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The majority of research pertaining to internal marketing (IM) is conceptual and still remains so even at present. The lack of widely accepted definitions of the IM…
The majority of research pertaining to internal marketing (IM) is conceptual and still remains so even at present. The lack of widely accepted definitions of the IM concept and a relevant valid measure has lead to increased attempts by academia to investigate the relative concepts and measures. The purpose of this paper is to examine a synthesis of IM and investigates its effect on business performance in a retail context.
The context of this paper is within supermarket chains in Greece with nation wide coverage. A survey is designed and implemented using the branch managers.
SEM analysis indicates five dimensions of the IM construct: formal interaction, reward systems, feedback, internal procedures and policies and internal customer orientation (ICO). Retailers seem to adopt in an embryonic stage a concept of IM. IM indeed has a positive effect on business performance.
Single key informant, single context of the paper are considerations when examining research limitations.
The embryonic stage of adopting and implementing IM within supermarket chains illustrates a certain manner of managing the internal customer; centralisation of procedures and tactics. Even if the concept of IM is partially exploited, the respective organisational behaviours clearly have a positive impact on both financial and non‐financial aspects of retail performance, thus revealing their importance.
This paper contributes to the rare empirical investigation of the IM notion in the firm and provides evidence on both its synthesis and its impact on business performance. The authors synthesize the concepts of internal market and ICOs providing a new approach to IM. Construct and research propositions have been axiomatic and in an only conceptual context until recently.
This research seeks to accomplish two objectives: to extend the test of the functional relationship between store image attributes and customer satisfaction in the market…
This research seeks to accomplish two objectives: to extend the test of the functional relationship between store image attributes and customer satisfaction in the market environment of Greece; and to investigate the stability of the structural relationships between store image attributes and customer satisfaction across different customer groups.
The literature concerning major store image attributes was systematically reviewed. After assessing the construct validity of the store image attributes based on confirmatory factor analysis, a path model specifying the relationships between store image attributes and customer satisfaction was estimated. A multigroup analysis was conducted to test the invariance of structural paths between store image attributes and customer satisfaction for different customer profiles.
On appraising the store customer's personal variables four specific types of buyers, namely, the Typical, the Unstable, the Social, and the Occasional, were identified. While four of the six considered store attributes appear to be significant determinants of customer satisfaction, when examined for the degree of invariance between the four groups only Pricing and Products‐related attributes were equally significant in all four groups.
The results of the study may vary with national context, size, strategic position of supermarkets, and other customer personal variables (i.e. lifestyle) suggesting future research opportunities.
The results facilitate the comprehension of the role that specific store attributes have on the satisfaction of store visitors with different profiles. In addition, the results expand the retail manager's knowledge on consumer behaviour, with rational motives (product and price‐related).
The results expand one's knowledge on this relationship, propounding interesting empirical evidence of the model invariance among different consumer profiles.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the differences in male and female attitudes and establish a causal relationship between general (a priori) attitudes towards…
The purpose of this paper is to investigate the differences in male and female attitudes and establish a causal relationship between general (a priori) attitudes towards female stereotypical advertisements and attitudes towards specific advertising stimuli, providing evidence from Greece and Cyprus.
Male and female respondents (158 in Cyprus and 156 in Greece) indicated their general attitudes towards female stereotypes in advertising and were subsequently exposed to three stereotypical advertisements, to which they expressed their specific attitudes.
The results of the study prove that in countries with similar cultural backgrounds, such as Greece and Cyprus, general attitudes towards stereotypes in advertising do not have significant differences. General attitudes towards sex role portrayal in advertising directly impact attitudes towards specific advertisements. Further, it was demonstrated that respondents' gender plays a key role in attitude formation. The age of the respondents is also of interest, given that differences exist in general attitudes towards stereotypes in advertising and in attitudes towards specific stereotypical advertisements within respondents of the same gender, but of a different age bracket.
The key potential contribution of this study is threefold. First, it investigates the effect of gender and age on attitudes towards stereotypes in advertising. Second, it establishes a causal relationship between general attitudes towards stereotypical advertisements and attitudes towards specific advertising stimuli. Third, the study further validates the established relationship and the relevant measures across culturally similar countries.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the moderation effects of the Big Five personality traits on the relationships between holistic experience constructs (i.e…
The purpose of this study is to investigate the moderation effects of the Big Five personality traits on the relationships between holistic experience constructs (i.e. servicescape and other visitors’ behaviours), emotional responses and revisit intention in the context of winery visitation experiences in Greece.
The study adopts a holistic approach to visitor experience and suggests that visitors base their experience perception on the servicescape’s attributes and other visitors’ suitable behaviours. Path analysis was adopted to measure the impact of these constructs on visitors’ emotions and the role these emotions play in predicting visitors’ revisit intentions. The moderation effect of the Big Five personality traits in such relationships was examined using the SPSS PROCESS. A self-administered, highly structured questionnaire was distributed to winery visitors in Greece; a total of 615 responses were used in data analysis.
The results indicate that all the examined relationships become stronger as a result of visitors having high or average scores for openness, extraversion, agreeableness and conscientiousness, or low scores for neuroticism.
The findings enhance the existing literature pertaining to experiential marketing, wine tourism marketing and the role of personality in tourism by providing new insights.
The overall findings may benefit wineries in their efforts to carry out the following: increase visitors’ revisit intentions; design and manage the winery environment and the winery experience effectively; and design marketing strategies.
The paper’s originality lies in providing information to clarify the role of visitors’ personalities as a contributing factor to their emotional stimulation and their revisit intentions in terms of both constructs of experience (i.e. servicescape and other visitors’ behaviours). Furthermore, this study attempts to respond to recent calls to conduct multidimensional research on the servicescape construct, focusing on both the substantive staging of the servicescape and the communicative staging of the servicescape. Finally, the present study provides new and practical insights regarding the winery experience in the Greek context – an area where very limited research has been conducted so far.
本研究采用了一种游客体验的整体性方法, 并建议游客将他们的体验感知建立在服务景观的属性和其他游客的适当行为上。采用路径分析法来衡量这些建构对游客情绪的影响, 以及这些情绪在预测游客重访意图中所起的作用。运用SPSS软件, 分析了五大人格特质在关系中的调节作用。给希腊的酒庄游客发放了高度结构化的自填问卷, 最终回收615份问卷用于数据分析。
结果表明, 由于游客在开放性、外向性、亲和性和尽责性方面有较高或平均的得分, 或在神经质方面得分较低, 所有被调查的关系变得更强了。
通过提供信息, 明确了游客的个性在两种体验构建（即服务场景和其他来访者行为）中作为情感刺激和重游意愿的促成因素的作用。此外, 本研究试图响应最近对服务场景构建进行多维研究的呼吁, 既关注服务场景的实质阶段(SSoS), 也关注服务场景的交际阶段(CSoS)。最后, 本研究提供了关于在希腊背景下的酒庄体验的新的、实用的见解——目前为止, 相关领域的研究都还非常有限。
关键词 葡萄酒旅游, 酒庄体验, 游客情感, 游客行为意向, 五大人格特质
Cómo afectan los rasgos de la personalidad a la experiencia del visitante, la estimulación emocional y el comportamiento? El caso del turismo enológico
El objetivo de este estudio es investigar el efecto moderador de los Cinco Grandes rasgos de la personalidad sobre las relaciones entre los constructos de la experiencia holística (como, por ejemplo, servicescape, otros comportamientos de los visitantes) las respuestas emocionales, y la intención de repetir en el contexto de las experiencias de la visita de bodegas en Grecia.
El estudio adopta un enfoque holístico de la experiencia del visitante y sugiere que los visitantes basan su percepción de la experiencia en los atributos del servicescape y en otros comportamientos adecuados de los visitantes. Se utilizó el análisis de pautas (Path Analysis) para medir el impacto de estos constructos en las emociones de los visitantes y el papel que estas emociones juegan en la predicción de las intenciones de repetir de los visitantes. El efecto moderador de los Cinco Grandes rasgos de personalidad en tales relaciones fue examinado usando SPSS PROCESS. Se distribuyó un cuestionario autoadministrado y altamente estructurado a los visitantes de bodegas en Grecia; se utilizaron 615 respuestas para el análisis de los datos.
Los resultados indican que todas las relaciones examinadas se vuelven más fuertes en el caso de los visitantes que tienen puntuaciones altas o medias de apertura, extraversión, amabilidad y conciencia, o bajas puntuaciones de neurotismo.
Limitaciones del estudio/implicaciones
Los resultados mejoran la literatura existente relativa al marketing experiencial, el marketing del turismo enológico y el papel de la personalidad en el turismo, proporcionando nuevas perspectivas.
Los resultados globales pueden beneficiar a las bodegas en sus esfuerzos por llevar a cabo lo siguiente: a. aumentar la intención de los visitantes de repetir, b. diseñar y gestionar el entorno de la bodega y la experiencia enológica de manera efectiva, y c. diseñar estrategias de marketing.
La originalidad del trabajo radica en proporcionar información para aclarar el papel de la personalidad de los visitantes como un factor que contribuye a su estimulación emocional y sus intenciones de repetir en términos de ambos constructos de la experiencia (p. ej., servicescape y otros comportamientos de los visitantes). Además, este estudio intenta responder a los recientes requerimientos de realizar investigaciones multidimensionales sobre el constructo servicescape, centrándose tanto en la puesta en escena sustantiva del servicescape como en la puesta en escena comunicativa de la misma. Por último, el presente estudio aporta nuevas ideas prácticas sobre la experiencia enológica en el contexto griego, un ámbito que, hasta ahora, cuenta con un número limitado de investigaciones.
Enoturismo, Experiencia enográfica, Emociones del visitante, Intenciones conductuales del visitante, Cinco grandes rasgos de personalidad
tipo de papel
trabajo de investigación
This paper aims to explore the impact of the experience of a winery visit to the visitor’s emotions and the effect of these emotions on visitor’s intention to revisit and…
This paper aims to explore the impact of the experience of a winery visit to the visitor’s emotions and the effect of these emotions on visitor’s intention to revisit and recommend a winery as consequences of visitor satisfaction.
The study adopted a multi approach of customer experience, suggesting that visitors base their experience perception on the servicescape attributes, other visitors’ suitable behaviours and their own yearn for cognitive learning and fun. Path analysis is adopted to measure the impact of these constructs on visitor’s emotions and the role of these emotions in predicting visitor’s satisfaction and behavioural intentions. Data are collected through a self-administered highly structured questionnaire, self-completed by respondents at each winery. A total of 615 usable responses are obtained from eight wineries.
The results indicate that emotions are arisen – in a context of wine tourism – as a result of visitor’s evaluation of winery environment (especially Atmospherics, Signage and Facilities), other visitors’ appropriate behaviour and visitor’s desire to learn something new and to have fun during the winery experience. Also, it is revealed that visitor’s emotions positively impact on his/her satisfaction, which in turn seems to be a significant predictor of his/her intention to revisit the winery and give positive word-of-mouth.
The findings broaden the knowledge on visitor’s winery experience and its impact on visitor’s satisfaction and future behavioural intentions. However, because the study focuses only on winery visitors in Greece, the research results may lack generalizability. The application of the study to other wineries would allow for wider generalisations to be made from the results obtained.
The overall findings may have significant implications for wine tourism industries. Also, it might be beneficial for wineries in their effort to provide a more valuable experience to wine tourists and in increasing wine tourists’ loyalty.
The paper’s originality lies in providing information to clarify the relationships between the constructs of experience, visitor’s emotions, satisfaction and future behavioural intentions in a winery setting. Also, this study provides new and practical insights of winery experience in the Greek context, an area where very limited research has been conducted. Finally, this is one of the few studies that focus on more than two servicescape elements and their impact on visitor’s emotions.
The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the innovation adoption process taking place in the public relations field through the use of Web 2.0 applications and social…
The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the innovation adoption process taking place in the public relations field through the use of Web 2.0 applications and social network activities.
Innovation adoption of electronic public relations (E-PR) is examined at personal, organizational, and environmental levels by employing, for each one of the previous, a number of different sub-dimensions leading to the creation and verification of a hierarchical tree structure.
E-PR innovation adoption can be influenced at personal, organizational, and environmental levels. Each of the aforementioned levels is hierarchically linked to a number of factors that can actually speed up the process.
Never before to the authors’ knowledge the E-PR adoption process was examined as a hierarchical model bridging the innovation adoption literature with the public relations literature.