Search results

1 – 10 of over 94000
Book part
Publication date: 15 December 1998

Fraser McLeod

This paper addresses the problem of bunching of buses and how it may be counter-acted. An algorithm is presented for providing selective priority to buses at traffic…

Abstract

This paper addresses the problem of bunching of buses and how it may be counter-acted. An algorithm is presented for providing selective priority to buses at traffic signals according to their headways, the highest levels of priority being given to those buses with the highest headways, i.e. those buses which are running late or falling behind the bus in front.

Alternative selective priority strategies are evaluated in terms of their effects on bus journey time regularity, bus delay and general traffic delay. A simulation model SPLIT (Selective Priority for Late buses Implemented at Traffic signals) has been developed to investigate the performance of different priority strategies. The paper describes the details of the model, including bus stop dwell times and overlapping bus services, and compares results obtained from the model for a number of different priority strategies.

This work was driven by the keen interest in bus priority applications in London within the EC DGVII project INCOME.

Details

Mathematics in Transport Planning and Control
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-08-043430-8

Article
Publication date: 21 September 2015

Iestyn Williams

The purpose of this paper is to take forward consideration of context in health care priority setting and to offer some practical strategies for priority setters to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to take forward consideration of context in health care priority setting and to offer some practical strategies for priority setters to increase receptiveness to their work.

Design/methodology/approach

A number of tools and methods have been devised with the aim of making health care priority setting more robust and evidence based. However, in order to routinely take and implement priority setting decisions, decision makers require the support, or at least the acquiescence, of key external parties. In other words, the priority setting process requires a receptive context if it is to proceed unhindered.

Findings

The priority setting process requires a receptive context if it is to proceed unhindered.

Originality/value

This paper develops the concept of legitimacy in the “authorising environment” in priority setting and describes strategies which might help decision makers to create a receptive context, and to manage relationships with external stakeholders.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 29 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1984

J. Browne and B.J. Davies

Much research has been reported on the possibilities of using various heuristic priority rules to sequence batches through a job shop. The SPT (Shortest Priority Time…

Abstract

Much research has been reported on the possibilities of using various heuristic priority rules to sequence batches through a job shop. The SPT (Shortest Priority Time) heuristic, or modifications to it, has been proved useful in many studies. This paper reports on the results obtained when simulating the work flow through a real machine shop. The simulation model has been used to test the effect on well known priority rules of releasing batches into the shop in order of decreasing expected throughput time. The important effect of this “phased release” of batches was to increase the percentage of batches delivered in finished parts stores on time, particularly in the case where priority rules were in use which might otherwise have resulted in poor delivery. This has important repercussions for management because it implies that by “phased” release of batches in the manner discussed, a large proportion of batches will be delivered on time whatever priority rule is in operation in the shop.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 15 December 1998

Jarkko Niittymäki

Traffic signal control is one of the oldest application areas of fuzzy sets in transportation. In general, fuzzy control is found to be superior in complex problems with…

Abstract

Traffic signal control is one of the oldest application areas of fuzzy sets in transportation. In general, fuzzy control is found to be superior in complex problems with multi-objective decisions. In traffic signal control, several traffic flows compete for the same time and space, and different priorities are often set to different traffic flows or vehicle groups

The public transport priorities are a very important part of the effective traffic signal control. Normally, the public transport priorities are programmed by using special algorithms, which are tailor-made for each intersection. The experiences have proved that this kind of algorithms can be very effective if some compensation algorithms and the traffic-actuated control mode are used. We believe that using the fuzzified public transport priority algorithms, the measures of effectiveness of traffic signal control can be even better. In this paper, our fuzzy control algorithm of the public transport priorities will be presented.

Details

Mathematics in Transport Planning and Control
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-08-043430-8

Book part
Publication date: 12 August 2014

Craig Mitton, François Dionne and Diane Schmidt

The purpose of this chapter is to describe a method for priority setting that can be used to identify options for disinvestment, and is also meant to serve as a tool for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this chapter is to describe a method for priority setting that can be used to identify options for disinvestment, and is also meant to serve as a tool for re-allocation of resources to achieve better outcomes with a given pot of resources.

Approach

This chapter draws on findings from the application of a priority setting and resource allocation framework known as Program Budgeting and Marginal Analysis (PBMA). Case studies are used to illustrate key points around implementation including factors for success and guidelines for improving priority setting in practice.

Findings

PBMA has been applied in over 150 settings over the last 30 years. Purposes varied from focusing strictly on disinvestment to examining opportunities for re-allocation. Many organizations report continued use of the framework and decision makers typically express a desire to not revert to historical allocation or political negotiation in deciding on the funding for programs.

Practical implications

Practical implications of this body of work on priority setting abound in that there are significant opportunities to improve resource allocation practice including better engagement of staff, clinicians and public members, greater use of evidence in decision making and improving process transparency.

Social implications

As healthcare resources are limited, particularly in predominantly publicly funded health systems, prudent use of resources is critical. Actually applying the appropriate tools to ensure that funding aligns with organizational and system objectives is paramount.

Originality/value

Although there is a large body of literature on priority setting particularly in countries like the United Kingdom and Canada, this chapter serves to highlight key messages specifically in the context of fiscal constraint and in relation to the concept of disinvestment or service reduction.

Details

Reconfiguring the Ecosystem for Sustainable Healthcare
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-035-3

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 20 July 2005

Lilia Pavlovsky

It has been suggested that “space and artifacts constitute systems of communication which organizations build up within themselves” (Gagliardi, 1992a, b, p. vi) and…

Abstract

It has been suggested that “space and artifacts constitute systems of communication which organizations build up within themselves” (Gagliardi, 1992a, b, p. vi) and reflect the cultural life within that organization. This is a study of how the “landscape” of a public library (“Library X”), as an information retrieval system, relates to the values of the people who created it. The efforts here are geared towards understanding the physical instantiation of institutional culture and, more specifically, institutional values as they are reflected through the artifact.

Details

Advances in Library Administration and Organization
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-338-9

Abstract

Details

Megaproject Risk Analysis and Simulation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-830-1

Abstract

Details

Progressive Leadership: Challenging the Theory of the Firm in the 21st Century
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-568-4

Book part
Publication date: 31 July 2013

Cathy Van Dyck, Nicoletta G. Dimitrova, Dirk F. de Korne and Frans Hiddema

The main goal of the current research was to investigate whether and how leaders in health care organizations can stimulate incident reporting and error management by…

Abstract

Purpose

The main goal of the current research was to investigate whether and how leaders in health care organizations can stimulate incident reporting and error management by “walking the safety talk” (enacted priority of safety).

Design/methodology/approach

Open interviews (N=26) and a cross-sectional questionnaire (N=183) were conducted at the Rotterdam Eye Hospital (REH) in The Netherlands.

Findings

As hypothesized, leaders’ enacted priority of safety was positively related to incident reporting and error management, and the relation between leaders’ enacted priority of safety and error management was mediated by incident reporting. The interviews yielded rich data on (near) incidents, the leaders’ role in (non)reporting, and error management, grounding quantitative findings in concrete case descriptions.

Research implications

We support previous theorizing by providing empirical evidence showing that (1) enacted priority of safety has a stronger relationship with incident reporting than espoused priority of safety and (2) the previously implied positive link between incident reporting and error management indeed exists. Moreover, our findings extend our understanding of behavioral integrity for safety and the mechanisms through which it operates in medical settings.

Practical implications

Our findings indicate that for the promotion of incident reporting and error management, active reinforcement of priority of safety by leaders is crucial.

Value/originality

Social sciences researchers, health care researchers and health care practitioners can utilize the findings of the current paper in order to help leaders create health care systems characterized by higher incident reporting and more constructive error handling.

Details

Leading in Health Care Organizations: Improving Safety, Satisfaction and Financial Performance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-633-0

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 9 February 2022

Hafiz Muhammad Athar Farid and Muhammad Riaz

The authors develop some prioritized operators named Pythagorean fuzzy prioritized averaging operator with priority degrees and Pythagorean fuzzy prioritized geometric…

Abstract

Purpose

The authors develop some prioritized operators named Pythagorean fuzzy prioritized averaging operator with priority degrees and Pythagorean fuzzy prioritized geometric operator with priority degrees. The properties of the existing method are routinely compared to those of other current approaches, emphasizing the superiority of the presented work over currently used methods. Furthermore, the impact of priority degrees on the aggregate outcome is thoroughly examined. Further, based on these operators, a decision-making approach is presented under the Pythagorean fuzzy set environment. An illustrative example related to the selection of the best alternative is considered to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach.

Design/methodology/approach

In real-world situations, Pythagorean fuzzy numbers are exceptionally useful for representing ambiguous data. The authors look at multi-criteria decision-making issues in which the parameters have a prioritization relationship. The idea of a priority degree is introduced. The aggregation operators are formed by awarding non-negative real numbers known as priority degrees among strict priority levels. Consequently, the authors develop some prioritized operators named Pythagorean fuzzy prioritized averaging operator with priority degrees and Pythagorean fuzzy prioritized geometric operator with priority degrees.

Findings

The authors develop some prioritized operators named Pythagorean fuzzy prioritized averaging operator with priority degrees and Pythagorean fuzzy prioritized geometric operator with priority degrees. The properties of the existing method are routinely compared to those of other current approaches, emphasizing the superiority of the presented work over currently used methods. Furthermore, the impact of priority degrees on the aggregate outcome is thoroughly examined. Further, based on these operators, a decision-making approach is presented under the Pythagorean fuzzy set environment. An illustrative example related to the selection of the best alternative is considered to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach.

Originality/value

The aggregation operators are formed by awarding non-negative real numbers known as priority degrees among strict priority levels. Consequently, the authors develop some prioritized operators named Pythagorean fuzzy prioritized averaging operator with priority degrees and Pythagorean fuzzy prioritized geometric operator with priority degrees. The properties of the existing method are routinely compared to those of other current approaches, emphasizing the superiority of the presented work over currently used methods. Furthermore, the impact of priority degrees on the aggregate outcome is thoroughly examined.

Details

International Journal of Intelligent Computing and Cybernetics, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-378X

Keywords

1 – 10 of over 94000