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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2021

Mahipal Singh, Rajeev Rathi and Mahender Singh Kaswan

This paper aims to uncover the significance of capacity, capacity utilization (CU) and its role in the quality and productivity improvement in an industrial environment…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to uncover the significance of capacity, capacity utilization (CU) and its role in the quality and productivity improvement in an industrial environment. Besides, the current study is also aiming to explore the various ways to estimate CU and its status across the world.

Design/methodology/approach

In the present study, a comprehensive literature review on capacity and CU is carried out to expose the research direction in the field of CU. This work is primarily focused on capacity, CU and their estimation methods based on the research in various industries of different countries and current status in present scenario across the world.

Findings

The literature reveals that CU estimation is carried out by some government/central agencies at the national or sector level rather than the industry level in most of the productive nations. As far as industrial growth is concerned, capacity management should be carried out at a particular industry level so that engineering managers can be able to find out loopholes for huge capacity waste within the plant. It is observed that CU in the industrial sectors mainly computed by time series method, survey method, economic approach and engineering approach worldwide.

Research limitations/implications

This paper tries to cover almost all research work in the field of CU in various industrial sectors. However, the organizations which are producing the product with limited demand may get benefit inadequately.

Practical implications

This paper provides a vision to management toward productivity improvement through optimal utilization of available resources. As in most organizations, CU issues are much neglected areas.

Originality/value

This paper provides valuable insights on capacity and CU in the industrial sector across the world. Besides, it focused on comprehensive literature of capacity and various methods to estimate CU in industrial sectors.

Details

World Journal of Engineering, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1708-5284

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Article
Publication date: 20 September 2011

Edward Bbaale

This paper aims to investigate firm‐level interactions between productivity and exporting in Uganda's manufacturing sector.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to investigate firm‐level interactions between productivity and exporting in Uganda's manufacturing sector.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper empirically tested two hypotheses that relate to the dynamic gains from trade and also have tended to dominate the literature; self‐selection and learning‐by‐exporting hypotheses. It employs proxies of self‐selection and learning‐by‐exporting obtained from indices of path dependence to fit maximum likelihood estimates of export behavior.

Findings

The results provide support for both hypotheses and it is also found that more experienced exporters reap more productivity gains from learning effects which is in line with the view that knowledge spillovers to exporting firms increase with the level of interaction in the global market place. Thus, learning‐by‐exporting is not a “short term” occurrence which takes place only in the first few years of entry in export markets after which it would fizzle out as a firm's exporting experience increases but rather, it is a cumulative process.

Practical implications

This paper generates a number of insights that can guide policy makers in designing policies to promote firm productivity growth that is an engine of growth in the private sector and by extension, would fuel up overall economic growth and poverty reduction.

Originality/value

Previous studies on exports and growth in Uganda have been basically focused on macro‐data analysis; yet, promoting rapid expansion of manufactured exports may require more than just a good macroeconomic policy environment. This study fills the research gap by relating firm‐level productivity performance to the microeconomic environment in which manufacturing firms operate.

Details

African Journal of Economic and Management Studies, vol. 2 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-0705

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Book part
Publication date: 9 March 2021

Md Rakibul Hasan, Pinki Bera and Mihir Kumar Pal

Total factor productivity growth (TFPG) is not only the technological progress. It is a boarder concept. It may be the increase in the productivity of inputs, economies of…

Abstract

Total factor productivity growth (TFPG) is not only the technological progress. It is a boarder concept. It may be the increase in the productivity of inputs, economies of scale, capacity utilization, technological progress, etc. In this study, we have tried to estimate TFPG and its components for the manufacturing industries of West Bengal and overall India, for the period 1980–1981 to 2016–2017, using stochastic frontier approach. The main data source of this study is the Annual Survey of Industries (ASI), which is published by the Central Statistical Organization, Government of India. The entire period has been sub-divided into two phases; pre-World Trade Organization (WTO) regime (1980–1981 to 1995–1996) and post-WTO regime (1995–1996 to 2016–2017). This study also tries to make a comparative analysis between the TFPG of manufacturing sector of West Bengal and all India level for the time period mentioned above. For West Bengal, TFPG has decreased for the post-WTO regime and it has increased in post-WTO regime for overall.

Details

Global Tariff War: Economic, Political and Social Implications
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-314-7

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Article
Publication date: 16 May 2016

Le Ma, Chunlu Liu and Anthony Mills

Understanding and simulating construction activities is a vital issue from a macro-perspective, since construction is an important contributor in economic development…

Abstract

Purpose

Understanding and simulating construction activities is a vital issue from a macro-perspective, since construction is an important contributor in economic development. Although the construction labor productivity frontier has attracted much research effort, the temporal and regional characteristics have not yet been explored. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the long-run equilibrium and dynamics within construction development under a conditional frontier context.

Design/methodology/approach

Analogous to the simplified production function, this research adopts the conditional frontier theory to investigate the convergence of construction labor productivity across regions and over time. Error correction models are implemented to identify the long-run equilibrium and dynamics of construction labor productivity against three types of convergence hypotheses, while a panel regression method is used to capture the regional heterogeneity. The developed models are applied to investigate and simulate the construction labor productivity in the Australian states and territories.

Findings

The results suggest that construction labor productivity in Australia should converge to stable frontiers in a long-run perspective. The dynamics of the productivity are mainly caused by the technology utilization efficiency levels of the local construction industry, while the influences of changes in technology level and capital depending appear limited. Five regional clusters of the Australian construction labor productivity are suggested by the simulation results, including New South Wales; Australian Capital Territory; Northern Territory, Queensland, and Western Australia; South Australia; and Tasmania and Victoria.

Originality/value

Three types of frontier of construction labor productivity is proposed. An econometric approach is developed to identify the convergence frontier of construction labor productivity across regions over time. The specified model can provides accurate predictions of the construction labor productivity.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 23 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 20 November 2020

Himanshu Seth, Saurabh Chadha, Satyendra Kumar Sharma and Namita Ruparel

This study develops an integrated approach combining data envelopment analysis (DEA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) for estimating the working capital management…

Abstract

Purpose

This study develops an integrated approach combining data envelopment analysis (DEA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) for estimating the working capital management (WCM) efficiency and evaluating the effects of diverse exogenous variables on the WCM efficiency and firms' performance.

Design/methodology/approach

DEA is applied for deriving WCM efficiency for 212 Indian manufacturing firms over a period from 2008 to 2019. Also, the effect of human capital (HC), structural capital (SC), cost of external financing (CEF), interest coverage (IC), leverage (LEV), net fixed asset ratio (NFA), asset turnover ratio (ATR) and productivity (PRD) on the WCM efficiency and firms' performance is examined using SEM.

Findings

The average mean efficiency scores ranging from 0.623 to 0.654 highlight the firms operating at around 60% of WCM efficiency only, which is a major concern for Indian manufacturing firms. Further, IC, LEV, NFA, ATR revealed direct effect on the WCM efficiency as well as indirect effect on firms' performance, whereas CEF had only a direct effect on WCM efficiency. HC, SC and PRD had no effects on WCM efficiency and firms' performance.

Practical implications

The findings offer vital insights in guiding policy decisions for Indian manufacturing firms.

Originality/value

This study is the first to identify the endogenous nature of the relationship of HC, SC, CEF, IC altogether with firms' performance, compounded by the WCM efficiency, by applying a comprehensive methodology of DEA and SEM and provides an efficiency performance model for better decision-making.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

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Book part
Publication date: 30 January 2013

Carl le Grand and Michael Tåhlin

Economic inequality in contemporary advanced societies is strongly tied to the variation in wages across occupations. We examine the extent to which this variation is…

Abstract

Economic inequality in contemporary advanced societies is strongly tied to the variation in wages across occupations. We examine the extent to which this variation is captured by social class and occupational prestige and ask how the associations between class, prestige, and wages can be explained. On the basis of data from 11 countries in the European Social Survey (ESS) 2004, we find (a) that class and prestige account for a very large proportion of the occupational variation in wages; (b) that the tight links between class, prestige, and wages are strongly associated with the skill requirements of jobs but only weakly tied to other positional traits, including authority, autonomy, and scarcity; and (c) that these findings are highly similar in all countries examined. We conclude that the rank order of positions in the labor market is a social constant driven by efficiency requirements of work organizations rather than by the exercise of power. This iron law of labor market inequality clearly contradicts major class theoretical models, including Wright's and Goldthorpe's. In addition to empirically refuting contemporary class theory, we offer a number of more conceptual arguments to the same effect. At a macro level, however, power relations arguably affect the rate of economic inequality by determining the reward distance between positions in the constant rank order, as indicated by the large cross-national variation in wage dispersion.

Details

Class and Stratification Analysis
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-537-1

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Article
Publication date: 30 September 2014

Antonis Skouloudis, Athanasios Chymis, Stuart Allan and Konstantinos Evangelinos

The purpose of this paper is to outline a set of propositions for the Greek business sector concerning the value of strategically adopting a responsible business…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to outline a set of propositions for the Greek business sector concerning the value of strategically adopting a responsible business behaviour. The recent economic downturn of the Greek economy stresses the need for redefining current business models, attitudes and practices.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors draw from prior literature on strategic corporate responsibility and build their arguments on the value of social responsibility as an important component of an exit strategy from the domestic economic crisis.

Findings

Promoting the social responsibility of business could yield win–win opportunities for Greek firms and have a positive effect on the regeneration of the national economy’s dynamics. Connecting the well-established strategic CSR literature with the specific handicaps of an economy under pressure, we point out that the current deep crisis can be alleviated by regaining the trustworthiness, supporting the competitiveness potential and enhancing the extroversion of the Greek economy.

Practical implications

Strategic options from which policymakers and managers can endorse the development of a CSR agenda as an exit strategy component are set forth. Such practical implications pertain to the creation of an enabling environment for strategic CSR implementation, an emphasis on CSR-related amelioration of competitiveness parameters and a redefinition of market orientation of domestic firms under the scope of socially responsible business behaviour.

Originality/value

An economic–business environment under extreme pressure is discussed; problems relevant to the Greek case are outlined while a new approach in the way of doing business is proposed.

Details

Social Responsibility Journal, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-1117

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Book part
Publication date: 28 February 2017

Roger R. Stough

Abstract

Details

Handbook of Logistics and Supply-Chain Management
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-8572-4563-2

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2004

Christopher Ryder Jones

Gulf Bank’s service excellence “scorecard” was developed to support the Bank’s delivery of superior service in its market sector. The “scorecard” provides focus for a…

Abstract

Gulf Bank’s service excellence “scorecard” was developed to support the Bank’s delivery of superior service in its market sector. The “scorecard” provides focus for a “service excellence” program, setting standards and measuring performance against customer focused objectives. The approach identified the “drivers” of customer satisfaction, related these to the Bank’s service delivery channels, set performance standards, and implemented measurement and reporting systems embracing external customer feedback and internal process measurements. Performance was measured against 16 key “drivers” of customer satisfaction identified independently by the local industry institute and related to the Bank’s delivery channels (branches, ATMs, telephone, Internet). Key measures were: customer satisfaction, complaints, comments and attrition, plus internal process delivery performance for critical products (consumer loans and credit card services). Reports were produced weekly and monthly with “drill downs” from bank to individual branch and/or employee levels. Reports are reviewed by management from chairman down to branch manager level. Results are incorporated in business KPIs and have become factors in employee incentive schemes. The approach adopted by the bank demonstrated that a practical, comprehensive service quality management system could be implemented and used to drive service improvement. The approach can be adopted by other banks and financial institutions and adapted to the needs of other service industries. The process implemented by Gulf Bank is believed to be unique in the Kuwait banking community and has scope for application in many similar environments outside the local area.

Details

Measuring Business Excellence, vol. 8 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-3047

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Article
Publication date: 31 December 2007

Bertram Tan, Hae‐Ching Chang and Chen‐Kuo Lee

This paper aims to examine empirically the relationships among industry environment, diversification motivations and corporate performance for a sample of Taiwanese…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine empirically the relationships among industry environment, diversification motivations and corporate performance for a sample of Taiwanese automobile enterprises.

Design/methodology/approach

A 55‐item survey questionnaire was developed to obtain the responses from companies in the automobile industry in Taiwan. Independent sample t‐test and χ2 tests were employed to confirm the homogeneity between the respondents and non‐respondents by firm's characteristics, including by industry, number of employees, and capital.

Findings

The results suggest that industry environment has positive and significant impact on diversification motivations, and has positive but not significant impact on corporate performance. Diversification motivations has positive and significant impact on corporate performance. The results also indicate that firms of higher capital amounts have greater influence on diversification motivations and corporate performance, firms of publicly listed have greater influence on industry environment, diversification motivations and corporate performance and firms of higher degree of diversification have greater influence on diversification motivations only.

Research limitations/implications

Several limitations exist in this study. This study adopts the cross‐sectional research design and examines firms at one point time and because of the constraints of time and data availability, longitudinal research was not viable in this study. Also the amount of variation for some regression models is low.

Originality/value

The paper's results not only provide researchers with a theoretical basis for further research, but also provide top management teams with important data when engaging in diversification.

Details

International Journal of Commerce and Management, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1056-9219

Keywords

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