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Article
Publication date: 6 July 2015

Paulette Cormier-MacBurnie, Wendy Doyle, Peter Mombourquette and Jeffrey D. Young

This paper aims to examine the formal and informal workplace learning of professional chefs. In particular, it considers chefs’ learning strategies and outcomes as well as…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the formal and informal workplace learning of professional chefs. In particular, it considers chefs’ learning strategies and outcomes as well as the barriers to and facilitators of their workplace learning.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology is based on in-depth, face-to-face, semi-structured interviews with 12 executive chefs from a variety of restaurant types. Chefs were asked questions that focused on how they learned, the learning outcomes that they experienced and factors that inhibited or facilitated their learning.

Findings

Findings suggest that the strategies, outcomes, barriers and facilitators experienced by professional chefs are similar in many respects to those of other occupational/professional groups. However, there were some important differences that highlight the context of chefs’ workplace learning.

Research limitations/implications

The sample, which is relatively small and local, focuses on one city in Canada, and it is limited in its generalizability. Future research should include a national survey of professional chefs.

Originality/value

Using a qualitative approach, this in-depth study adds to the literature on workplace learning, strategies, outcomes, barriers, facilitators and context factors by addressing a relatively understudied profession.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. 39 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

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Book part
Publication date: 14 September 2010

Deborah A. Harris and Patti A. Giuffre

Sociologists have documented how women in male-dominated occupations experience subtle and overt forms of discrimination based on gender stereotypes. This study examines…

Abstract

Sociologists have documented how women in male-dominated occupations experience subtle and overt forms of discrimination based on gender stereotypes. This study examines women professional chefs to understand how they perceive and respond to stereotypes claiming women are not good leaders, are too emotional, and are not “cut out” for male-dominated work. Many of our participants resist these stereotypes and believe that their gender has benefited them in their jobs. Using in-depth interviews with women chefs, we show that they utilize essentialist gendered rhetoric to describe how women chefs are better than their male counterparts. While such rhetoric appears to support stereotypes emphasizing “natural” differences between men and women in the workplace, we suggest that women are reframing these discourses into a rhetoric of “feminine strength” wherein women draw from gender differences in ways that benefit them in their workplaces and their careers. Our conclusion discusses the implications of our findings for gender inequality at work.

Details

Gender and Sexuality in the Workplace
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84855-371-2

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Book part
Publication date: 22 August 2016

Alexandra Hendley

Gender, race, and class-based meanings inform longstanding divisions and status hierarchies within the culinary profession, such as those between public and private and…

Abstract

Purpose

Gender, race, and class-based meanings inform longstanding divisions and status hierarchies within the culinary profession, such as those between public and private and amateur and professional cooking. Private and personal chefs’ work in homes disrupts these divisions and hierarchies. Given their precarious position, how do these chefs negotiate their standing within the profession?

Methodology/approach

This chapter draws on interviews with 41 private/personal chefs. Eight were primarily private household employees, while all others were primarily self-employed.

Findings

The chefs negotiated their status by making distinctions between themselves and commercial chefs, along with other private/personal chefs. The chefs both challenge and reinforce the dichotomies and criteria shaping status evaluations within the culinary profession. Similarly, they both contest and reinforce gender, race, and class hierarchies.

Social implications

The chefs’ conceptual distinctions can potentially (re)produce or challenge material inequalities. Moreover, while the fields of private/personal cheffing create opportunities for more adults to cook for a living, the traditional status hierarchies remain largely the same. It is likely that as long as those hierarchies persist, the chefs’ conceptual distinctions will continue to challenge and reinforce them.

Originality/value

Research on private/personal chefs has been minimal, so this chapter fills this gap. It also adds to scholarship connecting workers’ status struggles and gender, race, and class inequalities. The case of private and personal chefs sheds new light on how gender, race, and class intersect to inform status evaluations within the culinary profession.

Details

Gender and Food: From Production to Consumption and After
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-054-1

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Tung-Hsuan Wan, Yun-Shu Hsu, Jehn-Yih Wong and Shin-Hao Liu

Human capital is the most important determinant of the Hospitality industry’s success. Executive chefs should be skilled in both management and culinary arts, in addition…

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1280

Abstract

Purpose

Human capital is the most important determinant of the Hospitality industry’s success. Executive chefs should be skilled in both management and culinary arts, in addition to ensuring the success of the entire hospitality division. The study aims to understand the competencies of executive chefs in international tourist hotels in Taiwan.

Design/methodology/approach

Literature review and behavioral event interviews were conducted with ten executive chefs and executive sous chefs. The modified Delphi method verified the results using 15 experts.

Findings

A competency framework was created, with four quadrants – managerial, operational, behaviors and skills – to classify executive chefs’ competencies. Each competency was further divided into sub-competencies – culinary research, emotional control, negotiation skills, job guidance and proactive thinking ability – for 25 items. Quadrants I and II are hard competencies that can be improved through education and training, whereas the third and fourth are soft competencies that require more time for development in workers.

Practical implications

The two-step study developed a competency framework with a practical reference value. The study results could be utilized by human resources managers during their companies’ training, recruitment, selection and promotion.

Originality/value

Besides the Delphi method, a deep behavioral event interview that enabled determining critical competencies was also used to collect data. The results obtained could be used to structure schools’ curricula. Collaborations between the hospitality industry and schools could help develop better curricula and training plans to maximize the availability of educational resources.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 29 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 7 August 2018

Wen-Jye Shyr, Ya-Ling Pan, Chin-Chung Huang and Shu-Hsuan Chang

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the development of competences for use by professional teppanyaki chefs in food and beverage education in Taiwan.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to focus on the development of competences for use by professional teppanyaki chefs in food and beverage education in Taiwan.

Design/methodology/approach

The research methodology includes the Delphi technique and incorporates interviews with three types of experts: instructors from culinary departments at a university, seasoned teppanyaki professionals and owners of teppanyaki establishments. An analysis of the responses provided by these industry experts led to identification of four dimensions of competences needed by teppanyaki chefs: knowledge, technique, affect and attitude. The K-S test involves using a z-test on ordinal variables for single samples to determine whether the sample distribution diverges from the frequency distribution. The z-score is greater than 1.96 which implies significance and consistency.

Findings

This study analyzed the responses provided by the interviewed experts to identify and extract competences for teppanyaki chefs. The extracted competences comprise four dimensions (knowledge, technique, affect and attitude), 16 work-related tasks and 74 skills items.

Originality/value

This study includes 16 work-related tasks, and 74 competences. The study recommends the establishment of an organization for competence certification to act as the authority for teppanyaki skill certification. Such an organization could utilize the results from this study as a reference, as could culinary departments at vocational institutes as well as other teppanyaki training courses offered in Taiwan.

Details

British Food Journal, vol. 120 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0007-070X

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 1990

Phillip C. Wright

As Europe approaches 1992, there is little evidence thatpara‐professionals are preparing to harmonise certification programmesin readiness for changing trans‐border work…

Abstract

As Europe approaches 1992, there is little evidence that para‐professionals are preparing to harmonise certification programmes in readiness for changing trans‐border work patterns. Using the example of the Canada‐US Free Trade Agreement and its effect on the “service sector”, it is suggested how certification and training for the para‐professions might be effected in Europe, in that different nationalities have been shown to have varying traditions of certification and training.

Details

Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 14 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1987

Lawrence B. Sawyer

How closely does internal audit match the attributes of a profession? In terms of its relatively short history — and in comparison with the longer‐established professions…

Abstract

How closely does internal audit match the attributes of a profession? In terms of its relatively short history — and in comparison with the longer‐established professions — it would seem that in the United States it already meets many of the necessary criteria: public service obligations, training and accreditation, standards of practice, publication and dissemination activities; there is also evidence of employer requirements and practices becoming more exacting. However there is some way to go before full recognition and acceptance as a distinct professional discipline are achieved. One crucial dilemma is over independence, as between loyalty to employers or profession, in situations of conflict. A concept of a management‐oriented service is advocated as one of the most constructive resolutions for future development.

Details

Managerial Auditing Journal, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-6902

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Article
Publication date: 25 November 2020

Evangelia Marinakou and Charalampos Giousmpasoglou

In view to the skills gap challenge in the chefs' occupation, the purpose of this study was to identify the required chefs' skills and competencies for successful careers…

Abstract

Purpose

In view to the skills gap challenge in the chefs' occupation, the purpose of this study was to identify the required chefs' skills and competencies for successful careers in culinary arts management in the UK context.

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative approach was employed with a survey questionnaire on competencies. Data were collected from different stakeholders with 407 valid responses presenting views on necessary competencies and skills to pursue a career in culinary arts.

Findings

This study suggests that professionals in commercial kitchens should demonstrate strong managerial and leadership skills, as well as operational and administrative. Professionalism and democratic management should be exhibited by chefs, who should further develop their emotional intelligence (EI) competency.

Practical implications

Organizations and academic institutions should provide such training to develop managerial and leadership skills that chefs need. Organizations should recruit based on these competencies model. Attention to diversity, equality and different cultures are important. Academic institutions should redesign their curriculum to address the industry's need on chefs' skills and competencies.

Originality/value

This is the first study to investigate chefs' competencies with empirical evidence from professionals, academics and students in the UK context. This study proposes a model with four sets of competencies, namely management, technical, strategic and operational.

Details

Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Insights, vol. 5 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2514-9792

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Article
Publication date: 11 February 2019

Anastasios Zopiatis and Yioula Melanthiou

This paper aims to explore the nature of the celebrity chef phenomenon and its impact on the contemporary hospitality industry, to both enrich current knowledge on the…

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1078

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the nature of the celebrity chef phenomenon and its impact on the contemporary hospitality industry, to both enrich current knowledge on the topic, as well as inform future research endeavors.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was based on a narrative literature review of secondary data sources, namely, academic literature and industry-related articles, and video data collected from popular video-hosting websites.

Findings

Despite the vast popularity of celebrity chefs, the phenomenon remains underexplored, with limited coverage given to it by hospitality-related literature. Prior investigations primarily focused on celebrity chefs’ commercial influence and power of advocacy, with little reference to their impact on the next generation of culinary professionals and on the sustainability of the profession.

Research limitations/implications

This commentary has numerous theoretical and practical implications for industry stakeholders who wish to explore this phenomenon beyond the limited confinements of its commercial impact. In particular, the study explores the nature of the phenomenon, where television, social media and the celebrity status of chefs influence both the values and norms surrounding the profession, and individuals’ vocational choices. That said, findings suggest that additional research is required on this topic.

Originality/value

The exploration of celebrity chefs as a topic has so far been limited and has leaned toward one dimension in hospitality literature, despite its interesting scope. This critical overview provides conceptual clarity on issues such as the phenomenon’s commercial and vocational impact and highlights areas of concern and opportunity. Moreover, the study sets a clear pathway for further research.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 31 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

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Article
Publication date: 4 January 2016

– This paper aims to review the latest management developments across the globe and pinpoint practical implications from cutting-edge research and case studies.

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439

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to review the latest management developments across the globe and pinpoint practical implications from cutting-edge research and case studies.

Design/methodology/approach

This briefing is prepared by an independent writer who adds their own impartial comments and places the articles in context.

Findings

Cooking is big business right now. Television cooking shows are highly popular and this in turn is generating interest in cooking as a pastime. As a result, many professional chefs are becoming celebrities, endorsing products and publishing books. Less obvious is their role as the leader of a team and the driving force behind the development of apprentice chefs. They set the pace and direction of learning in the kitchen and have an important role as a coach and facilitator.

Practical implications

The paper provides strategic insights and practical thinking that have influenced some of the world’s leading organizations.

Originality/value

The briefing saves busy executives and researchers hours of reading time by selecting only the very best, most pertinent information and presenting it in a condensed and easy-to-digest format.

Details

Development and Learning in Organizations: An International Journal, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7282

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