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Article
Publication date: 11 April 2017

Kelly L. Patterson, Molly Ranahan, Robert M. Silverman and Li Yin

Community benefits agreements (CBAs) redistribute the benefits of new development to distressed communities and historically disenfranchised groups. They allow coalitions…

Abstract

Purpose

Community benefits agreements (CBAs) redistribute the benefits of new development to distressed communities and historically disenfranchised groups. They allow coalitions of labor and grassroots organizations to negotiate for concessions in the development process. Yet, CBAs are a relatively new tool used in planning and local economic development, and specification about their content and scope is evolving. Some of the earliest CBAs were negotiated in cities experiencing an influx of new growth and investment. However, less is known about the scope of CBA negotiations in shrinking cities where economic development is relatively anemic. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper offers an extension to the existing literature through an exploratory analysis of the scope of CBAs in the ten fastest shrinking cities in the USA between 2000 and 2010. The analysis is organized in three parts. First, the authors present a CBA typology that differentiates among CBAs negotiated with developers in the public, private and nonprofit sectors. Second, the authors compare neighborhood conditions in shrinking cities with CBAs to those without negotiated agreements. Finally, the authors discuss critical cases where CBA negotiations have occurred in shrinking cities.

Findings

Grassroots coalitions have more leverage when negotiating for concessions with private sector developers vs developers from the public and nonprofit sectors. The added leverage is attributed to the high profile and limited public benefits associated with projects pursued by private sector developers. Moreover, shrinking cities face additional obstacles when negotiating CBAs. The authors concluded that cities with the highest levels of physical distress are the least likely to negotiate and adopt CBAs.

Originality/value

This paper contributes to the literature by focusing on CBAs in shrinking cities. It also highlights nuisances in CBA negotiations with developers from the private, public and nonprofit sectors. Although the analysis focused on the US context, the inclusion of these perspectives in the CBA typology provides researchers in other institutional settings with a common framework for comparative analysis.

Details

International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, vol. 37 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-333X

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 22 July 2020

Pierluigi Morano, Francesco Tajani and Debora Anelli

The present research aims to develop and test an evaluation support model for decisions alert soil surface saving to be used in the redevelopment of abandoned and degraded…

Abstract

Purpose

The present research aims to develop and test an evaluation support model for decisions alert soil surface saving to be used in the redevelopment of abandoned and degraded properties through involvement of private developers.

Design/methodology/approach

Adapting operations research principles to the public–private partnership features that are typical of urban planning issues, the model pursues a complex objective function, that concerns urban parameters to be attributed to properties to be recovered. An elaboration of a Pareto-optimal frontier has defined possible scenarios for different trends of the variables under consideration.

Findings

The efficiency of the model is verified through application to a real case study concerning urban renewal of a property in disuse located in a city in Southern Italy. The outputs confirm the potentialities and flexibility of the proposed model to support urban planning decisions by improving the implementation of conservation policies, in terms of a reduced impact of urban transformation projects on the available natural land surface.

Practical implications

Depending on the objectives of public sector, the model can generate a range of urban parameter combinations to be attributed to the recovered properties to achieve low consumption of natural surfaces, with bargaining between the public and private sectors around these parameters. The model can also be used in the initial phases of the renewal initiative, when it is necessary to define the costs and the revenues involved or to assess alternative solutions capable of reducing impacts on the environment.

Originality/value

The model can be applied to identify the appropriate rewards in a project that can stimulate the private developers to realize further public infrastructures and services than minimum quantities established by the current local urban regulations. In this sense, the model represents an original scientific reference in the current strategies promoted by the European Union for achievement of a “no net land take” by 2050, aimed at reducing natural surface occupied by buildings and roads.

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Article
Publication date: 9 April 2018

Akintayo Opawole and Godwin Onajite Jagboro

The purpose of this paper is to develop compensation mechanisms against risks factors that impact private party’s costs in concession-based projects as a basis for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop compensation mechanisms against risks factors that impact private party’s costs in concession-based projects as a basis for minimizing failure rate of concession contracts.

Design/methodology/approach

The study extended earlier work on the factors that impact private party’s costs in concession-based projects by developing compensation mechanisms against the risks factors. It commenced with semi-structured face-to-face interviews which were launched with different stakeholders organizations that had been involved in PPP contracts in the Southwestern Nigeria. Responses from the interview were analyzed using interpretative phenomenal analysis via ATLAS.ti6/7. The mechanisms identified from literature review were assessed through structured questionnaire which were administered on professionals selected from governmental-based organizations (ministries, agencies, corporations/parastatals, etc.), private developers/concessionaires, law firms, banks among others, using the respondent-driven sampling technique. The robustness of the quantitative data was achieved by including the initial respondents to the interview in the questionnaire survey. The quantitative data were analyzed using percentile for better understanding of the flexibility between “most” and “more” preferred mechanisms. The criterion for the selection of appropriate mechanism(s) for the factors was based on minimum average of 20.0 percent (the ratio of maximum percentage (100 percent) of the respondents to total number of variables) suggesting the five identified mechanisms. The results in both cases of qualitative and quantitative assessments were compared. Based on the convergences of the findings, preferred compensation mechanisms were developed against concession contract risk factors.

Findings

Options of mechanisms were developed against specific investment risks that are consequent to the defaults of the public party in PPP contracts. The findings indicate that the mechanisms in extant literature with respect to administration of traditional models are relevant for PPPs. The study, however, identified new concepts, including “compensative” “zero compensation,” “equitable sharing” and “adjustment of concession period,” which are suitable in specific cases of PPP contracts.

Practical implications

The study contributes to the body of knowledge on mechanisms for improving PPP project performance. Moreover, insights were provided on mechanisms that satisfy private investor in case of specific risk factors investigated. The findings are therefore expected to guide private party in the preparation of concession contract package that minimizes investments risks and thereby attracting more private investors both from local and international environments. The findings of the study would also contribute to the body of information for documenting standard conditions of concession contract in Nigeria.

Originality/value

Studies on critical performance factors on PPP were extended by developing compensation mechanisms against the investment risks that impact private party’s cost.

Details

International Journal of Building Pathology and Adaptation, vol. 36 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4708

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2021

The Su Nyein and Bonaventura H.W. Hadikusumo

To provide low-cost housing, the Myanmar Government is attempting to use public–private partnership (PPP) to attract private investors. However, there is little…

Abstract

Purpose

To provide low-cost housing, the Myanmar Government is attempting to use public–private partnership (PPP) to attract private investors. However, there is little information concerning the influencing factors for implementing PPP low-cost housing projects in Myanmar. This paper, therefore, aims to identify and analyse these factors.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 51 in-depth interviews were conducted with interviewees involved in various kinds of housing projects implemented through the adoption of PPP or other approaches. The methods of data collection and the analysis are based on grounded theory (GT) methodology.

Findings

Using the GT method to analyse the interviews, five categories emerged from 50 influencing factors regarding the establishment and implementation of the PPP model for low-cost housing in Myanmar: provision of incentives; obstacles in implementing PPP for all stakeholders; barriers to private sector participation; public sector responsibilities and challenges; and attraction factors and challenges for financial institutions. Among 12 newly found factors, the three most important for PPP low-cost housing in Myanmar are the availability of project funding, the resolution of land-acquisition issues and the development of a sound financing system.

Research limitations/implications

Our findings strengthen previous studies by identifying factors affecting PPP low-cost housing either specific to Myanmar or common among other countries. Of the 50 factors identified, 38 factors were found in previous studies, but 12 are likely specific to Myanmar.

Practical implications

Our findings can be used by governments, particularly the Myanmar Government, and financial agencies to understand the low attractiveness of PPP low-cost housing for investors and to develop/improve policies to stimulate PPP low-cost housing, especially in Myanmar.

Originality/value

Many previous studies have been undertaken to identify factors that influence the implementation of PPP for low-cost housing. However, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, there are no prior studies specific to Myanmar in this context.

Details

Journal of Financial Management of Property and Construction , vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-4387

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 March 2021

Johnson Kampamba, Simon Kachepa and Kefilwe Omphemetse Seketeme

Student housing (SH) is very critical in the learning process of students, as it can affect their academic performance. It has been noted that tertiary institutions in…

Abstract

Purpose

Student housing (SH) is very critical in the learning process of students, as it can affect their academic performance. It has been noted that tertiary institutions in Botswana are failing to provide adequate accommodation to cater the growing student population. Despite the shortage of housing, private property developers are not keen on participating in SH provision. The purpose of this study is to therefore assess the factors influencing minimum participation of property developers in SH provision in Gaborone, Botswana.

Design/methodology/approach

Data for this study was collected from both primary and secondary sources. Primary data was collected from property developers in Gaborone through the use of a questionnaire. Secondary data on the other hand was collected from books, reports and journal articles. Data was analysed by using Statistical Package for Social Sciences and Microsoft Excel.

Findings

The findings from the study revealed that the factors that affect property developers participation in SH provision are low income derived from SH, limitations in multi sectoral approach, poor site location, lack of partnerships between developers and universities, high maintenance and renovation costs and lack of policies and legislation regarding SH. The factors that highly had an impact on property developers are financial factors, followed by institutional factors, demographic factors, physical factors and, finally, human factors. A private–public partnerships model aimed at enhancing developers’ participation in SH provision was developed in the study.

Research limitations/implications

The small sample size used has had a negative impact on the results, as no factors were identified as limiting property developers’ participation in SH.

Originality/value

This paper extends the knowledge on factors influencing property developers’ minimal participation in SH provision by coming up with a model that could enhance their participation in SH provision.

Details

International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8270

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2017

T H Tan, H. K. Samihah and S. N. Phang

Affordable housing has become an important issue with the greatest need being in urban centres. Currently, an increase in urban population growth is higher than the supply…

Abstract

Affordable housing has become an important issue with the greatest need being in urban centres. Currently, an increase in urban population growth is higher than the supply of affordable housing, and this has resulted in a severe shortage of affordable housing as house builders are unable to construct houses at prices which are low enough for urban middle income households. Despite efforts by the Malaysian government to launch homeownership schemes for first-time homebuyers, most private housing developers might not be motivated to participate in these schemes. One of the major reasons for the disappointing supply affordable house under these schemes is mainly due to institutional and economic issueslinked to the construction of such houses in the country. This paper looks at the challenges facing private housing developers in affordable housing provision and makes recommendations to address housing affordability in the country.

Details

Open House International, vol. 42 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2018

Robert Osei-Kyei, Albert P.C. Chan, Ayirebi Dansoh, Joseph Kwame Ofori-Kuragu and Emmanuel Kingsford Owusu

The purpose of this study is to explore the motivations of governments for adopting unsolicited proposals for public–private partnership (PPP) project implementation.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore the motivations of governments for adopting unsolicited proposals for public–private partnership (PPP) project implementation.

Design/methodology/approach

A comprehensive review of literature was conducted to derive a list of motivations for adopting unsolicited PPPs. Subsequently, an empirical questionnaire survey was conducted with international PPP experts. Inter-rater agreement analysis, mean significance index and independent two-sample t-test were used for data analysis.

Findings

Results reveal four very critical motivations for governments’ interest in unsolicited PPPs; these include: “enhanced private sector innovation and creativity in PPPs”; “lack of public sector capacity to identify, prioritise and procure projects”; “lack of private investors’/developers’ interest in projects at remote areas”; and “rapid implementation of PPP projects”. Further analysis shows that developing and developed countries view the significance of three motivations differently.

Research limitations/implications

The major limitation lies in the fact that this study only focused on the general motivations/rationale for using unsolicited PPP proposals and did not thoroughly examine and consider the inherent property of motivations (i.e. push and pull theories). Therefore, future studies should explore the “pull and push” motivations for adopting unsolicited PPPs within a specific country or region.

Originality/value

The research outputs inform international private developers of the key expectations of governments/public departments when submitting unsolicited PPP proposals for consideration by the public sector. Furthermore, the outputs will enable governments/public departments and private proponents to derive performance objectives and standards for unsolicited PPP projects.

Details

Journal of Financial Management of Property and Construction, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1366-4387

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 September 2018

Qian Xingyu and Yin Chengzhi

Playing as a global city, to maintain the economic dynamics and urban vitality, Hong Kong government would like to take urban regeneration in urban core as a kind of urban…

Abstract

Playing as a global city, to maintain the economic dynamics and urban vitality, Hong Kong government would like to take urban regeneration in urban core as a kind of urban growth strategy. The government monopolizes land supply for urban development through the leasehold system, while the redevelopment agency is authorized to take land acquisition for urban redevelopment. The transformation of agency from Land Development Corporation (LDC) to Urban Renewal Authority (URA) reflected the formation of a coalition composed of quasi-public redevelopment agency and private developer, which facilitates land and property resumption in urban redevelopment. The URA-led projects often tend to redevelop obsolete communities into up-market neighborhoods, which possibly enables redevelopment agency and developers to gain more economic benefits from real estate appreciation. Nevertheless, evidences from some large redevelopment projects conducted by URA in Hong Kong such as Lee Tung Street, Langham Palace and Kennedy Town have presented that urban redevelopment is closely associated with gentrification triggered by displacement of original neighborhood residents. Hence gentrification in Hong Kong has raised more and more concerns about booming housing price as well as fragmentation of social networks. Through urban regime combined with growth machine approach, this paper will explain the collusion of redevelopment agency and private developers that jointly turns the URA-led redevelopment into neighborhood gentrification. And by examining Kwun Tong Town Centre Project (KTTCP), findings indicate that soaring property value will crowd low-income groups and working classes out from their original neighborhoods; and then those gentrified residential estates will be occupied by rich class. Moreover, increasing rent and operation costs will inevitably eliminate those family-operated small businesses; and then they will be superseded by high-end retailing and services. In this way, urban morphology will be reshaped perpetually through more and more gentrified neighborhoods.

Details

Open House International, vol. 43 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0168-2601

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 29 August 2008

Wisa Majamaa, Matti Kuronen, Chris Heywood and Juha Kostiainen

The purpose of this paper is to examine the identification and engagement of future inhabitants in planning processes for residential developments using a new “4Ps”…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the identification and engagement of future inhabitants in planning processes for residential developments using a new “4Ps” participation method, where the 4Ps denote public, private and people are in partnership. This form of participation gives new information, related to consumers' residential choice, unlike those environments produced by using other participation methods.

Design/methodology/approach

The empirical study is based on innovation theory where end‐users are primary stakeholders in the innovation process, and even innovators themselves. A case study of a new participation method based on a two‐phase internet questionnaire is used to research practical solutions in integrating end‐users into urban planning process.

Findings

This paper demonstrates that the widely used theory of communicative action in planning and its aim of increasing citizens' activity in planning and development processes can be developed to the stage that it also includes future inhabitants as stakeholders. Thus urban planning processes become innovative and customer‐oriented through their openness, end‐user orientation and interpretative nature.

Originality/value

The case study findings indicate that the new participation method described here gives flexibility and benefits to all stakeholders and is a method to create consumer‐desirable neighbourhoods. Engaging future inhabitants in planning processes opens previously unseen potential for including consumerist possibilities for cities and developers. This paper illustrates that this new 4Ps participation method makes comprehensive participatory planning and development possible through giving an opportunity to include consumers' opinions and needs into an alternative to traditional communicative planning.

Details

International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis, vol. 1 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8270

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 4 April 2008

Wisa Majamaa, Matti Kuronen, Juha Kostiainen and Chris Heywood

This paper aims to examine the identification and engagement of future inhabitants in urban planning processes using a new “public–private–people partnerships (4Ps)”…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the identification and engagement of future inhabitants in urban planning processes using a new “public–private–people partnerships (4Ps)” participation method, where public, private and people are in partnership. This form of participation gives new information, related to consumers’ residential choice, unlike those environments produced by using other participation methods.

Design/methodology/approach

The empirical study is based in innovation theory where end‐users are primary stakeholders in the innovation process, and even innovators themselves. A case study of a new participation method based on a two‐phase internet questionnaire is used to research practical solutions in integrating end‐users into urban planning process.

Findings

This paper demonstrates that the widely used theory of communicative action in planning and its aim of increasing citizens’ activity in planning and development processes can be developed to the stage that it also includes future inhabitants as stakeholders. Thus urban planning processes become innovative and customer‐oriented through their openness, end‐user orientation and interpretative nature.

Originality/value

The case study findings indicate that the new participation method described here gives flexibility and benefits to all stakeholders and is a method to create consumer desirable neighborhoods. Engaging future inhabitants in planning processes opens previously unseen potential for including consumerist possibilities for cities and developers. This paper illustrates that this new 4Ps participation method makes comprehensive participatory planning and development possible through giving an opportunity to include consumers’ opinions and needs into an alternative to traditional communicative planning.

Details

International Journal of Housing Markets and Analysis, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8270

Keywords

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