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Article
Publication date: 18 July 2008

Pablo Gonzalo Ramirez and Toyohiko Hachiya

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate which strategic resources or industry structural conditions help firms build up a competitive advantage and sustain it over time.

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate which strategic resources or industry structural conditions help firms build up a competitive advantage and sustain it over time.

Design/methodology/approach

Our approach is based on one main variable. Firm‐specific profits (proxy for competitive advantage) were estimated as the difference between a firm's profits and the average profitability of its industry. From it, two measures of firm performance were estimated, the firm‐specific projected profitability (FSPP) and the persistence of firm‐specific profits (FSPPe) which were used two split the sample in two type of firms, out performers and underperformers.

Findings

The results suggested that FSPPe and FSPP are two different indicators of firms' performance and may not be influenced by the same factors. The results show that neither the FSPPe nor its sustainability is explained through strategic resources.

Practical implications

While intangible investments might help firms build up a competitive advantage, these might not help to preserve it.

Research limitations/implications

Further examination on unobserved strategic factors should help gain better understandings of what makes out performers earn/sustain higher level of profits over time.

Originality/value

Investments on certain strategic resources above industry average can lock firms into persistent competitive disadvantages.

Details

Management Research News, vol. 31 no. 9
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 29 October 2014

Scott Carter

This chapter argues that the Marxian theory of exploitation underlies the concepts of surplus and deficit industries that appear in Sraffa’s (1960) Production of

Abstract

This chapter argues that the Marxian theory of exploitation underlies the concepts of surplus and deficit industries that appear in Sraffa’s (1960) Production of Commodities by Means of Commodities. This is seen from archival research of the unpublished papers of Piero Sraffa housed at the Wren Library, Trinity College, University of Cambridge. There it is shown that the origin of these concepts lies in the Marxian theory of exploitation that Sraffa developed regarding the notion of the ‘pool of profits’ the Italian economist utilized over a 14-year period from 1942 to 1956. The chapter engages in an extensive textual study of the archival evidence and then presents a simple analytical model of these relations.

Details

Research in Political Economy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-007-0

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 18 December 2016

Jade Wong, Andreas Ortmann, Alberto Motta and Le Zhang

Policymakers worldwide have proposed a new contract – the ‘social impact bond’ (SIB) – which they claim can allay the underperformance afflicting not-for-profits, by tying…

Abstract

Policymakers worldwide have proposed a new contract – the ‘social impact bond’ (SIB) – which they claim can allay the underperformance afflicting not-for-profits, by tying the private returns of (social) investors to the success of social programs. We investigate experimentally how SIBs perform in a first-best world, where investors are rational and able to obtain hard information on not-for-profits’ performance. Using a principal-agent multitasking framework, we compare SIBs to inputs-based contracts (IBs) and performance-based contracts (PBs). IBs are based on a piece-rate mechanism, PBs on a non-binding bonus mechanism, and SIBs on a mechanism that, due to the presence of an investor, offers full enforceability. Although SIBs can perfectly enforce good behaviour, they also require the principal (i.e., government) to relinquish control over the agent’s (i.e., not-for-profit’s) payoff to a self-regarding investor, which prevents the principal and agent from being reciprocal. In spite of these drawbacks, in our experiment SIBs outperformed IBs and PBs. We therefore conclude that, at least in our laboratory test-bed, SIBs can allay the underperformance of not-for-profits.

Details

Experiments in Organizational Economics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78560-964-0

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 29 April 2013

Jose´ A. Tapia Granados

Theories of the business cycle can be classified into two main groups, exogenous and endogenous, according to the way they explain economic fluctuations – either as…

Abstract

Theories of the business cycle can be classified into two main groups, exogenous and endogenous, according to the way they explain economic fluctuations – either as responses of the economy to factors that are external (exogenous shocks) or as upturns and downturns of the economic system internally generated (by endogenous factors). In endogenous theories, investment is generally a key variable to explain the dynamic status of the economy. This essay examines the role of investment in endogenous theories. Two contrasting views on how changes in investment and profitability push the economy towards expansion or contraction are represented by the insights of Kalecki, Keynes, Matthews and Minsky versus those of Marx and Mitchell. Hyman Minsky claimed that investment ‘calls the tune’ to indicate that investment is the only variable not determined by other variables, so that future profits, investment and the dynamic status of the economy are determined by current investment and investment in the near past. However, this hypothesis does not appear to be supported by available empirical data for 251 quarters of the US economy. Statistical evidence rather supports the hypothesis of causality in the direction of profits determining investment and, in this way, leading the economy towards boom or bust.

Details

Contradictions: Finance, Greed, and Labor Unequally Paid
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-671-2

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 7 September 2012

Tay-Cheng Ma

The SCP school prefers to use accounting data for the industry “average” profit rate to measure market power. This article emphasizes that over-reliance on average profit

Abstract

The SCP school prefers to use accounting data for the industry “average” profit rate to measure market power. This article emphasizes that over-reliance on average profit across all firms to infer excess profit might lead to incorrect inferences regarding market power. Based on the conventional insights of Mill, Fawcett, Hobson, and Friedman, this article recommends using the profit rate of the marginal firm (the least efficient firm) as an indicator to measure market power, rather than the industry average profit rate.

Details

Research in Law and Economics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-898-4

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 April 2022

Bart Larivière and Edith G. Smit

Numerous requests to also take care of people (i.e. societal impact) and planet (i.e. environmental impact) in addition to making profits (i.e. economic impact) urge…

Abstract

Purpose

Numerous requests to also take care of people (i.e. societal impact) and planet (i.e. environmental impact) in addition to making profits (i.e. economic impact) urge service firms to rethink their marketing. In this paper, the authors therefore develop an organizing framework that integrates the people–planet–profits – also referred to as the “Triple-P” – concept in the marketing strategy, implementation and evaluation of service firms.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper uses a conceptual approach that is rooted in the service marketing, marketing strategy and communication literature.

Findings

The foundations of marketing strategy (Palmatier and Crecelius, 2019) and the Gaps model of service marketing (Parasuraman et al., 1985) guide both academics and practitioners regarding (1) why the Triple-P idea should be part of a company's marketing strategy, (2) how people and planet could play an important role in the implementation stage by integrating the Triple-P concept in the service marketing mix and (3) what impact could be achieved and evaluated by closing the five gaps identified by the Gaps model, while fostering a people–planet–profits mindset.

Research limitations/implications

The authors also identify areas for future research on this important topic.

Practical implications

Transformative value (people and planet) without profits is not attractive to firms. Profit-making organizations are in the best position to transform the world in a societal and environmental rewarding way.

Social implications

The Triple-P affects the marketing strategy, implementation and evaluation of firms and contributes to a better, sustainable world.

Originality/value

Marketing evolves from traditional over service and digital to transformative. Therefore, it is crucial to embrace transformative challenges in combination with economic returns, resulting in a new sustainable service era for marketers and managers.

Details

Journal of Service Management, vol. 33 no. 4/5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-5818

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 March 2021

Yong Liu, Wenwen Ren, Qian Xu and Zhiyang Liu

This paper aims to deal with the coordination problem of the supply chain through cost sharing of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and government subsidy.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to deal with the coordination problem of the supply chain through cost sharing of corporate social responsibility (CSR) and government subsidy.

Design/methodology/approach

With respect to the coordination problem of the supply chain with CSR, this paper constructs a three-stage game model consisting of a dominant retailer, n suppliers and government. From the perspective of cost sharing and government subsidies, this paper discussed the decentralized and centralized decision-making, respectively. On this basis, this paper designed a coordination mechanism considering both cost sharing and government subsidies and explore the impact of cost sharing rate and government subsidy rate on CSR efforts, members’ profits and social welfare.

Findings

CSR can improve the profits of supply chain members and the overall performance of the supply chain. Then the profits of supply chain nodal enterprises will be affected by the fulfillment level of CSR of their partners. Furthermore, excessive CSR will erode the supply chain profits and cause resource waste. High CSR costs often make retailers low CSR effort level, while a high CSR cost sharing rate can reduce the profits of suppliers and the supply chain. In addition, excessive government subsidies will lead to the decline of social welfare. Excessive government subsidies will cause the dependence of enterprises and affect their operating efficiency.

Practical implications

The proposed coordination mechanism can effectively do with the coordination problem of the supply chain.

Originality/value

The proposed coordination mechanism considering cost sharing and government subsidies simultaneously can effectively deal with conflict problems and guarantee the supply chain members and the supply chain to maximize their profits and social welfare.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 37 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 November 2018

Junqing Yang and Hong Chen

This paper aims to examine whether rewards incentives of non-state-owned enterprises can settle the matters of motivation lack, strained labor relations and frequent…

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Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine whether rewards incentives of non-state-owned enterprises can settle the matters of motivation lack, strained labor relations and frequent labor-capital conflicts and realize co-win cooperation of workers, enterprises and the society.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on the data of 1,617 questionnaires in 257 enterprises, this research reveals the total rewards factors that affect the labor motivation of non-stated-owned enterprises in China and improve labor productivity by adopting the hierarchical linear regression analysis and multi-group path analysis, and establishes a new model of win-win cooperation between labor and capital and the society through the incentive function of these elements by stimulating the enthusiasm of workers, improving labor productivity, increasing profits, expanding capital accumulation and absorbing labor force.

Findings

The authors have discovered that in general the main incentives that stimulate the enthusiasm of employees are the factors of performance and recognition and development and career opportunity in total rewards. The factor of benefits also has a significant incentive effect on employees in the western area of China, migrant workers with lower education and male employees, but negative effect on the post-1990s employees in non-state-owned enterprises. However, the compensation factor should be used with caution when encouraging employees in eastern region and the post-1980s. The total rewards factors of development and career opportunities and the performance and the recognition and benefits should be used to motivate workers to improve labor productivity, increase corporate profits and absorb more labor force, which is a long-term solution to win-win cooperation between labor and capital and social sustainable development. It is an important way to increase profits and absorb more labor force by increasing employee’s human capital investment and improving labor proficiency of employees under age 45. The conclusions provide new effective management methods for non-state-owned enterprises in China.

Practical implications

As a consequence, it will encourage employees to improve labor productivity and increase profits and thus absorb more labor force, if we use these factors of performance and recognition, development and career opportunity and benefits integratedly, we will find a permanent solution that the two sides of the labor and management and the society enjoy a win-win cooperation.

Originality/value

The research will provide theoretical basis for non-state-owned enterprises to apply a new and effective management style so that we can establish a win-win cooperation between the labor and management. What’s more, the research will develop the Dual Economy Theory of Lewis and the employment theory of Keynes and will also provide a theoretical basis for the realization of Taylor’s harmonious industrial relations.

Details

Nankai Business Review International, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8749

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2013

Thomas E. Vermeer, K. Raghunandan and Dana A. Forgione

Non-profit organizations constitute an important share of the U.S. economy, and recent audit failures and GAO findings highlight the importance of auditor reporting…

Abstract

Non-profit organizations constitute an important share of the U.S. economy, and recent audit failures and GAO findings highlight the importance of auditor reporting decisions in this sector. In this study, we examine going-concern modified audit opinions for non-profit organizations. Using audit opinion data for 3,567 non-profits exhibiting some signs of financial stress, we find that non-profits are more likely to receive a goingconcern modified opinion if they are smaller, are in worse financial condition, expend less on program-related activities, and have more internal control related audit findings. Our analysis of the subsequent resolution of the going-concern uncertainties suggest that only 27 percent of the non-profits receiving an initial going-concern modified audit opinion filed for dissolution in the subsequent four fiscal years. Our findings fill a gap in an important area that has received little research attention, and provide a useful benchmark for non-profits and their auditors.

Details

Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting & Financial Management, vol. 25 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1096-3367

Article
Publication date: 7 August 2009

Stefan D. Cassella

The purpose of this paper is to inform an international audience of the difficulties prosecutors in the USA have encountered in light of a decision of the US Supreme Court…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to inform an international audience of the difficulties prosecutors in the USA have encountered in light of a decision of the US Supreme Court limiting the application of the federal anti‐money laundering statute to cases where a criminal enterprise generated profits.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper summarizes the law in the USA regarding money laundering prosecutions before the decision in the United States v. Santos, outlines the decision of the Supreme Court, and organizes the post‐Santos case law into categories setting forth the divergent views of what the decision means and how it is to be applied.

Findings

The case law in the USA regarding money laundering prosecutions is now quite unsettled. Courts have taken different views as to whether the government must now prove that the funds being laundered by or on behalf of a criminal represent the profits of the criminal enterprise as opposed to its gross receipts.

Research limitations/implications

The case law on this issue continues to develop at a rapid pace. It is necessary to cut off the research on this issue to complete the paper, but the reader should be aware that new cases are being issued in rapid order.

Practical implications

Prosecutors in the USA now face several obstacles in bringing money launderers to justice. Decisions in closed cases may be reopened as defendants argue that their convictions are obtained under an incorrect view of the law. Going forward, prosecutors are uncertain whether the government must prove that a criminal enterprise is profitable before they can obtain a conviction for money laundering.

Originality/value

Prior to Santos, it is assumed that it is an offense to launder the gross receipts of a crime or criminal scheme. Santos cases grave doubt on that assumption, holding that in at least some cases, the laundering offense will apply only where the financial transaction involves the net profits of an offense. This is an object lesson in the confusion that can result from inartful legislative drafting. It also provides a guide to the current state of the law and suggests how prosecutors in the USA are dealing with the problem pending any legislative correction.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

Keywords

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