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Article
Publication date: 4 July 2016

Michael L. Mallin

The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it provides the results of a study of key characteristics of proactive salespeople and the impact of salesperson proactive

1077

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, it provides the results of a study of key characteristics of proactive salespeople and the impact of salesperson proactive behavior on selling performance. Second, it provides recommendations for sales management to implement organizational strategies designed to develop, train and coach salespeople to be more proactive.

Design/methodology/approach

In all, 278 business-to-business salespeople were surveyed to identify key traits and outcomes of proactive salespeople. The average subject was 28 years of age with 5 years of selling experience. Scales from the management, organizational behavior and sales performance literature were used to identify the degree that subjects engaged in proactive behavior in their selling role, a self-assessment of their sales performance and individual traits thought to predict higher levels of proactive behavior.

Findings

The findings revealed that proactive salespeople exhibited high levels of selling behavior performance – an important contributor to measurable selling results. In addition, proactive salespeople were intrinsically motivated, confident in the tasks of selling and willing to take calculated risks.

Practical implications

Practical implications suggest that sales managers can play a key role in fostering proactive behavior among salespeople through development, training and coaching. First, sales managers can play a role in the development of salesperson intrinsic motivation by stressing the importance of asking good questions to understand their customer’s problems to the extent that they can be proactive and recommend solutions for change. Second, training programs to make salespeople more confident should center on fully understanding product/service functionality and applications to typical customer problems. Finally, coaching tools such as win–loss reviews, post-call analysis/feedback and role-playing are useful mechanisms to reinforce the right type of risk-taking selling behavior decisions.

Originality/value

The value of this research is to shed light on the importance of salesperson proactive behavior as a means to drive selling organizational performance and fostering long-term customer relationships. Understanding the drivers of proactivity among salespeople is the first step for sales management to be able to operationalize organizational strategies to develop, train and coach salespeople to be more proactive in their selling approach.

Details

Development and Learning in Organizations: An International Journal, vol. 30 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7282

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 April 2022

Parul Malik

The paper examines the role of learning organization in enhancing employees’ proactive work behavior. Furthermore, drawing on the conjectures of broaden-and-build and…

Abstract

Purpose

The paper examines the role of learning organization in enhancing employees’ proactive work behavior. Furthermore, drawing on the conjectures of broaden-and-build and conservation of resources theory, this study tested the mediating role of employee resilience on the relationship between learning organization and proactive work behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

The data for this study were collected over two measurement periods (six months apart) via a structured questionnaire among Indian IT/ITES (Information Technology Enabled Services) organizational employees. The study utilized confirmatory factor analysis to test the proposed measurement model. Additionally, the study employed Preacher and Hayes PROCESS macro to investigate the mediating effect of employee resilience.

Findings

The study results demonstrated that employee’s perceptions of learning organization (measured at time 1) positively predict proactive work behavior (measured at time 2), with the relationship being mediated by employee resilience (measured at time 1).

Practical implications

The study asserts that organizational practitioners who aim to boost their employees’ proactive behavior need to first invest in nurturing learning organization and focus on building their employees’ resilient capability. As a matter of fact, despite focusing on alleviating the adverse events and chiefly emphasizing on stress management, the organizational practitioners should concentrate on building their employees’ resilient capability.

Originality/value

The present study explores the links between learning organization, employee resilience and proactive work behavior. This study tested a cohesive research model to investigate the role of both the contextual and individual resilient capability in enhancing employee proactivity at work. Furthermore, the study unfolds the underlying mechanism between the study variables by exploring the mediating role of employee resilience.

Details

Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-4323

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 February 2022

Yoonhee Park, Jin Gu Lee, Hong Jeon Jeong, Min Sub Lim and Mi-Rae Oh

The purpose of this study is to investigate the structural relationships between protean career attitude, career resilience, proactive career behavior and external employability.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate the structural relationships between protean career attitude, career resilience, proactive career behavior and external employability.

Design/methodology/approach

This study sampled 212 training apprentice employees who participated in training programs using a proportional stratified sampling in South Korea. The study tested the research model using structural equation modeling.

Findings

This study revealed that protean career attitude influenced external employability through career resilience and proactive career behavior. Career resilience fully mediated the relationship between protean career attitude and external employability and partially mediated protean career attitude and proactive career behavior. Proactive career behavior also mediated the relationship between protean career attitude and external employability.

Research limitations/implications

This study has a limitation by relying on cross-sectional data. In terms of theoretical implications, this study can add new knowledge to the protean career research by demonstrating that the protean career attitude influences perceived external employability through career resilience and proactive career behavior for the sample of young training apprentice employees.

Originality/value

This study uncovers the dynamic processes between protean career attitude and perceived external employability. Moreover, this study’s sample is significant because training apprentice employees are mostly young in their 20s and 30s with less than three years of working experience and working in small and medium-sized enterprises in South Korea.

Details

Industrial and Commercial Training, vol. 54 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0019-7858

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 14 May 2013

Chia-Huei Wu, Sharon K. Parker and Uta K. Bindl

Scholars have argued that different forms of proactive behaviors (e.g., career initiative, feedback seeking, and taking charge) all involve employees’ self-initiated and…

Abstract

Scholars have argued that different forms of proactive behaviors (e.g., career initiative, feedback seeking, and taking charge) all involve employees’ self-initiated and future-focused efforts to bring about change in a situation (Parker et al., 2006). There are at least three important elements that define proactivity: future-focus, change-orientation, and self-initiation (Frese & Fay, 2001; Parker et al., 2006). First, proactive behavior is future-focused, which means that this action is targeted at anticipated problems or at opportunities with a long-term focus. Second, proactive behavior is change-oriented, involving not just reacting to a situation but being prepared to change that situation in order to bring about a different future. Third, and underpinning the prior two elements, proactive behavior is self-initiated, which means that employees initiate a proactive goal without being told to, or without requiring explicit instructions from supervisors. Accordingly, proactivity has also been conceived of as a process in which employees generate and implement, under their own direction, a proactive goal to bring about a different future (Bindl, Parker, Totterdell, & Hagger-Johnson, 2012; Frese & Fay, 2001; Grant & Ashford, 2008).

Details

Advances in Positive Organizational Psychology
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78052-000-1

Article
Publication date: 8 November 2021

Chiou-Shiu Lin, Ran Xiao, Pei-Chi Huang and Liang-Chih Huang

Drawing on signaling theory, the purpose of this study is to explore how high-performance work systems (HPWS) interact with leader–member exchange (LMX) to predict…

Abstract

Purpose

Drawing on signaling theory, the purpose of this study is to explore how high-performance work systems (HPWS) interact with leader–member exchange (LMX) to predict employees' proactive behavior and job engagement. Moreover, the present study also proposes the mediating role of job engagement in the interactive effects of HPWS and LMX quality on proactive behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

The data of this study include 228 customer-contact employees and 44 store managers from chain store enterprises in the service sector in Taiwan. The proposed models were tested with hierarchical linear modeling and Monte Carlo simulation.

Findings

The results show a significant interactive effect of HPWS and LMX on job engagement and proactive behavior. In addition, job engagement serves as a vital mechanism linking the interactive effect of HPWS and LMX quality on proactive behavior.

Originality/value

This study uses signaling theory to unpack the question when and how HPWS can be more influential on employees' proactive behavior. In particular, the positive effect of HPWS on proactive behavior is more prominent only when employees enjoy high LMX quality with their respective line managers. In addition, the interactive effects of HPWS and LMX quality on proactive behavior are mediated by job engagement. The findings provide valuable theoretical and managerial contribution by integrating HRM and leadership research.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 August 2021

Eyvind Helland, Marit Christensen, Siw Tone Innstrand and Karina Nielsen

This paper explores line managers' proactive work behaviors in organizational interventions and ascertains how their management of their middle-levelness by aligning with…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper explores line managers' proactive work behaviors in organizational interventions and ascertains how their management of their middle-levelness by aligning with the intervention, or not, influences their proactive work behaviors.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors’ findings are based on thematic analysis of 20 semi-structured interviews of university heads of departments responsible for managing organizational interventions.

Findings

The authors found that line managers engaged in a range of proactive work behaviors to implement the organizational intervention (i.e. “driving proactive behaviors”). Furthermore, line managers tended to engage in driving proactive behaviors when they aligned with the organizational intervention, but not to when unconvinced of the intervention's validity.

Practical implications

These findings highlight the importance of senior management and HR investing sufficient time and quality in the preparation phase to ensure all actors have a shared understanding of the organizational interventions' validity.

Originality/value

This is the first study to explore line managers' proactive work behaviors to implement an organizational intervention, and how the line managers' management of their middle-levelness influence these proactive work behaviors.

Details

International Journal of Workplace Health Management, vol. 14 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8351

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 January 2021

Makoto Matsuo, Takami Matsuo and Kohei Arai

Although middle managers play important roles in forming strategies and generating innovation, few studies have explored the influence of management control systems (MCS…

Abstract

Purpose

Although middle managers play important roles in forming strategies and generating innovation, few studies have explored the influence of management control systems (MCS) on employees’ behaviors or performance at the middle-management level. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect an interactive use of MCS has on individual performance at the unit level.

Design/methodology/approach

A longitudinal, multisource and multilevel survey was conducted among 373 nurses in 20 units at a Japanese public hospital.

Findings

The multi-level analyzes indicate that middle managers’ interactive use of MCS has a direct and indirect positive influence on individual performance, through proactive behavior, as well as through psychological empowerment and, subsequently, through proactive behavior.

Research limitations/implications

As the present study collected data from nurses at a Japanese hospital, it is necessary to conduct research in other countries using different occupations to verify the findings.

Practical implications

Organizations need to be aware that the interactive use of MCS can be an effective tool for empowering and motivating employees.

Originality/value

The present study contributes to the literature by clarifying the mechanisms of how the interactive use of MCS influences employees’ psychological and behavioral outcomes at the middle-management level.

Details

Journal of Accounting & Organizational Change, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1832-5912

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 15 May 2020

Yuanyuan Lan, Yuhuan Xia, Shuang Li, Wen Wu, Jiaqi Hui and Hui Deng

The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between supervisor and coworkers’ workplace incivility and newcomer proactive behaviors. Drawing on conservation…

2557

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between supervisor and coworkers’ workplace incivility and newcomer proactive behaviors. Drawing on conservation of resources (COR) theory, the authors examined resource depletion as a mediator and newcomer proactive personality, as well as their current organizational tenure as moderators of the relationship between workplace incivility toward newcomers and their proactive behaviors.

Design/methodology/approach

A time-lagged research design was used to test hypotheses with data covering 322 newcomers and their immediate supervisors in two subsidiaries of a large food processing company in China. Regression analysis using the PROCESS macro in SPSS is used to test the hypotheses.

Findings

The results show that workplace incivility toward newcomers is negatively related to their proactive behaviors. This relationship is mediated by resource depletion. Furthermore, newcomers’ proactive personality moderates the relationship between workplace incivility and resource depletion. Moreover, both the direct effect of workplace incivility on resource depletion and its indirect effect on newcomer proactive behaviors are moderated by the combination of newcomer proactive personality and their current organizational tenure.

Originality/value

Drawing on COR theory, a theoretical framework is constructed that specifies the process through which workplace incivility affects proactive behaviors to expand collective understandings of workplace incivility in the newcomer context. Furthermore, the boundary conditions of the underlying process are investigated, which further enhances the contribution of this paper to the extant literature on workplace incivility.

Details

Chinese Management Studies, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-614X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 April 2020

Muhammad Iskandar Hamzah, Abdul Kadir Othman and Faridah Hassan

Considering that little is known on market orientation at the individual level, this study investigates the effects of individual market orientation on proactive service…

Abstract

Purpose

Considering that little is known on market orientation at the individual level, this study investigates the effects of individual market orientation on proactive service behavior, and subsequently, sales performance among business-to-business salespeople. Based on social cognitive theory and competing values framework, this paper also examines the interaction effects of organizational culture on the link between individual market orientation and proactive service behavior.

Design/methodology/approach

The study sampled 539 business-to-business salespeople from 18 corporate banks in Kuala Lumpur by using a questionnaire survey.

Findings

The results of the study show that adhocracy culture strengthens the effects of information acquisition on proactive service behavior, while at the same time weakens the impact of coordination of strategic response on the same outcome. Meanwhile, rational culture displayed negative contingent effects of information dissemination on proactive service behavior.

Practical implications

Given its link to sales performance and proactive service behavior, banks should motivate their employees to embrace market orientation as individual competencies. This research outcome will aid managers in developing strategies and inculcating the right culture to ensure the market-oriented behaviors are internalized and transpired into positive outcomes.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the enrichment of the existing market orientation frameworks by offering underlying mechanisms (cultural environment and proactive service behavior) through which market-oriented behaviors contribute to the sales performance of business-to-business salespeople within the financial service industry. It is also among the earliest studies that examine the influence of individual market orientation and organizational culture on proactive service behavior.

Details

International Journal of Bank Marketing, vol. 38 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-2323

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 March 2018

Brenda E. Ghitulescu

Although proactivity is thought to have positive effects in the workplace, researchers still need to learn more about the contingent aspects of these effects. Proactivity…

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Abstract

Purpose

Although proactivity is thought to have positive effects in the workplace, researchers still need to learn more about the contingent aspects of these effects. Proactivity, a challenging form of promotive behavior that is generally desired by organizations, can lead to unexpected consequences such as role overload, job strain, and conflict with coworkers, which may undermine future proactivity. The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of proactive behavior on job satisfaction, affective commitment, and conflict with coworkers, in the context of collaborative work. This study investigates the extent to which collaborative behavior, an affiliative form of promotive behavior, can mitigate the impact of proactive behavior on conflict and promote positive individual psychosocial outcomes, thus making proactive behavior more sustainable in the workplace.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a survey methodology, data were collected from a sample of 170 teachers engaged in collaborative work.

Findings

Results show that both proactivity and collaborative behavior positively impact affective outcomes, but have opposite effects on conflict. Collaborative behavior complements proactive behavior in that it enhances the effects of proactivity on satisfaction and reduces its impact on conflict.

Research limitations/implications

Creating the appropriate organizational conditions to support employee proactivity is critical for enhancing proactive employees’ work experience and success, effectively motivating and retaining them, and promoting future proactivity. The results indicate that collaboration creates a context where the positive effects of proactivity are enhanced and its negative effects are weakened.

Originality/value

This research is one of the first studies to examine the interactive effects of proactivity and collaboration. The study shows that collaborative behavior can play an important role in enhancing the benefits of proactivity. Thus, the research advances a contingency perspective of proactivity and contributes to a better understanding of its effects.

Details

Personnel Review, vol. 47 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

Keywords

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