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Book part
Publication date: 14 November 2018

Fergus McNeill

Abstract

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Pervasive Punishment
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78756-466-4

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Book part
Publication date: 25 May 2017

Michael J. Leiber and Maude Beaudry-Cyr

Framed by the intersectionality perspective and results from prior research, we examined the effects of race/ethnicity, gender, probation violations, and type of violation…

Abstract

Purpose

Framed by the intersectionality perspective and results from prior research, we examined the effects of race/ethnicity, gender, probation violations, and type of violation on juvenile justice case outcomes in a Mid-Atlantic state.

Methodology/approach

Bivariate and multivariate analyses in the form of logistic regression were used to assess the extent race and ethnicity, gender, probation violations, and the type of violation, individually and in combination, impact case outcomes.

Findings

The findings indicate that the race/ethnicity of the youth, his or her gender, and whether involved in a probation violation and to some degree the type of violation, individually and in some cases, jointly, effect juvenile justice decision making. These relationships often involve receiving both harsh and lenient outcomes. We interpret the results as evidence that stereotyping plays out differently when race/ethnicity and gender intersect.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the general literature by (1) examining the neglected combination effects of race/ethnicity and gender with increased social control within juvenile justice proceedings; (2) including Hispanic youth; and (3) looking at the interrelationships among race/ethnicity and gender with the treatment of probation violators.

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Race, Ethnicity and Law
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-604-4

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2020

Coral Sirdifield, Rebecca Marples, David Denney and Charlie Brooker

This study aims to investigate the views of commissioners, providers and criminal justice staff on how effective current health-care provision is at meeting the health…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the views of commissioners, providers and criminal justice staff on how effective current health-care provision is at meeting the health needs of people on probation. Understanding perceptions of what constitutes effective provision, where barriers are encountered and where improvements could be made is an important step towards improving access to care for this hard-to-reach group.

Design/methodology/approach

The research was part of a wider study. This paper focusses on findings from case studies conducted via semi-structured telephone interviews with 24 stakeholders in a purposive sample from six geographical areas of England. Interviews were conducted by researchers from a variety of backgrounds and an individual with lived experience of the criminal justice system. Data were analysed using thematic analysis.

Findings

Participants provided examples of effective health-care provision, which largely involved multi-agency partnership working. It was apparent that there are many barriers to providing appropriate health-care provision to people on probation, which are underpinned by the complexity of this population’s health-care needs, the complexity of the health-care landscape and problematic commissioning processes.

Practical implications

Improvements are needed to provide appropriate and accessible health care that meets the needs of people on probation, thereby reducing health inequalities. These include shared targets, improved funding, clearer pathways into care and giving probation a voice in commissioning.

Originality/value

To the best of authors’ knowledge, this is the first study of commissioner, provider and criminal justice staffs’ views on the effectiveness of current health-care provision at meeting the health needs of people on probation.

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International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 16 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1999

Jonathan Mason

People with learning disabilities have a number of vulnerabilities which makes the process of probation difficult for them to cope with without further support. This paper…

Abstract

People with learning disabilities have a number of vulnerabilities which makes the process of probation difficult for them to cope with without further support. This paper looks at ways to improve this support and demonstrates ways in which services can be developed to meet clients' needs.

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The British Journal of Forensic Practice, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-6646

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Article
Publication date: 4 November 2013

Bitna Kim, Adam K. Matz, Jurg Gerber, Dan Richard Beto and Eric Lambert

The current study examines the prevalence, perceived effectiveness, and potential antecedents (e.g. departmental culture) of law enforcement agencies in collaborating with…

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Abstract

Purpose

The current study examines the prevalence, perceived effectiveness, and potential antecedents (e.g. departmental culture) of law enforcement agencies in collaborating with probation and parole agencies. Specifically, the study reveals how the leaders (i.e. police chief, sheriff) in law enforcement view police-community corrections partnerships.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from a state-wide survey of all sheriffs’ offices and a random sample of municipal police departments in Texas.

Findings

Findings indicated information sharing and specialized enforcement partnerships were the most common partnership types, partnerships were more common with adult and juvenile probation than with adult parole, and partnerships remain predominantly informal. Finally, police chiefs/sheriffs in the departments with a culture supportive of offender reentry were more likely to support and engage in partnerships with adult/juvenile probation and adult parole agencies.

Originality/value

Even without formal programs, it seems that police-probation/parole partnerships are, in one form or another, practically inevitable. The positive evaluation of law enforcement personnel leaves room for hope for expansions of such partnerships in the future.

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Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 36 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 12 September 2016

Coral Sirdifield and Sara Owen

The purpose of this paper is to examine how the role in offender mental health for the probation service described in policy translates into practice through exploring…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine how the role in offender mental health for the probation service described in policy translates into practice through exploring staff and offenders’ perceptions of this role in one probation trust. In particular, to examine barriers to staff performing their role and ways of overcoming them.

Design/methodology/approach

Qualitative secondary analysis of data from semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of 11 probation staff and nine offenders using the constant comparative method.

Findings

Both staff and offenders defined probation’s role as identifying and monitoring mental illness amongst offenders, facilitating access to and monitoring offenders’ engagement with health services, and managing risk. Barriers to fulfilling this role included limited training, a lack of formal referral procedures/pathways between probation and health agencies, difficulties in obtaining and administering mental health treatment requirements, problems with inter-agency communication, and gaps in service provision for those with dual diagnosis and personality disorder. Strategies for improvement include improved training, developing a specialist role in probation and formalising partnership arrangements.

Research limitations/implications

Further research is required to explore the transferability of these findings, particularly in the light of the recent probation reforms.

Originality/value

This is the first paper to explore how staff and offenders perceive probation’s role in offender mental health in comparison with the role set out in policy.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2009

Dorothy Newbury‐Birch, Barbara Harrison, Nicola Brown and Eileen Kaner

The annual cost of alcohol‐related harm in the UK is estimated to be between £17.7 and £25.1 billion with healthcare costs alone reaching £2.7 billion and the costs of…

Abstract

The annual cost of alcohol‐related harm in the UK is estimated to be between £17.7 and £25.1 billion with healthcare costs alone reaching £2.7 billion and the costs of alcohol‐fuelled crime and disorder accounting for £7.3 billion each year. The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence of alcohol use disorders (AUD) in prison and probation settings in the North East of England, and to compare the ability of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and Offender Assessment System (OASys) at identifying alcohol‐related need in probation clients. A quantitative prevalence study was carried out using anonymous questionnaires with participants from four prisons and three probation offices in the North East who voluntarily completed the AUDIT questionnaire during a 1‐month period in 2006. Response outcomes on AUDIT were compared with OASys scores which identify alcohol‐related need in probation. At the time of the study OASys scores were not available for offenders in prison. Seven hundred and fifteen questionnaires were completed. Sixty‐three per cent of men and 57% of women were identified as having an AUD with over a third of all individuals scoring within the possibly dependant range (20+ on AUDIT). Around 40% of probation cases who were classified as either hazardous, harmful or possibly dependant drinkers on AUDIT were not identified by OASys. The results indicate that the prevalence of AUD in offenders is much higher than in the general population. In addition, current methods of identifying offenders with alcohol‐related need in probation are flawed and as many such people go undetected. Alcohol assessment procedures need to be improved in criminal justice setting order to correctly identify people with AUD.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

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Article
Publication date: 12 March 2014

Emma Plugge, Anees Ahmed Abdul Pari, Janet Maxwell and Sarah Holland

There are currently over 300,000 offenders in England and Wales and the majority, around 240,000, are in the community on probation. However, there is a paucity of…

Abstract

Purpose

There are currently over 300,000 offenders in England and Wales and the majority, around 240,000, are in the community on probation. However, there is a paucity of research on their health and healthcare needs. The purpose of this paper is to explore issues around health and access to health services for those on probation. In particular the paper explores what people on probation consider to be the key health issues currently affecting them, and to identify barriers to accessing healthcare in the community.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors ran six focus groups with a total of 41 participants; two were with staff and the others with men and women on probation. In each focus group, the researchers used semi-structured guide and the discussions were recorded electronically and then transcribed. The paper adopted a thematic analytical framework and used NVivo 7 to facilitate analysis.

Findings

Both probationers and professionals largely agreed about the key issues which included substance use and mental health problems. However, the most important issue for probationers was dealing with the stress of being on probation which was not generally recognised by professionals. All participants recognised the impact of issues such as housing, finances and employment on the wellbeing of probationers and were concerned about the lack of access to health services, in particular mental health and alcohol services.

Research limitations/implications

This was a small study conducted in one part of England and therefore it is not clear that the findings are generalisable. However, it raises important issues about the mental health needs of probationers and the lack of appropriate services for them. Effective services may have positive impact on re-offending and further research is needed to evaluate models of care.

Practical implications

The challenge remains for local health service commissioners and providers and the probation service to work together to provide appropriate and accessible services for all those on probation.

Originality/value

Nearly one-quarter of a million people are on probation at any one time in the UK but the existing evidence on their health is patchy and dated. Little is known about effective health interventions or the extent to which their health needs are met. This study shows that probationers see the stress of being on probation as their most important health concern. Both probationers and staff recognise that mental health and substance use are persistent problems and that these important health needs in these areas are not being met by existing services.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

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Article
Publication date: 13 March 2007

David Murphy and John L. Worrall

The growth of formal police‐probation partnerships in the USA has been accompanied by an increased awareness of the potential threats of mission distortion. The purpose of…

Abstract

Purpose

The growth of formal police‐probation partnerships in the USA has been accompanied by an increased awareness of the potential threats of mission distortion. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the dynamics of mission distribution

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is based on interviews with police and community corrections officers involved in an active partnership in Spokane, Washington. The paper emphasizes the abuse of authority, stalking horse incidents, and the scope of legitimate police and probation authority.

Findings

Ultimately, mission distortion has the potential to undermine the credibility of police‐probation partnerships.

Originality/value

The paper offers training and policy recommendations for police and community corrections administrators.

Details

Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1363-951X

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1990

Monica Shapira

This presentation describes the successful application of computerized information technology, known as a Decision Support System (DSS), to making decisions regarding…

Abstract

This presentation describes the successful application of computerized information technology, known as a Decision Support System (DSS), to making decisions regarding dispositions by Youth Probation Officers in the Jerusalem Probation Service. It concentrates on the specific characteristics of DSS that make it especially applicable for improving clinical decisions, and on the strategies involved in designing, developing and installing the system so that it suits the working routine of the Probation Service. The description of how the DSS works in our case is followed by an analysis of results, i.e., of the consequences of the system's installation in terms of changes in performance of the decision task by professionals and the changes that this causes on the organizational level. Finally, we shall attempt to use our experience to derive some general guidelines for designing and implementing similar decision aids in other human service organizations.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 10 no. 4/5/6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

1 – 10 of over 2000