Search results

1 – 10 of over 20000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 18 July 2016

Klen Copic Pucihar, Matjaž Kljun, John Mariani and Alan John Dix

Personal projects are any kind of projects whose management is left to an individual untrained in project management and is greatly influenced by this individual’s…

Abstract

Purpose

Personal projects are any kind of projects whose management is left to an individual untrained in project management and is greatly influenced by this individual’s personal touch. This includes the majority of knowledge workers who daily manage information relating to several personal projects. The authors have conducted an in-depth qualitative investigation on information management of such projects and the tacit knowledge behind its processes that cannot be found in the organisational structures of current personal information management (PIM) tools (file managers, e-mail clients, web browsers). The purpose of this paper is to reveal and understand project information management practices in details and provide guidelines for personal project management tools.

Design/methodology/approach

Semi-structured interviews similar to that in several other PIM exploratory studies were carried out focusing on project fragmentation, information overlap and project context recreation. In addition, the authors enhanced interviews with sketching approach not yet used to study PIM. Sketches were used for articulating things that were not easily expressed through words, they represented a time stamp of a project context in the projects’ lifetime, uncovered additional tacit knowledge behind project information management not mentioned during the interviews, and were also used to find what they have in common which might be used in prototype designing.

Findings

The paper presents first personal project definition based on the conceptualisations derived from the study. The study revealed that the extensive information fragmentation in the file hierarchy (due to different organisational needs and ease of information access) poses a significant challenge to context recreation besides cross-tool fragmentation so far described in the literature. The study also reveals the division of project information into core and support and emphasises the importance of support information in relation to project goals. Other findings uncover the division of input/output information, project overlaps through information reuse, storytelling and visualising information relations, which could help with user modelling and enhancing project context recreation.

Research limitations/implications

On of the limitations is the group of participants that cannot represent the ideally generalised knowledge worker as there are many different kinds of knowledge workers and they all have different information needs besides different management practices. However, participants of variety of different backgrounds were observed and the authors converged observations into points of project information management similarities across the spectrum of different professions. Nevertheless, its observations and conceptualisations should be repeatable. For one, some of the issues that emerged during this work have been to different extents discussed in other studies.

Practical implications

The empirical findings are used to create guidelines for designing personal project information management tools: support the selective focus on information with the division into core and supportive information; visualise changes in project information space to support narratives for context recreation; overcome fragmentation in the file system with selective unification; visualising project’s information relationship to better understand the complexity of project information space; and support navigating in project information space on two axes: time and between projects (overlaps through information).

Originality/value

The study presents a longitudinal insight into personal project information management. As such it provides a first formal definition of personal project from the information point of view. The method used in the study presented uses a new approach – sketching in which participants externalised and visualised personal information and projects they discussed. The insights derived from the study form design implications for personal project management tools for knowledge workers.

Details

Aslib Journal of Information Management, vol. 68 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-3806

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 20 July 2020

Mayssa Kalach, Mohamed-Asem Abdul-Malak and Issam Srour

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the impact of schedule compression under alternative project delivery methods (APDMs) on the design information release (DIR). The…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to analyse the impact of schedule compression under alternative project delivery methods (APDMs) on the design information release (DIR). The objectives are to understand the dynamics and the respective implications of the DIR under alternative design-construction (DC) modes (e.g. fast-track).

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology of work includes: (1) identifying the relevant factors that may impact the release of design deliverables under APDMs, (2) representing the selected APDMs with corresponding DC sequencing modes and (3) conceptualizing the possible alternative dynamics of the released deliverables.

Findings

The findings reveal that in contrast to the traditional one-time packaging of design deliverables, multiple DIR – with less certainty on their scope, timing, frequency and coordination quality – are released under alternative DC modes. This uncertainty mainly emanates from the deduced impact of the identified factors (e.g. DC overlapping intensity and degree of pressure by the builder) on the design deliverables dynamics.

Practical implications

This study can be of benefit to Architecture/Engineering (A/E) professionals as well as to project owners in better planning for their roles and responsibilities under each of the identified modes, as it helps raising their awareness on new issues brought about by APDMs. For instance, the presented analysis indirectly informs designers, design review professionals and project owners about a potentially increased liability exposure emanating from the reduced certainty on the DIR's coordination quality. Moreover, it informs design managers about the need for a design team's re-formation and/or re-structuring (i.e. of the involved staff) in order to accommodate for the hypothesized DIR dynamics.

Originality/value

This work offers a novel study that theorizes the impact of time-reduction-related factors, under alternative DC modes, on the release of design deliverables.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 18 February 2019

Purva Mujumdar and J. Uma Maheswari

The design phase is generally characterized with two-way multiple information exchanges/overlaps between the interdependent entities. In this paper, entity is a generic…

Abstract

Purpose

The design phase is generally characterized with two-way multiple information exchanges/overlaps between the interdependent entities. In this paper, entity is a generic term to represent teams, components, activities or parameters. Existing approaches can either capture a single overlap or lack practical application in representing multiple overlaps. The beeline diagraming method (BDM) network is efficient in representing multiple overlaps for construction projects. However, it considers any entity as indivisible and cannot distinguish partial criticality of entities. In reality, the design phase in any construction project is driven by need basis and often has numerous interruptions. Hence, there is a need to develop an alternate network analysis for BDM for interruptible execution. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

A pilot study is conducted to formulate the hypothetical examples. Subsequently, these hypothetical BDM examples are analyzed to trace a pattern for criticality. This pattern study along with the existing precedence diagramming method network analysis enabled to derive new equations for forward pass, backward pass and float. Finally, the proposed concepts are applied to two design cases and reviewed with the design experts.

Findings

The proposed network analysis for BDM is efficient for interruptible entity execution.

Practical implications

The proposed BDM network is an information-intensive network that enables the design participants to view the project holistically. Application to two distinct cases emphasizes that the concept is generic and can be applied to any project that is characterized with beelines.

Originality/value

An alternate network analysis for BDM is investigated for interruptible entity execution. This study also clarifies the related concepts – interdependency, iteration, overlaps and multiple information exchanges/linkages.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 26 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 January 1996

PETER INGWERSEN

The objective of the paper is to amalgamate theories of text retrieval from various research traditions into a cognitive theory for information retrieval interaction. Set…

Abstract

The objective of the paper is to amalgamate theories of text retrieval from various research traditions into a cognitive theory for information retrieval interaction. Set in a cognitive framework, the paper outlines the concept of polyrepresentation applied to both the user's cognitive space and the information space of IR systems. The concept seeks to represent the current user's information need, problem state, and domain work task or interest in a structure of causality. Further, it implies that we should apply different methods of representation and a variety of IR techniques of different cognitive and functional origin simultaneously to each semantic full‐text entity in the information space. The cognitive differences imply that by applying cognitive overlaps of information objects, originating from different interpretations of such objects through time and by type, the degree of uncertainty inherent in IR is decreased. Polyrepresentation and the use of cognitive overlaps are associated with, but not identical to, data fusion in IR. By explicitly incorporating all the cognitive structures participating in the interactive communication processes during IR, the cognitive theory provides a comprehensive view of these processes. It encompasses the ad hoc theories of text retrieval and IR techniques hitherto developed in mainstream retrieval research. It has elements in common with van Rijsbergen and Lalmas' logical uncertainty theory and may be regarded as compatible with that conception of IR. Epistemologically speaking, the theory views IR interaction as processes of cognition, potentially occurring in all the information processing components of IR, that may be applied, in particular, to the user in a situational context. The theory draws upon basic empirical results from information seeking investigations in the operational online environment, and from mainstream IR research on partial matching techniques and relevance feedback. By viewing users, source systems, intermediary mechanisms and information in a global context, the cognitive perspective attempts a comprehensive understanding of essential IR phenomena and concepts, such as the nature of information needs, cognitive inconsistency and retrieval overlaps, logical uncertainty, the concept of ‘document’, relevance measures and experimental settings. An inescapable consequence of this approach is to rely more on sociological and psychological investigative methods when evaluating systems and to view relevance in IR as situational, relative, partial, differentiated and non‐linear. The lack of consistency among authors, indexers, evaluators or users is of an identical cognitive nature. It is unavoidable, and indeed favourable to IR. In particular, for full‐text retrieval, alternative semantic entities, including Salton et al.'s ‘passage retrieval’, are proposed to replace the traditional document record as the basic retrieval entity. These empirically observed phenomena of inconsistency and of semantic entities and values associated with data interpretation support strongly a cognitive approach to IR and the logical use of polyrepresentation, cognitive overlaps, and both data fusion and data diffusion.

Details

Journal of Documentation, vol. 52 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0022-0418

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 7 June 2013

Thang Le Dinh, Louis Rinfret, Louis Raymond and Bich‐Thuy Dong Thi

The purpose of this paper is to propose an intelligent infrastructure for the reconciliation of knowledge management and e‐collaboration systems.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose an intelligent infrastructure for the reconciliation of knowledge management and e‐collaboration systems.

Design/methodology/approach

Literature on e‐collaboration, information management, knowledge management, learning process, and intellectual capital is mobilised in order to build the conceptual framework.

Findings

This paper presents a conceptual framework including a set of concepts and guidelines that can be used to specify an efficient knowledge infrastructure for networked enterprises.

Research limitations/implications

Results from this study uphold the emerging research area of knowledge management in e‐collaboration systems. The proposed framework derived purely from theory and conceptual analysis; more work needs to be done in order to validate and experiment with the framework. Future research remains be carried out to apply the framework on a broader scale, and in particular to determine its applicability relative to various collaboration patterns and current technology development.

Practical implications

Results from this study are important for networked enterprises, especially knowledge‐intensive enterprises, who intend to build e‐collaboration systems to organize their knowledge base and to share it with their partners.

Originality/value

This paper is one of the first to address collaborative knowledge management in e‐collaboration systems with a focus on the promotion of learning process and the creation of intellectual capital.

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 17 April 2019

Ziwei Wang and Ehsan Rezazadeh Azar

Project schedules have a vital role in the effective management of time, cost, scope and resources in construction projects, and creating schedules requires schedulers…

Abstract

Purpose

Project schedules have a vital role in the effective management of time, cost, scope and resources in construction projects, and creating schedules requires schedulers with construction knowledge and experience. The increase in the complexity of building projects and the emergence of building information modeling (BIM) in the architecture, engineering and construction industry have encouraged researchers to explore BIM capabilities for automated schedule generation. The scope and capabilities of the developed systems, however, are limited and the link between design and scheduling is still underdeveloped. This paper aims to investigate methods to develop a BIM-based framework to automatically generate schedules for concrete-framed buildings.

Design/methodology/approach

This system first extracts the required data from the building information model, including elements’ dimensions, quantities, spatial information, materials and other related attributes. It then applies construction rules, prior knowledge and production rate data to create project work-packages, calculate their durations and determine their relationships. Finally, it organizes these results into a schedule using project management software.

Findings

This system provides an automated and easy-to-use approach to generate schedules for concrete-framed buildings that are modeled in a BIM platform. It provides two schedules for each project, both a sequential and an overlapped solution, which the schedulers can modify into a practical schedule based on conditions and available resources.

Originality/value

This research project presents an innovative approach to use BIM-based attributes of structural elements to develop list of work-packages and estimate their durations, and then it uses a combination of rule-based and case-based reasoning to generate the schedules.

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 21 August 2007

Sangdon Lee and Ik Sung Lim

The vehicle development process (VDP) is iterative in nature with numerous interactions and information flows between design groups and between development phases. The VDP…

Abstract

The vehicle development process (VDP) is iterative in nature with numerous interactions and information flows between design groups and between development phases. The VDP has been changed from a sequential‐functional development to a concurrent‐team based approach. Concurrent execution of design activities may reduce the development lead‐time, but it increases the managerial complexity in the VDP. A system dynamics model was developed to understand the transient behavior of parallel, overlap, and sequential processes in the VDP and to determine the optimal level of overlapping considering the development lead‐time and total number of reworks. The simulation results showed that different execution processes should be used, depending upon the intensity of reworks.

Details

Asian Journal on Quality, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1598-2688

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 8 April 2005

Petri Suomala

The essential investments in new product development (NPD) made by industrial companies entail effective management of NPD activities. In this context, performance…

Abstract

The essential investments in new product development (NPD) made by industrial companies entail effective management of NPD activities. In this context, performance measurement is one of the means that can be employed in the pursuit of effectiveness.

Details

Managing Product Innovation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-311-2

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 July 1994

C.S. Agnes Cheng, D. Kite and R. Radtke

Capital budgeting plays an essential role in a firm's long‐term viability and survival. The capital budgeting process includes: identification of potential projects

Abstract

Capital budgeting plays an essential role in a firm's long‐term viability and survival. The capital budgeting process includes: identification of potential projects, prediction of possible outcomes, project selection, financing and implementation of the chosen project, and monitoring project performance (Mukherjee and Henderson, 1987). Although economic considerations should govern the capital budgeting decision, individual opinions and preferences often become primary factors affecting project selection.

Details

Managerial Finance, vol. 20 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0307-4358

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 March 2005

Bernard Kahane and Tzvi Raz

Based on an Israeli innovation incubators program, aims to describe a procedure to define relevant categories in order to reduce the complexity of representing the…

Abstract

Purpose

Based on an Israeli innovation incubators program, aims to describe a procedure to define relevant categories in order to reduce the complexity of representing the population of projects supported by an innovation program in a meaningful way.

Design/methodology/approach

Provides a concise description of the Israeli innovation incubators program and presents the characteristics of the data available. Introduces the analysis methodology and describes in detail its application to the specific data set and the classification scheme that it induces. Discusses the information that can be obtained based on this classification, and outlines some policy implications. Concludes with remarks regarding possible applications and extensions of the methodology.

Findings

Finds that the classification induced by the iterative category exclusion (ICE) procedure can serve as the basis for more sophisticated analysis using statistical tools such as regression analysis. Once the relevant categorization is obtained, it becomes easier to collect meaningful data about incubator performance for analysis at various levels of aggregation. The ICE procedure has the advantage that it does not give a priori preference to any category or to any relationship between categories, and does not require a priori identification of the categories that are to be kept and those that are to be deleted. Further, it does not need to classify categories under headings such as “scientific and technological” on the one side, and “sector applications” on the other. Both are seen as equal from the beginning to the end and thus avoid any bias in the process. The subjectivity inherent in the selection process is reduced, perhaps even eliminated. The same values provided the basis for the identification and quantification of overlap and proximities between the final categories, throwing some light on their mutual dependencies and interactions and leading to a level of representation from which strategic assessment and thinking can start.

Originality/value

The core principle of ICE is to eliminate categories that do not convey sufficient information to justify the additional complexity. This principle is universal and can be applied to a wide variety of situations that suffer from too much data and not enough information.

Details

European Journal of Innovation Management, vol. 8 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1460-1060

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 20000