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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2020

Reza Fazli-Salehi, Ivonne M. Torres, Rozbeh Madadi and Miguel Ángel Zúñiga

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of country affinity, ethnocentrism and product quality judgment on self-brand connection regarding both domestic and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of country affinity, ethnocentrism and product quality judgment on self-brand connection regarding both domestic and foreign brands.

Design/methodology/approach

The study involved an online experiment and was conducted using online questionnaires. Sampling was done among undergraduate students of a Southwestern university in the US. The data was analyzed using SEM with PLS.

Findings

The results showed, for foreign brands, consumer self-brand connection increased through the effect of country affinity and product quality judgment. For domestic brands, self-brand connection was influenced by ethnocentrism (and not country affinity or product quality judgment).

Research limitations/implications

This study only focused on one industry (i.e. Television industry), and the authors recommend future studies examine a broader range of industries. Moreover, other country related constructs such as national identity need to be examined in future studies.

Practical implications

Marketers focusing on global branding and international marketing can benefit from the findings of this paper by understanding the routes through which consumers build self-brand connections in foreign vs domestic settings. Additionally, marketers can, more effectively, invest their resources by focusing on the factors that can be influential (i.e. ethnocentrism for domestic brands vs country affinity and product judgment for foreign brands).

Originality/value

This study examines the effect of country affinity, ethnocentrism and product quality judgment for consumers' domestic country as well as a foreign country. Moreover, this study contributes toward the global branding literature by incorporating self-brand connection as a behavioral outcome.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 31 July 2009

Mei Rose, Gregory M. Rose and Aviv Shoham

This paper aims to highlight the importance of examining sub‐cultural attitudes when assessing the animosity of individuals from one nation toward the products of other nations.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to highlight the importance of examining sub‐cultural attitudes when assessing the animosity of individuals from one nation toward the products of other nations.

Design/methodology/approach

The context chosen, Arab and Jewish Israelis' attitudes toward the UK and Italy, provides a strong setting to test the influence of animosity on product judgments and willingness to purchase products from these nations. Attitudes toward British and Italian products were collected in shopping malls and community centers in middle class neighborhoods in Northern Israel. A total of 112 Arab Israeli and 111 Jewish Israeli consumers were sampled.

Findings

Both animosity and consumer ethnocentrism led to a decreased willingness to purchase a nation's products. Arab Israelis felt more animosity toward the UK than Jewish Israelis, which negatively impacted their product judgments of British products.

Originality/value

Previous research on the impact of animosity on foreign products has generally looked at nations as a whole, examined contexts where animosity was fairly distant (e.g. Chinese animosity toward Japan from the second world war), and found that animosity does not affect product judgments. The paper examines a more immediate context (current attitudes among Arab and Jewish Israelis), highlights the importance of considering subcultures when studying animosity, and finds that animosity can and does affect the product judgments of foreign products when felt animosity is strong.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 26 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 26 April 2013

Richard Lee and Kyung Tae Lee

Consumer animosity is often used to explain consumers' boycott of products from a foreign country in a dispute. However, these studies are mainly cross‐sectional. The…

Abstract

Purpose

Consumer animosity is often used to explain consumers' boycott of products from a foreign country in a dispute. However, these studies are mainly cross‐sectional. The purpose of this paper is to investigate temporal changes in two distinct consumer‐animosity dimensions – i.e. historical and contemporary – and their influences on judgment of and willingness‐to‐buy foreign products.

Design/methodology/approach

Sampling came from a mall‐intercept survey in Japan during the height of a recent Japan‐China dispute (n=139), followed by a similar survey six months later (n=157). Identical questionnaires tapped Japanese consumers' historical animosity (HA), contemporary animosity (CA) and ethnocentrism dispositions, and judgment of and willingness to buy Chinese products. The data were fitted using structural equation modelling.

Findings

The results indicate that both CA and HA lowered willingness to buy Chinese products during, but not after, the dispute. CA was consistently stronger than HA in influencing willingness to buy. By contrast, product judgment did not influence willingness to buy during the dispute. That is, animosity dispositions overshadowed objective product evaluation during the dispute. After the dispute, only product judgment directly influenced willingness to buy, and HA indirectly influenced willingness to buy via product judgment. CA weakened after the dispute, but HA remained stable over time. Product judgment was lower during the dispute. Consumer ethnocentrism interacted only with CA during but not after the dispute.

Practical implications

International dispute heightens the salience of present‐day issues such as unemployment rather than of historical conflicts. Although product judgment was affected, the downside to foreign firms is temporary. Domestic firms can only take short‐term advantage, but long‐term edge remains improving product judgment.

Originality/value

Despite extensive research into the influence of consumer animosity on consumer behaviour, surprisingly little research has attempted to investigate the temporal characteristics of the consumer animosity, let alone investigate its distinct dimensions. In this study, the authors attempt to show that unless one considers the potential temporal changes to individual consumer‐animosity dimensions, sweeping conclusions from single‐shot studies may yield an incomplete picture and even misguide managerial initiatives.

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Article
Publication date: 8 September 2021

Jiangang Du, Danhui Li, Yuxuan Zhao and Mengya Yang

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of transparency on consumers' judgment and decision-making.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the influence of transparency on consumers' judgment and decision-making.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses an experimental research design in which participants' negative emotions dynamically change driven by group emotional interactions when they are experiencing a group complaint.

Findings

The experimental results show that compared with opaque products, transparent products make consumers rely more on emotions to make judgments and decisions (Experiment 1). It is precise because transparency increases the influence of emotion on consumers' judgment and decision-making that positive emotion makes consumers' evaluation and willingness to pay higher, while negative emotion makes consumers' evaluation and willingness to pay lower (Experiments 2 and 3). Transparency will also affect consumers' subsequent judgment and decision-making methods, so they are more inclined to choose the option with the dominant emotional dimension (Experiment 4).

Originality/value

Previous studies mainly focus on the impact of transparent packaging on consumers and discuss the impact of transparent packaging on consumer product evaluation and consumption quantity. This study proves that product-related transparent elements can also affect consumers' decision-making methods, making them more dependent on emotions to make decisions, enriching the research on the influencing factors of consumer decision-making methods.

Details

Journal of Contemporary Marketing Science, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2516-7480

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Article
Publication date: 11 April 2016

Yoel Asseraf and Aviv Shoham

While globalization has made it easier to consume foreign products, consumption decisions are rarely straightforward. Both love and hate relationships between consumers…

Abstract

Purpose

While globalization has made it easier to consume foreign products, consumption decisions are rarely straightforward. Both love and hate relationships between consumers and countries exist and can even coexist. This paper aims to gain a better understanding of how positive/negative and general/specific consumer attitudes impact foreign product judgment and ownership. An integrative model explores the predictive power of affinity, animosity, cosmopolitanism and ethnocentrism simultaneously. Specifically, the authors investigate a paradoxical “tug of war” which takes place inside consumer minds – the coexistence of affinity and animosity toward the same country.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a quantitative approach, the authors analyze data from 202 consumers and test it in intra-national and international contexts.

Findings

The results demonstrate the importance of an integrative model that takes into account opposing impacts on consumer behavior. Additionally, the data reveal that affinity and animosity are not bi-polar endpoints on a continuum. Finally, affinity outweighs animosity with respect to impacting product judgment and ownership.

Research limitations/implications

The study was conducted in Israel. Hence, replications in other multi-cultural countries are needed.

Practical implications

Marketers can use a segmentation matrix to target audiences based on the existing “attitudinal mix” in their focal markets. Marketers can use the affinity drivers identified here to overcome animosity.

Originality/value

The “tug of war” model advances the animosity model, as it implies that to use attitudinal data theoretically and practically, there is a need to account for a full spectrum of general and country-specific attitudes. Affinity was tested for the first time within national borders.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 50 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 29 June 2021

Lili Zheng and Faouzi Bensebaa

With the growth of online shopping, during which consumers are not able to touch products, there is much for researchers and marketers to learn about the underlying role…

Abstract

Purpose

With the growth of online shopping, during which consumers are not able to touch products, there is much for researchers and marketers to learn about the underlying role of the need for touch (NFT) in driving online shopping decisions. Consumers' emotional state prior to purchase is considered a situational variable that affects their attitude and behaviour. This study explores the effects of consumers' NFT and pre-purchase emotional states on their online decision-making behaviour, examining perceived quality, confidence in product judgment and intention to purchase.

Design/methodology/approach

A field experiment was conducted using a scenario presenting buying a sweater as a real purchase opportunity available to participants. A convenience sample of two hundred ninety-eight university students at a university in the southeast of France was used in this study. A 2 (NFT: high/low determined by a median split) × 2 (emotional states: high/low level) analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to further examine the interaction of NFT and emotional states in consumer decision making.

Findings

The results indicate that autotelic NFT and positive emotional states experienced before shopping have an impact on consumers' decisions in relation to perceived quality, confidence in product judgment and intention to purchase. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that instrumental vs autotelic NFT affects consumer decision making, with mixed support found for negative emotional states acting as possible moderators.

Originality/value

This study advances the NFT field and leads to insights regarding online consumer purchase decision making by exploring instrumental vs autotelic NFT and pre-purchase emotional states as antecedents of consumer decisions.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 25 February 2020

Maya F. Farah

The purpose of this study is to empirically investigate the effects of religiosity level, ethnocentrism, subjective norms, product judgment and trust in Halal food products

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to empirically investigate the effects of religiosity level, ethnocentrism, subjective norms, product judgment and trust in Halal food products on the consumer intention to purchase a Muslim (manufactured in a majority Muslim country) versus a foreign (manufactured in a majority non-Muslim country) product available on the Lebanese market across the two main Muslim sects, namely, Sunnism and Shiism.

Design/methodology/approach

The study used a quantitative survey that was administered to a proportionate stratified sample of 607 respondents from the two sects.

Findings

The results indicate that Sunni consumers indicate a greater trust in judgment of and willingness to buy foreign Halal products compared to their Shiite counterparts, while Shiite consumers display a greater trust in judgment of and willingness to buy Muslim products. Moreover, religiosity, ethnocentrism, subjective norms, brand trust and product judgment have been found to significantly influence consumer purchase intention.

Practical implications

The study results exhibit that religious sect plays a key role in consumer purchase intention, which encourages decision makers and marketers to pursue identity, awareness and communication strategies while targeting Muslim consumers of both sects.

Originality/value

Muslim consumers’ perception of Halal products is a sorely under-researched area of study with minimal empirical data supporting such studies. The results of this study offer some insight into consumer behavior differences between members of the two sects.

Details

Journal of Islamic Marketing, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-0833

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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2014

Ibrahim Abosag and Maya F. Farah

The purpose of this paper was to examine the influence of religiously motivated boycotts, such as the one conducted in Saudi Arabia against Danish companies, on corporate…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper was to examine the influence of religiously motivated boycotts, such as the one conducted in Saudi Arabia against Danish companies, on corporate brand image, customer loyalty and product judgment. Despite a growing research interest in understanding the effects of different types of consumer animosities on companies’ performance, there appears to be a scarcity of studies addressing the specific effects of religious animosity. Religious animosity is considered as an additional type which may have more stable and longer-term impacts than other animosities on behaviour.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was based on a two-stage design: an exploratory qualitative stage involving 11 in-depth interviews, followed by a more comprehensive quantitative stage designed to test a proposed theoretical model. Data was collected from Saudi customers of the Danish company Arla Foods in Saudi Arabia. Data was analysed using structural equation model (LISREL 8).

Findings

The model confirms that boycotting have strong negative impact on brand image and consumer loyalty but does not influence consumers’ product judgment.

Practical implications

Religious boycotts have significant consequences on both corporate profits and brand image. The study provides clear steps for companies to combat the influence of religious boycotts especially in relation to brand image and customer loyalty.

Originality/value

The study tested the influence of consumer religious boycotts on brand image and customer loyalty. Religious animosity was found to cause a more persistent boycott that negatively impacts brand image and weakens customer loyalty. However, by and large, boycotting was found not to have any significant impact on product judgment.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 48 no. 11/12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 24 November 2020

Moez LTIFI

This study aims to explain the boycott of Chinese product during the COVID-19 crisis. Specifically, this paper attempt to empirically test the influence of boycott on the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to explain the boycott of Chinese product during the COVID-19 crisis. Specifically, this paper attempt to empirically test the influence of boycott on the image brand and foreign product judgment, as well as to testing the influence of brand image on the judgment of these products.

Design/methodology/approach

Data was collected from a stratified random sample (N = 300) of students and was analyzed by using the structural equation modeling method.

Findings

The results show that the boycott negatively influenced the brand image and valuation of foreign products. Also, empirical results confirm that the brand image of foreign products positively influenced consumer judgment.

Practical implications

The success of foreign products is because of a combination of adaptation and standardization strategies for foreign companies in a local market to resist ace to unexpected economic conditions. These strategies allowed foreign products to penetrate diverse markets and not to be considered as a “foreign” brand which must be boycotted even in health crisis. The internationalization of companies and the opening of subsidiaries in the targeted countries can be considered as a solution for them so that their products will not be boycotted by consumers and consider them as national products.

Originality/value

Although with the existence of several studies on the boycott of foreign products, little attention has been paid so far to assess its interactions in times of health crisis such as COVID-19 crisis. This study contributes to the existing the literature with a research model based on two theories. This study leads to a better understanding of the role of boycotting foreign products and its impact on the brand image of these products and their judgments by consumers. On the other hand, this study tested the effect of branding on the judgment of boycotted products. Indeed, no study has so far examined the influence of consumer boycotts on the brand image of boycotted products. The authors have already responded to this shortcoming by adding additional tests for verification, robustness and validation of the results obtained.

Details

International Journal of Law and Management, vol. 63 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-243X

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Article
Publication date: 7 October 2013

Zafar Ahmed, Rosdin Anang, Nor Othman and Murali Sambasivan

The main purpose of this research is to empirically test how animosity, religiosity, and ethnocentrism interact to affect judgment about US products and purchase action of…

Abstract

Purpose

The main purpose of this research is to empirically test how animosity, religiosity, and ethnocentrism interact to affect judgment about US products and purchase action of consumers in a progressive Islamic country like Malaysia. There are many studies that have been conducted in conservative Islamic countries such as Iran, Jordan, Morocco, Pakistan and Saudi Arabia.

Design/methodology/approach

The product chosen for this research is US fast food restaurants. A questionnaire was constructed and responses were obtained from 410 Malaysian consumers from different ethnic backgrounds. The authors tested the framework using structural equation modeling (SEM).

Findings

Based on the test results, the authors conclude the following significant relationships: animosity on purchase action of consumers, ethnocentric tendencies on animosity of consumers, religiosity on ethnocentric tendencies of consumers, religiosity on animosity of consumers, ethnocentric tendencies of consumers on judgment of foreign product, foreign product judgment of consumers on purchase action, and animosity and ethnocentrism play mediating roles.

Originality/value

The current study adds significantly to the body of knowledge on consumer behavior, especially the roles of animosity, religiosity, and ethnocentrism. The findings can help marketing managers to formulate appropriate strategies when consumers decide to boycott US products.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 27 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

Keywords

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