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Article
Publication date: 3 May 2011

James A. Breaugh

The purpose of this paper is to introduce and test a model of the managerial promotion process.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to introduce and test a model of the managerial promotion process.

Design/methodology/approach

Utilizing longitudinal data from multiple sources (i.e. employees, their immediate supervisors, their personnel files, and task forces charged with succession planning), the study reported examined a model of the promotion process involving district managers being considered for advancement to the position of regional manager in a large organization.

Findings

Results support a model in which a district manager's past performance, current job tenure, and prior job tenure predict the manager's promotability rating which, in turn, predicts whether or not the manager is promoted.

Research limitations/implications

Given that data were used for actual employment decisions by an organization, reliance on single‐item measures was necessary.

Practical implications

Several issues that employers should be evaluating (e.g. adverse impact, whether promotability ratings are valid predictors of performance in the next higher level job) are discussed.

Social implications

Given that women and older employees face hurdles in advancing in organizations, a better understanding of the promotion process may shed light on how to remove impediments.

Originality/value

Although the process by which organizations make employee promotion decisions is an important one, it has received relatively little attention from researchers.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 26 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2009

Corinne Post, Nancy DiTomaso, Sarah R. Lowe, George F. Farris and Rene Cordero

This paper aims to evaluate alternative theories about how perceived innovativeness and perceived relational skills interact with gender to explain evaluations by managers…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to evaluate alternative theories about how perceived innovativeness and perceived relational skills interact with gender to explain evaluations by managers of scientists and engineers' promotability into management.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross‐sectional design is used. The sample (n=2,278) is drawn from 24 large US corporations. Separate surveys are administered in each corporation to scientists and engineers and to managers evaluating them.

Findings

Managers rate men and women equally promotable. Furthermore, women whom managers perceived to be especially innovative receive higher evaluations of promotability than similarly accomplished men. And, among those perceived to have low relational skills, women and men are evaluated similarly.

Research limitations/implications

More research is needed to evaluate how ambivalent stereotypes and pressures from organizations to suppress categorical thinking might combine to affect evaluation and selection processes in diverse work settings.

Practical implications

Companies should be concerned about the potential tendency for managers to reward a few individuals when they exceed stereotypical expectations. Employees should be aware of and actively manage the impressions that managers have of them with regard to innovativeness and relational skills.

Originality/value

This paper calls attention to the role of ambivalence and legitimacy theories that predict that women will receive higher evaluations when they exceed stereotypical expectations of innovativeness and that when women do not meet stereotypical expectations of relational skills, managers will temper their harshness in evaluating them. In developing this analysis, it seeks to contribute to the understanding of evaluation processes by considering the context in which evaluations take place.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 24 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2016

Yin-Mei Huang

Networking behaviors assist individuals in doing their jobs better and advancing their careers. However, most research emphasizes the effects of job characteristics on…

Abstract

Purpose

Networking behaviors assist individuals in doing their jobs better and advancing their careers. However, most research emphasizes the effects of job characteristics on networking behaviors, neglecting the effects of individual differences in goal orientations. Moreover, few studies investigate the prospective evaluation of promotability and the mediating effect of networking behavior on the relationship between goal orientation and promotability. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to clarify the nomological network and to expand the domain of networking behavior by identifying networking as career- and community-based networking behaviors and by examining the differential relationships among goal orientation, networking behaviors, and promotability.

Design/methodology/approach

This study surveyed and collected data from 160 financial employees and 103 supervisors working at branches of a large bank in Taiwan. Questionnaires addressing both networking behavior and goal orientation were distributed to employees, and one week later their supervisors were sent another survey about employees’ promotability evaluations.

Findings

Learning goal orientation was positively related to both career- and community-based networking behaviors. Performance goal orientation was also positively related to career-based networking behaviors, but negatively related to community-based networking behaviors. Career-based networking behaviors, particularly maintaining contacts and engaging in professional activities, were found to be positively related to promotability. Results also show that career-based networking behaviors, particularly maintaining contacts and engaging in professional activities, mediated the relationship between goal orientation and promotability.

Research limitations/implications

This study addresses the importance of distinguishing between networking behaviors as career based and networking behaviors as community based and shows that these two sets of networking behaviors arise from different goal orientations and have differential effects on supervisory evaluation of promotability.

Practical implications

By linking networking behavior with promotability, this study helps managers understand how employees’ enactment of specific networking behaviors can facilitate both the employees’ career development and the employees’ placement in important organizational positions.

Originality/value

This study fulfills an identified need to understand the nomological network of networking behavior.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 45 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 27 September 2011

Brooke A. Shaughnessy, Darren C. Treadway, Jacob A. Breland, Lisa V. Williams and Robyn L. Brouer

The current paper seeks to bring the political perspective to gender differences in promotion decisions, a phenomenon with great longevity in research and practice…

Abstract

Purpose

The current paper seeks to bring the political perspective to gender differences in promotion decisions, a phenomenon with great longevity in research and practice. Specifically, the degree to which gender role‐congruent and counterstereotypical influence behavior is related to liking as moderated by political skill.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a sample of n=136, these hypotheses were tested in retail organizations in the Northeast and Southwest.

Findings

Political skill significantly moderates the relationship between ingratiation and liking, such that use of ingratiation was positively related to liking when women were high in political skill. However, the relationship between assertiveness and liking was unchanged by political skill level and was unrelated to liking. Liking was consistently found to be positively related to promotability ratings.

Research limitations/implications

Questionnaire data collection is used exclusively; however, the subordinate and supervisor data were collected at two different times.

Practical implications

The results are relevant for employees in that they imply a need for them to be cognizant of their behavior as it relates to social role expectations and for supervisors to understand the factors that could contribute to lower ratings.

Social implications

The current results suggest that gender role‐congruent influence behavior is positively related to socially relevant evaluations (i.e. liking); thus, women whose behavior is consistent with social expectations may be more positively evaluated.

Originality/value

This study provides a political explanation for differences in women's promotability and also investigates mechanisms that may be related to reducing promotability disparity.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 26 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 18 September 2017

Shaun Pichler and Oscar Holmes IV

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether sexual minority candidates are viewed as less likely to fit-in in their work environments than heterosexual candidates…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether sexual minority candidates are viewed as less likely to fit-in in their work environments than heterosexual candidates and, hence, to their being evaluated as less promotable.

Design/methodology/approach

Consistent with previous research, the authors used a hiring scenario where evaluators saw one of four different resumes, which varied based on candidate sexual orientation and gender, yet were equal on all factors, including candidate qualifications. The research included a pre-test and manipulation check to ensure the validity of the authors’ research design.

Findings

As the authors expected based on stigma theory, gay and lesbian candidates were more likely to be perceived as unable to fit-in than heterosexual candidates. Perceptions of a lack of fitting-in were negatively related to promotability ratings, as were beliefs about the controllability of sexual orientation. However, counter to the authors’ expectations, gay and lesbian candidates were rated more promotable than heterosexual candidates. This presents a more nuanced picture of sexual orientation discrimination than has been offered heretofore.

Originality/value

Previous research has suggested that gay men and lesbians may be trapped in “gay ghettos,” yet there is little if any research on evaluations of sexual minority candidates in employment decisions beyond hiring. The present study extends research on sexual orientation discrimination by investigating whether decision makers are biased against gay and lesbian candidates in promotion decisions, and the factors that are related to promotability ratings.

Details

Equality, Diversity and Inclusion: An International Journal, vol. 36 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7149

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Book part
Publication date: 2 July 2010

Carolyn Cummings Perrucci and Dina Banerjee

Purpose – This research examines the effects of gender, race, human capital, work conditions, and organizational characteristics on employees’ current supervisory status…

Abstract

Purpose – This research examines the effects of gender, race, human capital, work conditions, and organizational characteristics on employees’ current supervisory status at work, and their perceptions of their future promotability.

Methodology – Data are drawn from the salaried employees of The National Study of the Changing Workforce in 2002, a nationally representative sample of all U.S. workers. Employees are compared by race and gender using correlation coefficients, t-tests, and multiple regression.

Findings – In contrast to earlier research, in 2002 non-white women are as likely as white women and non-white men to have attained supervisory status at work. There also is no gender or race effect on employees’ perception of their future promotional opportunity.

Workers who are supervisors, both white and non-white, are more likely than non-supervisors to perceive that they have future promotional opportunity. Having a work context that is supportive, and having supportive coworkers and a supportive supervisor, leads to the perception of greater chances to continue to move up in one's company, as does having greater job demands and union membership. On the contrary, work/family spillover, having a supervisor of the same race, and perceiving racial discrimination at the workplace leads to perception of less chance to continue to move up.

Research limitations – Employees’ actual job titles are not known except that supervising others is a major part of their job.

Practical implications – Many of the variables shown to be related to supervisory status and promotability suggest directions for the restructuring of workplaces to provide more supportive and less biased environments.

Details

Interactions and Intersections of Gendered Bodies at Work, at Home, and at Play
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-944-2

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Article
Publication date: 29 March 2021

Shelley Morrisette, William Oberman and Irma Hunt

This paper looks at the relationship between judgments of ethical behavior and organizational promotion prospects. The purpose of this study is to examine if an…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper looks at the relationship between judgments of ethical behavior and organizational promotion prospects. The purpose of this study is to examine if an independent dimension of ethical performance should be recognized. When managers and others in organizations compare candidates for promotion or other organization rewards, what role is played by information about the candidates’ previous ethical behavior? Are all prior ethical transgressions perceived in the same light or do some types carry more weight for organizational rewards? And, how do organizational values effect these evaluations?

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire was developed which asked respondents to rank a set of six candidates for a promotion. All candidates were said to be qualified for the promotion, but each was described differently in terms of past ethical transgressions. While information about a candidate’s prior ethical behavior is expected to be impactful for promotion consideration in the general population as well as among members of religious-oriented businesses, types of ethical transgressions may be weighted differently by the two groups. The survey was administered to a sample of 204 employees of business organizations at all levels obtained through a survey research firm, as well as a sample of 52 employees of organizations in the Christian publishing industry. Nonparametric statistics were used to analyze the results. A comparison was made between the respondents sourced through the research firm, seen as representing the general population, and those from the Christian-oriented group.

Findings

Ethical transgressions were weighted differently by each group. And some transgressions were deemed more unethical than others. Overall, our work suggests that ethical transgressions can matter with regard to promotability. Differences between the groups of respondents from the general population and the group representing Christian-based firms are discussed.

Practical implications

This paper focused on the selection for promotion of six candidates, ranked by two groups. As expected, the ethical transgressions were weighted differently by each group. And some transgressions were deemed more unethical than others. Overall, this work suggests that ethical transgressions can matter with regard to promotability. This research contributes to practical implications within organizations.

Originality/value

Only a few studies have looked directly at the relationship between judgments of ethical behavior and organizational promotion prospects. These have focused on ethical leaders rather than rank and file employees. In a study of ethical leadership and promotability, Rubin et al. (2010) found that managers rated high on ethical leadership by their subordinates are more likely to be viewed by senior managers as eventually promotable to senior leadership than those who were not – although they were no more likely to receive a promotion in the near term.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 44 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2000

Agnes Lau and Mary Pang

This study investigates the significance of developing career goals and adopting appropriate career strategies during the first two years of employment after graduation…

Abstract

This study investigates the significance of developing career goals and adopting appropriate career strategies during the first two years of employment after graduation. Data were collected from a sample of 300 graduate employees in Hong Kong during a time when job competition has been increasingly tough. Results indicate that respondents tend to use strategies such as “enhancing promotability” (performing effectively, acquiring skills, building networks) and “improving image with superiors” (conforming to expectations, highlighting accomplishments) more frequently than “establishing external contacts” (joining professional bodies and trade associations) during early career. The relationships of career goals and strategies to satisfaction with salary and hierarchical progression are also examined. Factors such as “developing career goals and plans” and “improving image with superiors” are positively and significantly related to satisfaction with progression. Practical implications of the study findings on individuals and organizations are discussed.

Details

Education + Training, vol. 42 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0040-0912

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1997

Magid Igbaria and Conrad Shayo

United States government statistics have shown that although women and minorities have made impressive gains in employment during 1980s, they continue to be…

Abstract

United States government statistics have shown that although women and minorities have made impressive gains in employment during 1980s, they continue to be underrepresented in positions of power and responsibility, especially at the senior management and executive positions. This trend has also been observed in the Information Systems (IS) field (Wilson, 1990). It has been reported that women and blacks encounter a glass ceiling that prevents them from reaching the top levels of IS positions (Johnson, 1990; Morrison and Glinow, 1990). A number of potential causes of this glass ceiling effect have been suggested:

Details

Equal Opportunities International, vol. 16 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0261-0159

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 1996

Stuart Hannabuss

Considers how an examination of information in the workplace can be assisted by the use of linkage analysis. This technique identifies factors and determines correlations…

Abstract

Considers how an examination of information in the workplace can be assisted by the use of linkage analysis. This technique identifies factors and determines correlations between them, with the aim of illuminating the perceived order of factors, as seen by people at work, and underlining intuitive decisions. Indicates some developments from the technique.

Details

Library Review, vol. 45 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0024-2535

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