Search results

1 – 10 of over 13000
To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 11 May 2020

Asankha Pallegedara and Ajantha Sisira Kumara

Compared to other neighbouring South Asian countries, Sri Lanka performs well in terms of education outcomes. Education is provided by the government for free from primary…

Abstract

Purpose

Compared to other neighbouring South Asian countries, Sri Lanka performs well in terms of education outcomes. Education is provided by the government for free from primary school level to the first-degree University level, yet households’ private education expenses are steadily increasing over time. Thus, this paper analyses trends and determinants of household private education expenditures using the country-wide micro-data from 1990 to 2013.

Design/methodology/approach

Using Household Income and Expenditure Survey (HIES) 1990/91, 2002 and 2012/13 data along with annual school census data, this paper examines the relationship between private education expenditure patterns and the observed changes of reported both demand-side and supply-side factors. In particular, the present paper analyses determinants of household private education expenditures within the two-part model econometric framework by taking into account location and time fixed-effects.

Findings

The results show that trend of spending privately for education is increasing over time with rising household income. Rural, Tamil and Islamic households and those headed by less-educated members are less likely to spend privately for education. The results also confirm that improved-supply-side factors can significantly lower the household burden arising from out-of-pocket education expenditure.

Research limitations/implications

Unavailability of panel data and missing data on several districts due to security concerns are limitations of the study.

Social implications

The trend of increasing private education expenses has implications on equity concerns of education in Sri Lanka, and it can undermine the purpose of free public education policy.

Originality/value

To our knowledge, this is the first study for Sri Lanka that examines patterns and determinants of private education expenditures using nationwide data for last two decades. This paper applies novel econometric techniques to account for various issues in household survey data analysis.

Peer review

The peer review history for this article is available at: https://publons.com/publon/10.1108/IJSE-07-2019-0445

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. 47 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 30 September 2020

Dmitry V. Didenko

This chapter sheds light on long-term trends in the level and structural dynamics of investments in Russian human capital formation from government, corporations, and…

Abstract

This chapter sheds light on long-term trends in the level and structural dynamics of investments in Russian human capital formation from government, corporations, and households. It contributes to the literature discussing theoretical issues and empirical patterns of modernization, human development, as well as the transition from a centralized to a market economy. The empirical evidence is based on extensive utilization of the dataset introduced in Didenko, Földvári, and Van Leeuwen (2013). Our findings provide support for the view expressed in Gerschenkron (1962) that in late industrializers the government tended to substitute for the lack of capital and infrastructure by direct interventions. At least from the late nineteenth century the central government's and local authorities' budgets played the primary role. However, the role of nongovernment sources increased significantly since the mid-1950s, i.e., after the crucial breakthrough to an industrial society had been made. During the transition to a market economy in the 1990s and 2000s the level of government contributions decreased somewhat in education, and more significantly in research and development, but its share in overall financing expanded. In education corporate funds were largely replaced by those from households. In health care, Russia is characterized by an increasing share of out-of-pocket payments of households and slow development of organized forms of nonstate financing. These trends reinforce obstacles to Russia's future transition, as regards institutional change toward a more significant and sound role of the corporate sector in such branches as R&D, health care, and, to a lesser extent, education.

Details

Research in Economic History
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-179-7

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here

Abstract

Details

Explaining Growth in the Middle East
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-44452-240-5

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 26 September 2008

Merwan Engineer, Ian King and Nilanjana Roy

The human development index (HDI) and gender‐related development index (GDI) have become accepted as leading measures for ranking human well being in different countries…

Abstract

Purpose

The human development index (HDI) and gender‐related development index (GDI) have become accepted as leading measures for ranking human well being in different countries. The purpose of this paper is to identify the planning policies that improve these indices and to also suggest modifications to the indices that yield more sensible policies.Design/methodology/approach – This paper solves the first‐best welfare problem in which the planner maximizes a development index subject to resource constraints.Findings – Planning strategies that maximize the HDI tend towards minimizing consumption and maximizing expenditures on education and health. Interestingly, such strategies also tend towards equitable allocations, even though inequality aversion is not modelled in the HDI. The paper shows that the GDI generates optimal plans with similar properties, and determine when the GDI and HDI generate consistent optimal plans. A problematic feature of the optimal plans is that the income component in the HDI (or GDI) does not play its intended role of securing resources for a decent standard of living. Rather, it acts to distort the allocation between health and education expenditure. The paper argues that it is better to drop income from the index. Alternatively, the paper considers net income, income net of education and health expenditures, as indicating capabilities not already reflected in the index. Finally, it compares how the modified indices and the HDI rank countries.Originality/value – The paper is believed to be the first to integrate development indices into national development planning.

Details

Indian Growth and Development Review, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8254

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 3 October 2012

Seema Joshi

– The purpose of this paper is to identify the role of universities in the service sector innovation system of India.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the role of universities in the service sector innovation system of India.

Design/methodology/approach

Use was made of secondary sources of data such as various reports, books and journals, to gather information on what constitutes the national innovation system (NIS) of a country. An attempt was made to assess the performance of India ' s innovation system, which comprises investment, infrastructure, knowledge and skill generation, and relations and linkages. The author made broad use of this conceptual framework to make an assessment of the performance of the changing service sector innovation system in India. To examine the performance of India ' s NIS, three elements were focused on: R & D, FDI in services, and status of higher education sector.

Findings

The paper concludes that India has a well-functioning service sector innovation system yet much needs to be done if India wants to keep alive her ambition of becoming a knowledge powerhouse or innovation superpower. Moreover, the private sector can play an important role in the improvement of quality of education, as has been revealed by the example of NASSCOM.

Originality/value

While there is some research on the NIS of India, not much has been written about the service sector innovation system of India. The paper fills this gap in the current literature to some extent.

Details

World Journal of Science, Technology and Sustainable Development, vol. 9 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-5945

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 17 December 2003

Hyunjoon Park

During the past few decades, South Korea has experienced a remarkable educational expansion at its secondary and tertiary levels as well as at the primary level, resulting…

Abstract

During the past few decades, South Korea has experienced a remarkable educational expansion at its secondary and tertiary levels as well as at the primary level, resulting in extraordinary variation between the educational attainment of recent and older cohorts. Using 1990 data from the Social Inequality Study in Korea, the study examines trends in the influence of social background on educational attainment across three male cohorts born between 1921 and 1970. Although in general the impacts of social origin have changed little at the secondary levels of education, there is a significant reduction in the effect of father’s occupation on the odds of completing middle school for the youngest cohort. From a multinomial model of transitions to each type of tertiary education, it is found that family background has a stronger effect in the transition from high school to four-year university than to junior college. Interestingly, there has been an increase across cohorts in the influence of father’s education on the likelihood of entering a university, while such a pattern is not observed for the transition to junior college.

Details

Inequality Across Societies: Familes, Schools and Persisting Stratification
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-76231-061-6

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 19 November 2013

Christopher Lubienski and Jin Lee

This analysis addresses the question of how the goals motivating policies around markets for supplementary education are supported and reflected (or not) in the subsequent…

Abstract

Purpose

This analysis addresses the question of how the goals motivating policies around markets for supplementary education are supported and reflected (or not) in the subsequent structures for those markets.

Design/methodology/approach

Drawing on policy documents and empirical research on these policies, we examine the policy contexts and market structures the low-intensity form of supplementary education (SE) seen in the United States relative to the high-intensity case of Korea – specifically, the supplementary educational services (SESs) of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 and the After School Programs (ASPs) in Korea, respectively.

Findings

The analysis finds that Korea is using school-based SE programs as an alternative to existing SE markets in order to mediate perceived free-market excesses, while the United States is subsidizing SE markets to address the negative consequences of inequitable schooling. Yet, even in different contexts and purposes, policymakers in both countries see a value to supplementary education as part of their overall education strategy, despite a lack of evidence on the effectiveness of these approaches. This commonality is reflective of the larger neoliberal approach, evident around the globe, of using market forces such as competitive incentives and parental choice to drive policy toward social objectives.

Originality/value

The significance of this analysis is the insight that these policy approaches, while different in context and policy specifics, represent an overall blurring of traditional distinctions between public and private organizations.

Details

Out of the Shadows: The Global Intensification of Supplementary Education
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-816-7

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Book part
Publication date: 4 December 2020

Eva Erjavec

Education promotes the development of human capital, which has long been studied in the literature as a key determinant of economic development. Education is today listed…

Abstract

Education promotes the development of human capital, which has long been studied in the literature as a key determinant of economic development. Education is today listed as key part of public intangible capital and is further studied in the context of new growth determinants. This chapter extends the analysis of the contribution of education as a public intangible capital to the economic growth. It shows that education in fact promotes all three components of sustainable development. First, education promotes economic development and higher value-added creation, second, it is related to better and more job opportunities, higher wages, promotes health, etc., and consequently contributes to the achievement of the “social” dimension of sustainable development. Last, more educated population is also more prone toward supporting environmental goals. Therefore, investment into education is very important from the perspective of sustainable development. With offering a range of opportunities to individuals, the role of public education and policy-making in the field is essential to promote sustainable development from this perspective.

Details

Challenges on the Path Toward Sustainability in Europe
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80043-972-6

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 25 June 2020

Meznah Alazmi and Ayeshah Ahmed Alazmi

The extent of Private Supplementary Tutoring (PST) upon higher education has received little attention in the academic literature. This study endeavours to discover the…

Abstract

Purpose

The extent of Private Supplementary Tutoring (PST) upon higher education has received little attention in the academic literature. This study endeavours to discover the extent of the PST phenomenon and the socioeconomic determinants behind the demand for it amongst students in science-related disciplines at Kuwait University (KU).

Design/methodology/approach

A quantitative research paradigm was employed. By using a questionnaire survey method, data was collected from 475 participating students from twelve different colleges at KU. The questionnaires were analyzed using SPSS.

Findings

The findings showed that 50.1% of students employing PST in KU to some extent. The study also found that PST is more important in certain subjects than others. The students and/or their families also bear the cost of these extra educational expenses. The findings also indicated that a college student’s gender, the academic year of study, university allowance, alternative income sources, family financial status and monetary support all play a statistically significant role in whether they receive PST.

Practical implications

deeper analysis of these factors, which underly the demand for PST, may offer a better understanding of its role in higher education, the functionality of higher education as a whole, and the effects of current policy and the political landscape.

Originality/value

While significant attention has been given to PST in K-12 education over the last few decades, this study is extended significantly into the as-yet uncharted waters of higher education. This study focused on PST in higher education and the socioeconomic determinants behind its demand.

Details

Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2050-7003

Keywords

To view the access options for this content please click here
Article
Publication date: 1 June 2003

Jack Wood

Understanding the concept of a knowledge‐based economy; having a vision to make a new knowledge economy competitive; and creating and implementing a strategy to achieve…

Abstract

Understanding the concept of a knowledge‐based economy; having a vision to make a new knowledge economy competitive; and creating and implementing a strategy to achieve that vision, would all seem to be fundamental steps for any economy striving to compete in the new global knowledge marketplace. While such issues may appear obvious, how many economies have actually responded effectively to these challenges? This paper first examines the concept of a knowledge‐based economy and then evaluates the relative performance of Australia across a profile of key knowledge‐based performance indicators. Finally, the paper addresses some key challenges facing Australia, and most other OECD economies, as they try to compete in this knowledge race in the new millennium.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 13000