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Article
Publication date: 4 June 2019

Patricia Picazo, Sergio Moreno-Gil and Dogan Gursoy

Examination of the image projected through photographs used in marketing materials can enable managers to identify opportunities for creating differentiated positioning in…

Abstract

Purpose

Examination of the image projected through photographs used in marketing materials can enable managers to identify opportunities for creating differentiated positioning in the marketplace. However, the impact of image projected through photographs has not received much attention in academic literature. This paper aims to establish a methodology using dynamic indices that allow a systematic comparative evaluation of the image projected through photographs used in marketing materials of lodging properties located in competing destinations. It also provides an empirical examination of the type of image projected through photographs of lodging properties in those destinations.

Design/methodology/approach

Analysis was conducted using a content analysis methodology. A total of 17,187 photographs of 5,820 lodging properties located in 15 different tourism destinations over a period of eight years were examined.

Findings

Results revealed that the proposed methodology based on dynamic comparative indices is appropriate for determining the projected image of lodging properties. The dynamic indices, which categorise photographs in three main categories: subject (people), activities (actions carried out) and contextualisation (location), allowed a systematic evaluation of the image projected of lodging properties in competing destinations. Results of the empirical analysis indicated important differences in the image projected through photographs among lodging properties located in 15 destinations.

Practical implications

This study provides the industry and destination marketing organisations (DMOs) with a useful and simple tool for comparatively evaluating the image projected by tourism accommodations. The methodology proposed enables managers to identify the current image and the changes in the image of their lodging properties, their destinations and those of their main competitors over the years, thus providing opportunities for development of more effective differentiation and positioning strategies in their respective target markets.

Originality/value

The proposed tool provides a methodology that can be used to categorise and evaluate the image represented on the photographs used in marketing materials to ensure the projection of the intended image. Furthermore, the proposed methodological tool enables managers to monitor the image projected through photographs used in competitors’ marketing materials and identify changes in their image projected over time.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 31 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Andreas H. Zins and Shasha Lin

Reviews of scientific publications in the area of tourism continuously find commonalities and repeatedly applied criteria in conceptualizing destination image. Much…

Abstract

Purpose

Reviews of scientific publications in the area of tourism continuously find commonalities and repeatedly applied criteria in conceptualizing destination image. Much emphasis has been placed on investigating the image components (dimensions) and potential impacts as perceived by the consumer. Publications on the image formation and change, however, do not disclose many details on the process and impacts of change agents. Hence, this study aims to look into the initial stages of destination image planning and how these plans are implemented through projecting onto the official destination websites.

Design/methodology/approach

The text-based content analysis builds on a random sample of one-third of the tourism development plans and the respective official tourism websites of sub-provincial prefectures in China. Terms (originally phrased in Chinese language only) were extracted that could be classified as image components considering the context where they appeared.

Findings

Results exhibit a sparse application of varied and imaginative image elements in both the tourism development plans and the official websites. Deviations between intended and projected destinations are substantial. An overwhelming majority of prefectural destination management organizations (DMOs) appears to be distant from a professional implementation of an image positioning strategy.

Research limitations/implications

Due to resource limitations, only a random sample of one-third of the 365 sub-provincial prefectures in China could have been screened. To draw a complete, though structurally most probably not very different, picture on the scope and variety of image elements, a complete investigation would be necessary. The projection of image items on the official websites represents a restricted view on possible image formation agents. For a more comprehensive understanding, other information channels (e.g. printed advertising material, travel catalogues and guide books) would complement the perspective on induced image agents.

Practical implications

From a managerial perspective, it appears to be an easy job to position a destination along one or two main appeal characteristics, particularly when the majority of these are factual aspects of geography, landscape, history or culture. Whether such a positioning strategy materializes in view of an increasing competition among destinations is questionable. The condensed image profiles identified in this study can act as blueprints for developing more pronounced positioning profiles. The variation across groups of destination image profiles and the composition of prefectures for each group reflects the potential competitive pressure that prefectures may excel unless the DMO representatives decide to go for an adapted target position.

Originality/value

This study is a rare attempt to analyse the intended/planned and projected image elements of a multitude of tourism destinations simultaneously. Such a comparison is usually done on a case-by-case basis only. Thus, the insights of this study go beyond the limits of an individual destination enabling structural comparisons across neighbouring and nation-wide regions.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2014

Luca Cian and Sara Cervai

Currently, in the literature, words such as “corporate image”, “projected image”, “construed image”, “reputation”, “organizational identity”, and “organizational culture”…

Abstract

Purpose

Currently, in the literature, words such as “corporate image”, “projected image”, “construed image”, “reputation”, “organizational identity”, and “organizational culture” are often confused and superimposed. This creates a conceptual mismatch that leads to results that are hard to compare. Moreover, this leads to difficulty in individuating the correct tools to investigate these constructs. Part of this confusion is due to the lack of a framework shared by different literatures. The aim of this paper is firstly to propose a reasoned review of the literatures related to these constructs. Secondly, the authors propose a new framework and a standard terminology, in which reputation is the wider construct that includes and relates to the others.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors performed an extensive and multidisciplinary review in the 12 most used databases within corporate communication, organizational psychology, marketing, organizational studies, management, and business. A semiotic and relational approach was implemented as modus operandi.

Findings

The paper builds on the previous literature, clarifying labels and constructs and identifying a standard terminology to which future studies can refer in order to facilitate a multidisciplinary dialog along different disciplines.

Originality/value

To the authors' knowledge, this is the first review to take into consideration all of the seven constructs together and relate them within one framework. Moreover, it uses a novel approach in seeing “reputation” as an umbrella construct under which all the other constructs are grouped and included.

Details

Corporate Communications: An International Journal, vol. 19 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1356-3289

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Article
Publication date: 10 June 2020

Gökhan Yılmaz, Doğuş Kılıçarslan and Meltem Caber

As one of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization initiatives, the creative cities network (CCN) declares the cities that are creative in the…

Abstract

Purpose

As one of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization initiatives, the creative cities network (CCN) declares the cities that are creative in the contexts of music, gastronomy, design, etc., with the aim of promoting cooperation amongst the member cities and maintaining sustainable urban development. This study aims to identify the destination food image of Gaziantep in Turkey, which is a member gastronomy city of the CCN since 2015. Identified destination food image elements were connected to the common targets of the CCN to show how the city may contribute to the network objectives.

Design/methodology/approach

A two-stage research process was used in the study. First, qualitative approach was adopted for the clarification of projected and perceived destination food image elements. Projected image elements were derived from a content analysis performed on a totally 113 official, semi-official and unofficial online documents in Turkish and English. Perceived destination food image elements were identified by face-to-face interviews, conducted on 10 participants. As a result, 18 projected and 20 perceived destination food image elements were obtained. These were then grouped under 4 main and 22 sub-categories. At the second stage, destination food image elements were matched with common targets of the CCN.

Findings

Destination food image elements, obtained by two qualitative studies, are grouped under 4 main and 22 sub-categories as follows: gastronomic identity (with sub-categories of destination’s identity and local culinary culture); diversity of the destination (with sub-categories of attractiveness of the local food, ease of promotion and high brand value); gastronomic attractions (with sub-categories of restaurants and cafes, culinary museums, farmer markets, orchards, gastronomy tours, gastronomy events (e.g. festivals, competitions), culinary education, books on gastronomy, certification systems, organizations, street foods and vendors and handmade or homemade foods); and qualified workforce and stakeholders (with sub-categories of expert chefs and cooks, specialist suppliers, service personnel, locals and local authorities). These are then connected to the common CCN targets (e.g. cuisine, tourism and festivals; extension of the creative value chain; fostering cultural creativity; and sustainability).

Originality/value

This is one of the early research attempts in examining a member gastronomy city’s food image elements and the role that they played in the success of the CCN’s common targets. Moreover, the study contributes to the literature on the identification of (projected and perceived) destination food image by using content analysis.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 6 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2012

Mary Low, Howard Davey and Janet Davey

The purpose of this paper is to explore how a professional accountants' Institute has projected its changing professional identity through its annual reports. Extensive…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how a professional accountants' Institute has projected its changing professional identity through its annual reports. Extensive research has shown that the annual report is one of an organization's most important documents to communicate with stakeholders. The New Zealand Institute of Chartered Accountants celebrated its centenary year in 2008. It is therefore timely to explore how this influential professional institute has projected its evolving identity to its stakeholders over 100 years of annual reports.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper uses a content analysis of archival records. The type of information and the manner of presentation via textual information and visual images in the Institute's annual reports are used to track a changing professional identity.

Findings

The analysis did not find any definitive statements of professional identity by the professional accountants' Institute. Early annual reports used a singular visual image to project authenticity. Increasing use ansd complexity of visual images and mission/vision statements projected an identity of expertise, integrity and global relevance, paralleling the impacts of globalization and advances in technology. The last decade of the Institute's annual reports reveals a sophisticated use of visual images and printing to enhance textual information. This marked a dramatic turn in the projection of professional identity whilst retaining the communication of a basic reality and professional traits to its members and stakeholders.

Originality/value

The paper is valuable as few other research studies have investigated the projection of changing professional identities via identity statements and visual imagery in annual reports.

Details

Journal of Accounting & Organizational Change, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1832-5912

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1982

WILLIAM S. SIMPKINS

A study of the published statements of Australian school administrators revealed that two distinctive configurations of power and service relationships are projected in…

Abstract

A study of the published statements of Australian school administrators revealed that two distinctive configurations of power and service relationships are projected in their publically presented images of state school administration as it relates to government and the public. A previous Traditional Centralist‐Unity configuration is now being replaced by an Emergent Devolution‐Diversity conformation. Analysis was directed to (a) understanding the significance of the two images in terms of their function as public communications, and (b) accounting for the shift in the imagery in the light of pressures for change, the way administrators are interpreting change as turbulence, and the projection of counter images incorporating critiques of government school systems. To help organise analysis, it was assumed that images of system administration have the potential to communicate: 1. information, 2. explanation, 3. judgements and value positions, 4. statements designed to advance sectional interests, and 5. themes and persuasive symbols. It was also assumed that the shift in the public images of administrators may be studied in the way their images relate to three basic sources of administrative tension: tensions which arise from problems of meaning, problems of aspiration, and problems of practice.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article
Publication date: 2 November 2015

Weng Hang Kong, Hilary du Cros and Chin-Ee Ong

Drawing upon an analysis of resident and visitor survey data and Macau Government Tourist Office (MGTO) press releases in 2012, the purpose of this paper is to understand…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing upon an analysis of resident and visitor survey data and Macau Government Tourist Office (MGTO) press releases in 2012, the purpose of this paper is to understand the tourism destination image for this tourist historic city produced by these three key stakeholder groups in Macau.

Design/methodology/approach

This is achieved using a new stakeholder analysis tool, developed from previous studies, which compares the perspective of the MGTO, the city’s destination marketing organization, with that of its residents and visitors. This study examines the perceptions that residents and visitors have about the general images projected and generated in Macau.

Findings

This research highlights the multiplicity of images and producers of images in Macau.

Originality/value

The lesson from this case study is that public sector agencies need to acknowledge more clearly the tourism planning role of the host community in particular. The possibility of detecting disconnections and misalignments of shared destination imagery by residents and visitors has implications for the public sector in Macau and other destinations in relation to managing and developing a destination and contributes to a greater understanding of stakeholders and sustainable tourism development overall.

Details

International Journal of Tourism Cities, vol. 1 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2056-5607

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Article
Publication date: 13 September 2019

Diana Dryglas and Adrian Lubowiecki-Vikuk

The purpose of this paper is to identify Poland’s image as a medical tourism destination (MTD).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify Poland’s image as a medical tourism destination (MTD).

Design/methodology/approach

Survey data were collected from 282 German and British medical tourists, using a self-administered questionnaire. The Computer-Assisted Web Interviewing method was used to conduct the survey. Subsequently, the responses were analysed using advanced statistical tools (McNemar’s exact test, Cochran’s Q test and Chi-square test).

Findings

Before visiting Poland, the respondents perceived the country through the prism of medical attributes, whereas after the visit, they perceived it through the prism of non-medical attributes.

Research limitations/implications

Identification of a set of MTD image characteristics has important implications for scholars, allowing them to understand attributes which shape projected and perceived MTD image. Such construct can also be a useful tool for marketing planners, destination managers and marketers to create an effective marketing policy and projected image of MTDs based on these features.

Originality/value

The study fills an important gap regarding the lack of conceptual and empirical content allowing for exploration of MTD image.

Details

Tourism Review, vol. 74 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1660-5373

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2020

Yongzhen Ke, Wenjie Zhao, Shuai Yang, Kai Wang and Jiaying Liu

This paper aims to obtain a texture dental model with real images and improve the rendering effect of the dental model.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to obtain a texture dental model with real images and improve the rendering effect of the dental model.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper proposes a semiautomatic method to construct a realistic dental model with real images based on two-dimensional/three-dimensional (2D/3D) registration. First, a 3D digital dental model and three intraoral images are obtained by a 3D scanner and digital single-lens reflex camera. Second, the camera projection poses for every intraoral images are calculated by using the single-objective optimization algorithm. Third, with camera poses, the preliminary projection texture mapping is performed; besides, the seam between two textures is marked. Finally, the marked regions are fused based on the image pyramid to eliminate obvious seams.

Findings

The paper provides a method to construct a realistic dental model. The method can map three intraoral images to the dental model. The experimental results show that the textured dental model without obvious distortion, dislocation and seams is constructed with simple interactions.

Originality/value

The proposed method can be applied to the digital smile design system to improve the communication efficiency between doctors, patients and technicians.

Details

Engineering Computations, vol. 38 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0264-4401

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Article
Publication date: 6 March 2017

Lluís Garay and Soledad Morales Pérez

The purpose of this paper is to explore the analysis of the potential contribution of festivals in generating a destination image through social media (particularly Twitter).

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the analysis of the potential contribution of festivals in generating a destination image through social media (particularly Twitter).

Design/methodology/approach

This study follows a multi-method approach by recollecting, analyzing and mixing quantitative and qualitative techniques. The authors focus on the case of Vic (Spain), analyzing the destination’s image as projected by different users (administration, private sector, particular users, residents) on Twitter in relation to an international musical festival, El Mercat de Música Viva de Vic (the Vic Live Music Market).

Findings

From a theoretical perspective, the study’s results advocate a reconsideration of the role of social media in the processes of creating a destination’s image. It is important to take into account the need to perform a specific analysis for each platform and consider how it operates and which stakeholders prevail by weight, by the clusters they pertain to and by their elicited descriptions. In the particular case of Twitter, the image-formation continuum generated by different actors through different sources is present here on one single platform.

Research limitations/implications

This study is limited in terms of being based on only one social media site, and it would be very interesting to complement it by analyzing other relevant social media platforms.

Practical implications

From a practical point of view, this presents a challenge to destination managers to learn how to work on each specific platform in order to oversee the different destination visions and their resources.

Originality/value

From the results, the authors affirm that destination-branding analyses now need a platform-specific approach as well as an in-depth stakeholder analysis, since it is no longer possible to separate producers and consumers in brand image creation. Branding is becoming a more inclusive and collaborative process.

Details

International Journal of Event and Festival Management, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1758-2954

Keywords

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