is an initial study exploring the effects of price promotion strategies on consumers. Future research could test the hypotheses advanced in the study across different samples and contexts (supermarkets, department stores, convenience stores, and other retailers) and might privilege external validity, using experiments mimicking decisions with real consequences.

Practical implications

Retailers and marketers in Latin America – particularly those companies stressing price or value as their differential advantage – should consider the use of price promotions when designing marketing strategies. On the other hand, retailers should be aware that an intensive use of these of promotions could lead to increases in consumer search behavior.

Originality/value

While findings from the USA suggest that price promotion strategies can be effective in several contexts, there has been a limited number of studies addressing whether such strategies are effective in other countries, particularly in Latin America and emerging nations.

Details

Academia Revista Latinoamericana de Administración, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1012-8255

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 11 May 2015

Janine Empen, Jens-Peter Loy and Christoph Weiss

This article aims to estimate the relationship between brand loyalty and price promotions on the German yoghurt market. It considers consumer loyalty to various corporate…

Downloads
6340

Abstract

Purpose

This article aims to estimate the relationship between brand loyalty and price promotions on the German yoghurt market. It considers consumer loyalty to various corporate brands and their respective sub-brands to analyze promotional strategies between and within certain corporate brands with a larger loyal consumer segment and a moderate strength of consumer loyalty are well suited for effective price promotions following the idea of loss leader by Lal and Matutes (1994).

Design/methodology/approach

The paper’s approach follows Allender and Richards’ (2012) and extends to explicitly considering the product line management of every manufacturer in the market. In the first step, a random coefficient logit specification is estimated to compute measures of brand loyalty for each brand. In the second step, the relationship between brand loyalty measures and the frequency and depth of price promotions is analysed.

Findings

The results suggest that weaker corporate brands are promoted more aggressively supporting the model hypotheses by Koças and Bohlmann (2008). Within the manufacturer’s product line, sub-brands with a larger loyal consumer segment and a moderate strength of consumer loyalty are more often used for effective price promotions which reflects the idea of loss leading first introduced by Lal and Matutes (1994).

Research limitations/implications

The results are limited to a static relationship between brand loyalty and price promotions. Analyzing the dynamics of the relationship between brand loyalty and price promotions should prove fruitful in enhancing the understanding of retailer strategies and provides additional implications for managerial decisions in retailing.

Practical implications

Managers need to be more aware of the linkages between product line management and promotional strategies. Changes in the product line management may require a redirection of the promotional measures and strategies.

Social implications

Consumer behavior with respect to brand loyalty to some extent determines price promotional strategies of retailers. The promotional strategies provide opportunities to save expenditures, especially for non-loyal and low income households.

Originality/value

Matching and analyzing two detailed (consumer, retail) scanner data sets to investigate the relationship between the measures of brand loyalty and the retailers’ price promotional strategies. Novel is the modeling of two different dimensions of brand loyalty (size and strength) and the consideration of sub-brands. The results clearly show that promotional strategies vary not only between corporate brands but also between sub-brands of the same corporate brand.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 49 no. 5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 14 September 2017

Chen-Ju Lin

In this study, self-leadership strategy serves as a self-regulatory mediating mechanism of individual differences in predicting individual creativity because it is related…

Abstract

Purpose

In this study, self-leadership strategy serves as a self-regulatory mediating mechanism of individual differences in predicting individual creativity because it is related to actions intended to lead their own goal-directed activities. The purpose of this paper is to explore the boundary conditions of the effect of regulatory focus on employee self-leadership behaviors.

Design/methodology/approach

Considering the contextual influence, cross-level moderating effect of empowering leadership on the relationship between the promotion (prevention) focus and self-leadership has been examined. The research data were collected from 441 employees of 65 work teams from three software companies located in Northern Taiwan. A time-lagged design by implementing three time surveys was applied to minimize potential problems of cross-sectional design. At Time 1, employees completed the measures of promotion focus, prevention focus, empowering leadership, and individual-level control variables. At Time 2, employees reported the extent of their self-leadership at work. In the final survey, team leaders assessed the individual employee creativity.

Findings

This study concludes several findings. When self-leading behavior-focused strategies are considered as mediators, the indirect relationships that promotion focus and prevention focus had with individual creativity were confirmed. As an influential team-level indicator, empowering leadership could moderate the relatedness between employees promotion-focused strategies and behavior-focused strategies that positively influenced on individual creativity.

Originality/value

In this study, responding to the call by De Stobbeleir et al. (2011) to examine how employees actively manage their creative performance, the author zoomed in on self-leadership strategies and how these strategies relate to actual creative performance.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 38 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 10 August 2021

Zonghuo Li, Wensheng Yang and Yinyuan Si

This paper investigates a dual-channel supply chain in which a manufacturer offers coupons in the online channel and the retailer in the offline channel. The optimal…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper investigates a dual-channel supply chain in which a manufacturer offers coupons in the online channel and the retailer in the offline channel. The optimal pricing and coupon promotion policies are explored, and the brand image under different promotion scenarios is studied.

Design/methodology/approach

Three differential game models, namely no coupon is offered, coupons offered by the manufacturer and coupons offered by the retailer, are constructed.

Findings

The results show that the manufacturer and retailer intend to conduct coupon promotions under a large coupon redemption rate. Coupon promotion derives a higher price and profit for the issuers, and the manufacturer can free-ride on the retailer's coupon promotion. The retailer's profit in the retailer-promotion scenario may be lower than that in the manufacturer-promotion scenario in some special conditions. Besides, price, coupon face value, brand image and profit increase over time. After multiple cycles game, the operational strategy evolves to an optimal equilibrium status.

Originality/value

This paper provides guidance and advice for dual-channel supply enterprises to implement joint pricing and coupon promotion strategies under multiple sales seasons.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 1 November 2018

Yanping Gong, Wei Hou, Qin Zhang and Shuang Tian

Decision theory holds that the ambiguity of decision information affects the choices of decision makers, who have the emotion of “ambiguity aversion” when making fuzzy…

Abstract

Purpose

Decision theory holds that the ambiguity of decision information affects the choices of decision makers, who have the emotion of “ambiguity aversion” when making fuzzy decisions. The purpose of this paper is to explore the neural mechanism how the information ambiguity of different sales promotion strategies influences consumers’ purchasing decision.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses the event-related potential (ERP) technique and experiment.

Findings

Results indicate that the information ambiguity of sales promotion strategies did influence the purchasing decision of consumers, and there were significant differences in the amplitudes of brain wave P2, N2 and P3 when consumers encountered the sales promotions of different types (discounts and gift-giving). This reflects the difference in perceived risk, decision-making conflict and decision-making attitude. It means that compared with discounts, the perceived risk and difficulty increased while the decision-making confidence plunged when consumers were faced with gift-giving promotions. This finding gives an explanation on the neural level why consumers prefer discounts, rather gift-giving sales promotions.

Practical implications

For the merchants to promote commodities online, it is suggested that the actual benefit from the sales promotion should be specified to reduce the ambiguity of sales promotion information. As the neuromarketing develops, merchants have obtained more effective approaches to study marketing strategies.

Originality/value

One of the theoretical contributions this paper made is that the authors innovatively explored the consumer’s preference to online sales promotion strategies from the perspective of fuzzy decision. Second, the authors adopted the ERP technique to study the influence of the ambiguity of sales promotion information on the consumer’s purchasing behaviors. Third, this study provides an explanation for why consumers prefer the sales promotion type of discounts according to the neural mechanism of decision making.

Details

Journal of Contemporary Marketing Science, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-7480

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 4 February 2014

François Anthony Carrillat, Francois Colbert and Matthieu Feigné

The study presented in this article aims to examine the impact of the leveraging of three distinct ambush marketing strategies that are under-researched in the literature…

Downloads
2851

Abstract

Purpose

The study presented in this article aims to examine the impact of the leveraging of three distinct ambush marketing strategies that are under-researched in the literature: Promotion, Event, and Broadcast.

Design/methodology/approach

An experiment was conducted where the type of ambush strategy was manipulated (i.e. Promotion, Event, Broadcast, no ambush) as well as the market dominance of the sponsor (i.e. dominant or non-dominant) and the congruence level between the event and the sponsor (i.e. high or low congruence).

Findings

Ambush strategies' impacts differ widely. The Broadcast strategy is the most harmful to the identification of the actual sponsor; the Event strategy favors the identification of the pseudo-sponsor as the sponsor, while the Promotion strategy is both harmful to the actual sponsor and beneficial for the pseudo-sponsor. Furthermore, although dominant brands benefit more from their sponsorships, they are more affected by an ambush than non-dominant brands.

Research limitations/implications

Only one sponsor and one pseudo-sponsor were considered at a time. In addition, digital media were not investigated as vectors of ambush marketing. Further research where multiple sponsors and pseudo-sponsors are leveraging their associations to an event, using both off and on-line media, needs to be undertaken.

Practical implications

Against the Promotion strategy sponsors need to create not only strong but also unique associations with the event. The Event strategy can be circumvented with preemptive smaller scale events. Exclusive access to the program broadcast for event sponsors can protect against pseudo-sponsors.

Originality/value

This study is the first to provide empirical evidence regarding the impact of the Promotion, Event, and Broadcast strategies. Previous studies had focused almost exclusively on another strategy: the airing of commercials by pseudo-sponsors during event broadcast against which most sponsors are now effectively protected.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 48 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 1 January 2005

Karl Hellman

Typically, business‐to‐business (B2B) promotions are price cuts that drain profits and erode brand equity for the sake of short‐term volume gains. This paper shows how to…

Downloads
10502

Abstract

Purpose

Typically, business‐to‐business (B2B) promotions are price cuts that drain profits and erode brand equity for the sake of short‐term volume gains. This paper shows how to elevate B2B promotions to a central place in implementing strategy – creating extra value for customers, building brand equity, improving profits, and permanently increasing sales.

Design/methodology/approach

The article examines nine successful non‐price promotions and shows the patterns and principles that made them work.

Findings

The article posits a new conceptual model that organizes the findings from the nine cases: “the customer learning curve.” Strategy‐driven promotions move customers down this mental process from having a need – but perhaps not even knowing it – all the way through to being advocates for the firm and its products.

Research limitations/implications

The model provides a framework for analyzing existing, and designing future, decision‐oriented market research.

Practical implications

Strategy‐driven promotions focus on overcoming barriers to purchase. The best are specific (don't ask the promotion to do the whole job); creative (go beyond the conventional, “drop the price” thinking); customer‐centered (borrow interest from something the customer really cares about); measurable (if you can't measure it, you can't learn from it); and brand enhancing (don't fall into the trap of eroding brand equity).)

Originality/value

The customer learning curve is an original conceptual model and practical problem‐solving tool. The nine cases provide original examples.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

Click here to view access options
Article
Publication date: 1 February 2000

Jude Stansfield

This article suggests some dilemmas in producing local mental health promotion strategies, as experienced by a mental health promotion specialist in England. It argues…

Abstract

This article suggests some dilemmas in producing local mental health promotion strategies, as experienced by a mental health promotion specialist in England. It argues that, because of the misconceptions and misunderstandings associated with mental health and mental health promotion (MHP), some groundwork is needed to communicate a common and clear understanding. The author explains how she has communicated MHP among organisations in her locality. This includes exploring definitions of mental health and its relationship to mental illness, the rationale and effectiveness of promoting mental health and the use of a framework to plan or assess mental health promotion.

Details

Journal of Public Mental Health, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5729

1 – 10 of over 58000