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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1999

Robert D. Hisrich and Sevgi Ayse Öztürk

While research on women entrepreneurs is extensive in developed countries, little has been done in this area in non‐OECD and developing economies. This research focuses on…

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6077

Abstract

While research on women entrepreneurs is extensive in developed countries, little has been done in this area in non‐OECD and developing economies. This research focuses on the characteristics, performance, and problems of women entrepreneurs in one developing economy – Turkey. The results indicate that while the women entrepreneurs exhibited many similarities with their counterparts in other countries they differed in other aspects such as in their reasons and motivation for starting a venture and problems encountered. These differences reflect in part the effect of a different social structure in a developing economy, particularly the impact of occupational segregation, wage disparity, and participation in a non‐supported sector of the economy. These findings suggest that the theories regarding women entrepreneurs based on developed economies need to be carefully examined before being applied to non‐OECD and developing economies.

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Journal of Management Development, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

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Article
Publication date: 14 March 2008

Gurmeet Singh and Rakesh Belwal

This paper attempts to identify the problem areas and developmental issues attached to women's entrepreneurship related to small medium enterprises (SMEs) particularly in…

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10190

Abstract

Purpose

This paper attempts to identify the problem areas and developmental issues attached to women's entrepreneurship related to small medium enterprises (SMEs) particularly in Addis Ababa, the capital city of Ethiopia. It also attempts to devise certain stratagems for ensuring women's entrepreneurial growth and SMEs' advancement in the region.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was conducted in two phases. The first phase attempted to identify the problem areas in terms of nature, needs, desire, motivations and problems of women entrepreneurs in Ethiopia by an extensive review of the existing literature. The second phase incorporated a ground survey and focused interviews with groups of female entrepreneurs for assessing the factors related to entrepreneurship. The data pertaining to these issues were collected using 90 personally administered “schedules” in eight areas in Addis Ababa on the basis of stratified sampling. Basic level statistical analysis was performed using SPSS statistical package.

Findings

The focused interview identified problems in the areas of securing finances for establishing and running SMEs, lack of entrepreneurial and management competence and exposure, problems in finding the markets and distribution networks; limited opportunities for promotion and participation; limited amount of government and institutional support; absence of technological know‐how and integration mechanism; and rampant corruption in an undisguised or disguised form, as major bottlenecks.

Originality/value

The paper is one of the important studies taken in the context of women entrepreneurship in Ethiopia. No such studies have been undertaken in the past that assess the women entrepreneur in the context of overall SME development. Only a few exist but give more importance to microfinance and micro‐enterprises. So the paper is original in context as well as in research terms. Proper attention to the issues raised and recommendations made could give a significant boost to entrepreneurial activities in the region.

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Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article
Publication date: 16 April 2018

Dianne H.B. Welsh, Eugene Kaciak, Esra Memili and Caroline Minialai

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships between women entrepreneurs’ firm performance and two dimensions (enrichment and interference) of the…

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1263

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationships between women entrepreneurs’ firm performance and two dimensions (enrichment and interference) of the business-family interface (BFI) in the moderating context of the level of economic development in two emerging countries – Morocco and Turkey. The enrichment perspective was operationalized as family instrumental (financial) and affective (moral) support, while interference was operationalized as gender-related personal problems.

Design/methodology/approach

The study drew upon the work-family interface (WFI) theory from the family embeddedness perspective in the context of institutional economics. In Morocco, a purposive sample of 116 women entrepreneurs completed a self-administered questionnaire using field collection, mail, and phone surveying methods. In Turkey, 147 women entrepreneurs completed the questionnaire online and through personal contacts in business organizations.

Findings

The findings indicated a positive relationship of family financial support with business performance of female entrepreneurs in Morocco, a less economically advanced country. However, family moral support is related to better firm performance in Turkey, a more advanced economy. Gender-related personal problems of women entrepreneurs appear to hamper their business performance in Turkey; while in Morocco, the performance of women entrepreneurs seems to improve in the face of such impediments.

Practical implications

The results provide initial evidence that female entrepreneurs benefit from the linkages of family-to-business enrichment in different ways, depending on the country’s level of economic development. In less economically developed countries, women entrepreneurs benefit more from instrumental rather than affective components of the enrichment dimension of the BFI. Conversely, in more economically advanced countries, female entrepreneurs benefit more from affective rather than the instrumental elements of this dimension. Likewise, the components of the interference dimension of the BFI affect female entrepreneurs differently depending on the economic development of the countries. Women in the less-developed country of Morocco are less impeded by their personal problems compared to their counterparts in Turkey, a more developed economy. Actually, Moroccan women entrepreneurs improved their business performance when facing obstacles, most likely due to their increased inner strength and resilience acquired when battling adversarial institutional conditions.

Originality/value

The present study makes three unique contributions to the entrepreneurship literature. First, the study links the two BFI dimensions (enrichment and interference) to firm performance with an exclusive focus on female business owners. Second, within the construct of enrichment, the study employs both family instrumental and emotional support. Third, the study shows that the country’s level of economic development moderates the relationships between the BFI dimensions and firm performance.

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International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

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Article
Publication date: 19 October 2018

Lei Zhu, Orhan Kara and Xiaowei Zhu

The purpose of this paper is to compare women entrepreneurship in China and Vietnam by examining the motivations, success factors and problems related to establishing women

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare women entrepreneurship in China and Vietnam by examining the motivations, success factors and problems related to establishing women-owned businesses.

Design/methodology/approach

The sample in this study consisted of 170 women entrepreneurs in Vietnam and 180 women entrepreneurs in China. The authors used the survey instrument developed by H.M. Chu (Chu and Katsioloudes 2001), which has been adopted in a number of small business studies since 2002. To determine whether there is a significant difference between the two countries regarding each factor of motivations, success factors and problems, the authors use the non-parametric Wilcoxon rank-sum test.

Findings

Women entrepreneurs are motived to earn more income in both China and Vietnam. Vietnamese businesswomen value intrinsic rewards such as gaining personal satisfaction and freedom. They also take business ownership as a way to reduce work–family conflict. Demonstrating the ability and gaining public recognition play a more important role when Chinese women entrepreneurs decide to establish their businesses. Both Chinese and Vietnamese women agree that good management skills are essential to achieve their goals. Women entrepreneurs in both countries share similar challenges, such as the inability to recruit and retain employees, severe competition, a weak economy and limited access to financial capital.

Practical implications

Given the nature of transitional economies in both countries, the government is required to improve the regulatory environment for protecting private sector employment and private property rights. Policies such as subsidies and tax incentives may assist the development of women enterprises. To support the sustainable growth of women businesses, it is suggested that the government should design effective programs that direct women entrepreneurs to move into high-growth or high-technology sectors. Training programs are also required to improve the knowledge and skills of women entrepreneurs. Making capital accessible to women is also important to stimulate entrepreneurial growth. As a further stimulus, governments should coordinate with financial institutions to provide low-cost loans or even venture capital to facilitate this process.

Originality/value

This study is among one of the first attempts to compare women entrepreneurship in the two transitional economies of Vietnam and China. It provides insight into motivations, success factors and problems that women entrepreneurs experienced by examining small business owners in Vietnam and China.

Details

Journal of Entrepreneurship in Emerging Economies, vol. 11 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2053-4604

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Article
Publication date: 1 June 2015

Ceyda Maden

This study aims to shed light on women’s entrepreneurship in Turkey by focusing on the profile of women entrepreneurs, key drivers behind their decision to establish their…

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2574

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to shed light on women’s entrepreneurship in Turkey by focusing on the profile of women entrepreneurs, key drivers behind their decision to establish their own business, challenges they face while initiating and running their business and support mechanisms for women entrepreneurs.

Design/methodology/approach

Semi-structured interviews were conducted by ten successful women entrepreneurs in Turkey. Survey forms were also sent to the representatives of four different organizations that support women entrepreneurship. Three completed survey forms were received back from these organizations. Four key areas that originate from the research question (i.e. profile, drivers, problems and support mechanisms) have constituted the basis of the semi-structured interview guide and that of thematic analysis.

Findings

The results have revealed that there are important similarities among Turkish women entrepreneurs with respect to their personality traits or characteristics. Successful women entrepreneurs in Turkey were described as being persistent and determined, patient, mentally strong and visionary and innovative. The interviews also revealed that exploiting unique opportunities in the business environment, working for the good of society and being independent in one’s decisions and actions are the major factors behind Turkish women entrepreneurs’ decision to become entrepreneurs. On the other hand, finding and managing capital emerged as the most important problem for women entrepreneurs in Turkey despite the existence of various support mechanisms. Finally, the findings showed that the majority of women entrepreneurs in Turkey use traditional ways (i.e. governmental and non-governmental support mechanisms and banks) to get financial support. Family members and business partners are the other sources of financial support, which may also provide moral support to women entrepreneurs.

Research limitations/implications

The generalizability of the findings is limited, as the study is exploratory, rather than causal in nature.

Practical implications

This study provides certain recommendations to the interested parties, such as policymakers, to create a proper economic, social, political, cultural and legal environment for women in which they can freely and willingly go into and run business.

Originality/value

The paper fills an important gap in the literature by systematically reviewing the extant literature on women entrepreneurship in Turkey and combining and comparing the prior findings with qualitative data derived from the interviews with ten successful women entrepreneurs.

Details

Gender in Management: An International Journal, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1754-2413

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1986

Robert D. Hisrich

For a woman entrepreneur, the risks of starting and operating a business are increased by being in a male dominated arena, having few role models and lacking confidence in…

Abstract

For a woman entrepreneur, the risks of starting and operating a business are increased by being in a male dominated arena, having few role models and lacking confidence in some business skills. To be successful she needs to establish a track record. Necessary education and business training should be obtained. Occupational experience in middle management or technical areas is beneficial. Before starting up the family situation should be assessed. A strong moral support system of family, friends, clients and business associates should be established. She must be determined to succeed and work hard in a professional manner. Research findings from a mail survey and personal interviews with a sample of women entrepreneurs in the US, Puerto Rico, Ireland and Northern Ireland are presented.

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Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1984

Robert D. Hisrich

There are a variety of perceptions about the nature and composition of an entrepreneur. This individual has been described as someone who creates and builds a business…

Abstract

There are a variety of perceptions about the nature and composition of an entrepreneur. This individual has been described as someone who creates and builds a business from non‐existence while assuming the responsibility for development and management as well as risk or gain. But this gives only a shell within which a more complex and interesting person exists.

Details

Leadership & Organization Development Journal, vol. 5 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0143-7739

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Book part
Publication date: 16 June 2021

Hiroko Kawamorita, Yashar Salamzadeh, Ali Kahramanoğlu, Kürşat Demiryürek, Nur İlkay Abacı and Noriyuki Takahashi

This chapter addresses the impact of gendered social capital in developing countries to understand the barriers and opportunities to women's entrepreneurship with social…

Abstract

This chapter addresses the impact of gendered social capital in developing countries to understand the barriers and opportunities to women's entrepreneurship with social capital development and also to examine factors influencing the development of social capital for women and how the identified factors benefit the creation of their entrepreneurial activities. This study follows a systemic literature review to achieve the purpose of the research by examining the selected articles in both English and Turkish, followed by factor comparison between developing, developed countries, and world datasets obtained from Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) database. The finding shows that social capital strongly impacts the entrepreneurial activities among women entrepreneurs in developing countries, especially in Turkey. Although the academic and practical studies on this field were started about two decades ago in Turkey, it has faced a radical increase in last 5 years and many practitioners and scholars working on these concepts. The clusters in English and Turkish resources are almost the same; however, the density and number of key terms are much lower in Turkish literature which shows a gap for Turkish researchers to publish more in this field to examine variables for better view about women entrepreneurship and social capital related to it.

Details

The Emerald Handbook of Women and Entrepreneurship in Developing Economies
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-327-7

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 2007

Bonita L. Betters-Reed and Lynda L. Moore

When we take the lens of race, ethnicity, gender, and class to the collected academic work on women business owners, what does it reveal? What do we really know? Are there…

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1815

Abstract

When we take the lens of race, ethnicity, gender, and class to the collected academic work on women business owners, what does it reveal? What do we really know? Are there differing definitions of success across segments of the women businessowner demographics? Do the challenges faced by African American women entrepreneurs differ from those confronting white female entrepreneurs? Do immigrant female women businessowners face more significant institutional barriers than their counterparts who have been U.S. citizens for at least two generations? Are there similar reasons for starting their businesses?

Details

New England Journal of Entrepreneurship, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2574-8904

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Article
Publication date: 27 July 2018

Kumari Amrita Tripathi and Saumya Singh

This paper aims to study the impediments and difficulties that prevent Indian women from becoming entrepreneurs.

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1011

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to study the impediments and difficulties that prevent Indian women from becoming entrepreneurs.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were obtained through a survey involving 15 experts. Based on the feedback provided by the experts, ten relevant barriers in the context of Indian micro small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) were chosen. A structured questionnaire was used to gather data. These ten barriers create obstruction for Indian women as entrepreneurs. These barriers were ranked, and causal relationships among them established using interpretive structural modeling and Matrice d’Impacts croises-multiplication appliqúean classment (cross-impact matrix multiplication applied to classification) (ISM–MICMAC) approach.

Findings

This study identifies, on the basis of extant literature and experts’ opinion, ten barriers to female entrepreneurship. These barriers were ranked, and causal relationships among them established using the ISM–MICMAC approach. On the basis of ranking, women can move forward in MSMEs after removing these obstacles and it will have good results.

Research limitations/implications

In this research, with literature reviews and experts opinion, ten barriers have been identified for women’s entrepreneurship and have been used to build the model.

Practical implications

To bring Indian women forward in the field of entrepreneurship, both the society and the government should work together, and efforts should be made to overcome the obstacles coming in the way of entrepreneurs.

Social implications

Female entrepreneurship in India faces many problems including negative attitude of authorities and society toward women. The society and authorities have no format or model for Indian women to move forward in the entrepreneurship sector.

Originality/value

This study seeks to identify, on the basis of a thorough review of literature and expert opinion, major barriers to female entrepreneurship in the context of Indian MSMEs.

Details

Journal of Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Economy, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6204

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