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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1995

Samuel Wathen

Presents a study which explored a relationship between productionprocess focus and performance at the business unit level using theprofit impact of marketing strategies…

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2363

Abstract

Presents a study which explored a relationship between production process focus and performance at the business unit level using the profit impact of marketing strategies (PIMS) database. The relationship between production process focus and financial performance for business units was partially supported using return‐on‐sales (ROS), and was not supported with return‐on‐assets and return‐on‐income. Indicates that the degree of production process focus is not directly related to a business unit′s performance. The implication is that the degree of production process focus must be recognized as part of a manufacturing strategy that is consistent with an overall business strategy.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 15 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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Article
Publication date: 8 July 2014

Erlinde Cornelis, Veroline Cauberghe and Patrick De Pelesmacker

The aim of this study is to contribute to previous research by investigating the principle of regulatory congruence in two-sided advertising messages. Additionally, it…

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1059

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study is to contribute to previous research by investigating the principle of regulatory congruence in two-sided advertising messages. Additionally, it addresses the underlying mechanisms of the congruence effect.

Design/methodology/approach

The study encompasses two experiments: a two-level between-subjects design, manipulating the message’s frame (prevention vs promotion), while measuring respondents’ chronic self-regulatory focus (prevention vs promotion), and a 2 × 2 between-subjects design, manipulating processing depth (central vs peripheral) and message frame (prevention- vs promotion-oriented), while measuring individuals’ chronic self-regulatory focus (prevention vs promotion).

Findings

Study 1 shows that in two-sided messages, the effect of regulatory congruence on attitudes toward the message depends on individuals’ self-regulatory focus: a congruence effect was only found in promotion-focused individuals. This congruence effect was driven by processing fluency. The second study builds on the first one by exploring the absence of a congruence effect found in prevention-focused individuals. Its results show that in prevention-focused individuals, processing depth influences regulatory congruence effects in two-sided messages. Under peripheral processing, prevention-focused individuals have more positive attitudes toward the issue when two-sided messages are congruent with their self-regulatory focus. Under central processing, on the other hand, a regulatory incongruence effect on attitudes occurs.

Originality/value

This study complements prior research by examining the validity of the regulatory congruence principle in the context of two-sided messages. Moreover, it addresses the underlying mechanisms driving regulatory (in)congruence effects. As such, our study contributes both to the existing research on two-sided messages and that on regulatory focus.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 48 no. 7/8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2005

J. Bruce Prince

The employee selection process has generally focused on the near‐term performance potential of internal candidates in filling vacant positions. This research addresses the…

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3287

Abstract

Purpose

The employee selection process has generally focused on the near‐term performance potential of internal candidates in filling vacant positions. This research addresses the potential influence of adding a career development emphasis to the employee transfer decision process. In a career‐focused transfer process the applicants' individual career development needs and growth opportunities are a key basis for internal selection decisions.

Design/methodology/approach

Using web‐based survey methodology, a US financial services firm is used to evaluate the relationship between the use of career‐focused employee transfer criteria and key employee attitudes.

Findings

The study finds that the use of career‐focused processes are positively related to employees' developmental opportunity satisfaction and perceived support for career development. Regression analyses finds that these two attitudes mediate the positive relationship between the use of career‐focused transfer criteria and perceived organization support (POS). Other research efforts (e.g. Allen and Shore) have linked POS to a variety of positive outcomes, including lower employee turnover. Past research, however, has not considered how specific human resource practices can be the basis for the development of key attitudes.

Research limitations/implications

This research – while limited due to it cross‐sectional methodology – builds on that stream of research by focuses on the design of the employee transfer process and how it can be a key practice for achieving a developmental focus and associated benefits.

Originality/value

The results suggest that focusing on performance potential of applicants and career‐focused criteria are not necessarily antagonistic but can be used jointly to make internal selection decisions.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 10 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2017

Yu-Tse Lin

The purpose of this study is twofold: to analyze sales managers’ person-focused and process-focused supervisory feedback as a potential goal-orientation antecedent, and to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is twofold: to analyze sales managers’ person-focused and process-focused supervisory feedback as a potential goal-orientation antecedent, and to examine the relationship between different types of sales personnel goal orientations and two aspects of job performance: behavior-based and outcome-based. Based on previous sales motivation research, the authors look at the antecedents and outcomes of sales representatives’ goal orientation.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional survey design was used with a sample consisting of 326 pairs of sales reps and their supervisors. Average sales position tenure was 5.30 years.

Findings

Sales representatives’ performance-prove goal orientation (PPGO) can be triggered by positive person-focused feedback from their managers, and performance-avoid goal orientation (PAGO) can be triggered by negative person-focused feedback. A learning goal orientation (LGO) can be triggered by positive process-focused feedback. The authors also found that when job performance is broken down into outcome-based and behavior-based components, the process by which goal orientation influences performance is more easily determined. PPGO sales reps in the sample clearly focused more on outcome-based performance, while PAGO sales reps focused on behavior-based performance. LGO was only associated with behavior-based performance among the respondents, meaning that it cannot be used as a predictor of outcome-based performance.

Research limitations/implications

First, a cross-sectional design may not be the best method for judging variable directions of causality. A longitudinal method is recommended for more detailed research. Second, the variance the authors noted in the three goal orientations may be due to impression management. Previous researchers have not addressed response bias regarding goal orientation; future researchers may want to add social desire response items to control for response bias from impression management.

Practical implications

The findings can help sales managers understand how their feedback styles can result in different types of goal orientation and different effort allocation in their sales staff. Managers interested in developing PPGO sales reps should offer more whole-person praise. Since negative person-focused feedback can trigger more conservative behaviors, they should use other approaches to criticizing their employees. If their goal is to promote individual learning in sales personnel, they will want to give process-focused feedback, either positive or negative.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the literature on the external influences of goal orientation, especially the effects of social (rather than institutional) factors in manager feedback on goal orientations among their sales staffs. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first attempt to study relationships between three types of goal orientations and various performance dimensions. The data clarify the links between two types of performance (outcome- and behavior-based) and three types of goal orientations (PPGO, PAGO and LGO).

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 32 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 7 October 2013

Chia-Chi Chang and Chia-Yi Chen

Limited research has explored the potential marketing strategies to counter the damage associated with delayed recovery. Based on the construal level theory, this study…

Abstract

Purpose

Limited research has explored the potential marketing strategies to counter the damage associated with delayed recovery. Based on the construal level theory, this study seeks to suggest that customers tend to focus on different aspects of the compensation according to the speed of recovery. Thus, providing an adequate explanation to customers corresponding to expected recovery speed can effectively alleviate customer dissatisfaction with a delayed recovery.

Design/methodology/approach

This study examined the proposed hypotheses using a 2 (immediate vs delayed) by 2 (explanation: process-focused vs outcome-focused) experimental design.

Findings

The analytical results show that when an immediate recovery is available, an outcome-focused explanation will result in higher post-failure satisfaction than will a process-focused explanation. Conversely, when a delayed recovery is expected, post-failure satisfaction is higher for customers who receive a process-focused explanation than for those who receive an outcome-focused explanation.

Practical implications

This study thus recommends that firms should provide explanations compatible with expected recovery speed to better enhance post-failure satisfaction.

Originality/value

This study contributes to the body of service recovery literature by examining the differential effectiveness of outcome-focused and process-focused explanations under immediate and delayed recovery conditions. The findings provide a guideline that managers can use to formulate suitable explanations to alleviate the detrimental effects of delayed recovery.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 27 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 27 March 2007

Richard A. Reid

The purpose of this paper is to present a comprehensive descriptive analysis of the sequential application of the Theory of Constraints (TOC) five‐step focusing process in…

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4314

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present a comprehensive descriptive analysis of the sequential application of the Theory of Constraints (TOC) five‐step focusing process in improving the effectiveness of a service process that was limiting the performance of the entire service system.

Design/methodology/approach

The five‐step approach is schematically presented with each step being described and evaluated relative to its role in effective constraint management. A detailed example provides additional insights and nuances into its use in managing the constraint within a banking organization's subsystem, namely, the loan application and approval process. This hypothetical, realistic, and comprehensive illustration iterates through several cycles of the five‐step focusing process to demonstrate how managers are able to address different types of constraints.

Findings

The paper provides a detailed description on how each of the five‐steps can be used to improve the organization's performance relative to its stated goal by focusing management's attention on the system's (or an aligned subsystem's) leverage or control point. Major types of constraints include physical or capacity limitations and restrictive policies. Constraints may be located either internal or external to the process or system being managed.

Practical implications

Various managerial implications are discussed including: the relevance and utility of applying the TOC five‐step focusing process in services; advantages associated with utilizing this structured approach for continuous improvement in services; and some strategic issues associated with the placement of the ubiquitous system constraint.

Originality/value

Although the successful application of the five‐step focusing process has been well documented in improving manufacturing processes, this paper provides an illustrative tutorial which details its application in effectively managing a service process.

Details

Managing Service Quality: An International Journal, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0960-4529

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Abstract

Details

Servitization Strategy and Managerial Control
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-845-1

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Article
Publication date: 11 March 2014

Yi-Chun Huang, Ying-Jiuan Wong and Min-Li Yang

This study examined how proactive environmental management affects firm performance and whether a controlling family moderates this effect. The paper aims to discuss these…

Abstract

Purpose

This study examined how proactive environmental management affects firm performance and whether a controlling family moderates this effect. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The study adopted content analysis to collect data on listed Taiwanese firms and used cross-sectional regression analysis to examine the relationship between proactive environmental management and firm performance as well as the moderating role of a controlling family.

Findings

The results indicated that not all types of proactive environmental management are positively associated with firm performance and that a controlling family might be more effective in low-risk proactive environmental management practices.

Research limitations/implications

The focus was on the impact of proactive environmental management from the perspective of stockholders. Future research could investigate its impact on other stakeholders as well.

Practical implications

The findings might convince managers that the stereotype of an environment-friendly firm – that the more its green initiatives, the less competitive it becomes – may not necessarily be true. Investing in product-focused pollution prevention could increase revenues and improve performance. Even though process-focused pollution prevention is negatively associated with firm performance, companies are not expected to reduce investment in green processes since they are required for the production of environment-friendly products.

Originality/value

This study adopted a multi-dimensional approach to reveal how different types of proactive environmental management affect firm performance. The authors used the controlling family as a moderating variable to determine whether it moderates the relationship between proactive environmental management and firm performance.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 37 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2000

Jim Grieves

The history of Organizational Development (OD) reveals a much older tradition of organizational science than the conventional wisdom would suggest. By the 1960s and 1970s…

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17453

Abstract

The history of Organizational Development (OD) reveals a much older tradition of organizational science than the conventional wisdom would suggest. By the 1960s and 1970s OD became self‐confident and dynamic. This period was not only highly experimental but established the principles of OD for much of the twentieth century. By the end of the twentieth century new images of OD had occurred and much of the earlier thinking had been transformed. This review illustrates some examples under a series of themes that have had a major impact on the discipline of OD and on the wider thinking of organizational theorists and researchers.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 19 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 29 June 2017

Denise Fischer, René Mauer and Malte Brettel

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of regulatory focus in sustainable entrepreneurship processes to answer questions on how sustainable entrepreneurs pursue…

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2023

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the role of regulatory focus in sustainable entrepreneurship processes to answer questions on how sustainable entrepreneurs pursue their goals and what motivates them. Knowledge about an entrepreneur’s motivational attribute is essential when trying to understand new venture creation processes. To determine an entrepreneur’s affiliation with one of the two self-regulatory systems, promotion focus and prevention focus, it is helpful to establish whether he or she is motivated by growth and development goals (promotion) or rather by responsibility and security goals (prevention).

Design/methodology/approach

In a qualitative study of seven sustainable ventures, two semi-structured interview rounds with 14 founders were conducted. Archival data from internal and external sources were gathered, resulting in more than 80 text documents.

Findings

Findings reveal that the self-regulatory focus of sustainable entrepreneurs changes during the entrepreneurial process with regard to the temporal dynamics of motivation. While conceiving ideas, sustainable entrepreneurs engage in a prevention-focused self-regulatory process because social or ecological problems induce them to direct their attention toward sustainable development goals. During rollout, in contrast, they increasingly engage in a promotion-focused self-regulatory process and concentrate more on venture growth goals.

Practical implications

The results highlight the important role of a regulatory fit between key self-regulatory entrepreneurial behaviors and entrepreneurs’ regulatory orientation toward increased motivation and enjoyment when pursuing goals.

Originality/value

This study’s contributions extend and combine the theories of regulatory focus, entrepreneurial motivation, and entrepreneurial processes in the field of sustainable entrepreneurship. They are valuable for understanding the determinants of sustainable entrepreneurial action.

Details

International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2554

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