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Article

Sharon Hovav and Avi Herbon

Annual influenza epidemics cause great losses in both human and financial terms. The purpose of this paper is to propose a model for optimizing a large-scale influenza…

Abstract

Purpose

Annual influenza epidemics cause great losses in both human and financial terms. The purpose of this paper is to propose a model for optimizing a large-scale influenza vaccination program (VP). The goal is to minimize the total cost of the vaccination supply chain while guaranteeing a sufficiently high level of population protection. From a practical point of view, the analysis returns the number of shipments and the quantity of vaccines in each periodic shipment that should be delivered from the manufacturers to the distribution center (DC), from the DC to the clinics, and from the clinics to each sub-group of customers during the vaccination season.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed-integer programming optimization model is developed to describe the problem for a supply chain consisting of vaccine manufacturers, the healthcare organization (HCO) (comprising the DC and clinics), and the population being vaccinated (customers). The model suggests a VP that implemented by a nation-wide HCO.

Findings

The benefits of the proposed approach are shown to be particularly salient in cases of limited resources, as the model distributes demand backlogs in an efficient manner, prioritizing high-risk sub-groups of the population over lower-risk sub-groups. In particular, the authors show a reduction in direct medical burden of consumers, such as the need for doctors, hospitalization resources, and reduction of indirect, non-medical burden, such as loss of workdays.

Practical implications

Drawing from the extended enterprise paradigm, and, in particular, taking consumer benefits into account, the authors suggest an operational-strategic model that creates impressive added value in a highly constrained supply chain. The model constitutes a powerful decision tool for the deployment of large-scale seasonal products, and its implementation can yield multiple benefits for various consumer segments.

Originality/value

The model proposed herein constitutes a decision support tool comprising operational-tactical and tactical-strategic perspectives, which logistics managers can utilize to create an enterprise-oriented plan that takes into account medical and non-medical costs.

Details

The International Journal of Logistics Management, vol. 28 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-4093

Keywords

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Article

Siphe Zantsi, Louw Petrus Pienaar and Jan C. Greyling

Understanding diversity amongst potential beneficiaries of land redistribution is of critical importance for both design and planning of successful land reform…

Abstract

Purpose

Understanding diversity amongst potential beneficiaries of land redistribution is of critical importance for both design and planning of successful land reform interventions. This study seeks to add to the existing literature on farming types, with specific emphasis on understanding diversity within a sub-group of commercially oriented or emerging smallholders.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a multivariate statistical analysis – principal component and cluster analyses applied to a sample of 442 commercially-oriented smallholders – five distinct clusters of emerging farmers are identified, using variables related to farmers' characteristics, income and expenditure and farm production indicators and willingness to participate in land redistribution. The five clusters are discussed in light of a predefined selection criteria that is based on the current policies and scholarly thinking.

Findings

The results suggest that there are distinct differences in farming types, and each identified cluster of farmers requires tailored support for the effective implementation of land reform. The identified homogenous sub-groups of smallholders, allows us to understand which farmers could be a better target for a successful land redistribution policy.

Originality/value

Most of the existing typology studies in South Africa tend to focus on general smallholders and in the Eastern Cape province; this study extends the literature by focussing on specific prime beneficiaries of land reform in three provinces. This study uses a more detailed dataset than the Statistics general and agricultural household surveys.

Details

International Journal of Social Economics, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0306-8293

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Article

Jongsawas Chongwatpol

Since works-in-process (WIPs) are highly vulnerable to defects because of the variety and complexity of manufacturing processes, the purpose of this paper is to describe…

Abstract

Purpose

Since works-in-process (WIPs) are highly vulnerable to defects because of the variety and complexity of manufacturing processes, the purpose of this paper is to describe how to utilize existing analytics techniques to reduce defects, improve production processes, and reduce the cost of operations.

Design/methodology/approach

Three alternatives for diagnosing causes of defects and variations in the production process are presented in order to answer the following research question: “What are the most important factors to be included in prognostic analysis to prevent defects?”

Findings

The key findings for the proposed alternatives help explain the characteristics of defects that have a great impact on manufacturing yield and the quality of products. Consequently, any corrective action and preventive maintenance addressing the common causes of defects and variations in the process can be regularly evaluated and monitored.

Research limitations/implications

Although the focus of this study is on improving shop-floor operations by reducing defects, further experimentation with business analytics in other areas such as machine utilization and maintenance, process control, and safety evaluation remains to be done.

Practical implications

This study has been validated with several scenarios in a manufacturing company, and the results demonstrate the practical validity of the approach, which is equally applicable to other manufacturing sub-sectors.

Originality/value

This study is different from the others by providing alternatives for diagnosing the root causes of defects. Control charts, costs of defects, and clustering-based defect prediction scores are utilized to reduce defects. Additionally, the key contribution of this study is to demonstrate different methods for understanding WIP behaviors and identifying any irregularities in the production process.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 115 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

Keywords

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Article

Ayse Kucuk Yilmaz

Aviation has multi-cultural business environment in all aspects as operational and management. Managing aviation requires high awareness on human factor risk which…

Abstract

Purpose

Aviation has multi-cultural business environment in all aspects as operational and management. Managing aviation requires high awareness on human factor risk which includes organizational behavior-related topics. The greatest risk to an enterprise’s ability to achieve its strategic goals and objectives is the human factor. Both organizational behavior and corporate culture behavior with social psychology are the most vital aspects of management and strategy in terms of human resources. Related risks, including organizational behavior and culture, have the potential to directly impact on both business performance and corporate sustainability. Therefore, in this paper, the most prominent risks were determined in accordance with social psychology, and after identification of human factor-based risks, these have prioritized and prepared risk mapping with fresh approach. For this reason, this study aims to develop risk mapping model for human factors that takes into account interrelations among risk factors three dimensional based new approach. This approach includes both identification of human factor based risks, prioritization them and setting risk mapping according to corporate based qualifications via tailoring risk list. Developed risk map in this paper will help to manage corporate risks to achieve improved performance and sustainability.

Design/methodology/approach

This new organizational behavior- and culture-focused risk mapping model developed in this study has the potential to make significant contribution to the management of the human factor for modern management and strategy. In enterprise risk management system, risk mapping is both strong and effective strategic methodology to manage ergonomics issue with strategic approach. Human factor is both determinative and also strategic element to both continuity and performance of business operations with safely and sound. In view of management and strategy, vitally, the human factor determines the outcome in both every business and every decision-making.

Findings

It is assumed that, if managers manage human risk you may get advantages to achieving corporate strategies in timely manner. Aviation is sensitive sector for its ingredients: airports, airlines, air traffic management, aircraft maintenance, pilotage and ground handling. Aim of this paper is to present risk management approach to optimize human performance while minimizing both failures and errors by aircraft maintenance technician (AMT). This model may apply all human factors in other departments of aviation such as pilots and traffic controllers. AMT is key component of aircraft maintenance. Thus, errors made by AMTs will cause aircraft accidents or incidents or near miss incidents. In this study, new taxonomy model for human risk factors in aircraft maintenance organizations has been designed, and also new qualitative risk assessment as three dimensions is carried out by considering the factors affecting the AMT’s error obtained from extensive literature review and expert opinions in the field of aviation. Human error risks are first categorized into two main groups and sub three groups and then prioritized using the risk matrix via triple dimension as probability, severity and interrelations ratio between risks.

Practical implications

Risk mapping is established to decide which risk management option they will apply for managers when they will look at this map. Managers may use risk map to both identify their managerial priorities and share sources to managing risks, and make decisions on risk handling options. This new model may be a useful new tool to manage ergonomic human factor-based risks in developing strategy in aviation business management. In addition, this paper will contribute to department of management and strategy and related literature.

Originality/value

This study has originality via new modeling of risk matrix. In this study, dimension of risk analysis has been improved as three dimensions. This study has new approach and new assessment of risk with likelihood (probability), impact (severity) and interrelations ratio. This new model may be a useful new tool to both assess and prioritize mapping of ergonomic-based risks in business management. In addition, this research will contribute to aviation management and strategy literature and also enterprise risk management literature.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 91 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1748-8842

Keywords

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Book part

Josée St-Pierre, Richard Lacoursière and Sophie Veilleux

Over the last 10 years, small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in developed countries have faced increasingly stiff competition in their local markets, which has put…

Abstract

Over the last 10 years, small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in developed countries have faced increasingly stiff competition in their local markets, which has put the survival of many of them at risk. To reduce their vulnerability, many SMEs have targeted sales to other countries. Recently, however, the pace and intensity of these firms’ export activities appear to have decreased, as their traditional markets (i.e., the United States and Europe) have been experiencing slow growth. This situation has led some SMEs to explore the possibility of exporting to less traditional countries presenting more opportunities. However, a good number of entrepreneurs remain hesitant to go down this road, in particular given the uncertainty that prevails in those regions and the risks they represent in terms of exports. This study, which was conducted with a sample of 582 Canadian manufacturing SMEs, reveals that two characteristics help explain the fact that some SMEs choose to export to higher risk countries, more specifically to Asia. These characteristics are a positive attitude towards risk-taking among managers and the implementation of certain risk management mechanisms.

Details

Key Success Factors of SME Internationalisation: A Cross-Country Perspective
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78754-277-8

Keywords

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Article

Lisa Kawatsu, Kazuhiro Uchimura, Makoto Kobayashi and Nobukatsu Ishikawa

Although globally, prisoners are considered one of the vulnerable groups to tuberculosis (TB), little is known about the situation of TB in prison setting in Japan. The…

Abstract

Purpose

Although globally, prisoners are considered one of the vulnerable groups to tuberculosis (TB), little is known about the situation of TB in prison setting in Japan. The purpose of this paper is to examine the characteristics of TB among prisoners in Japan.

Design/methodology/approach

Records of TB patients from one medical prison were analyzed in terms of general demographic characteristics, clinical manifestations, risk factors and delay in diagnosis and in initiating treatment, and compared with data from the national TB surveillance and other published data on health of inmates, where appropriate. Continuous variables were compared using student independent samples t-test. Proportions were compared using χ2 or Fisher exact test as appropriate. Kaplan–Meier survival analysis was conducted to determine the time from entry to prison institution to diagnosis of TB.

Findings

A total of 49 patients were analyzed. The mean age was 49.5 (±14.3) and 69.4 percent were males. Being unemployed and homeless prior to incarceration, and several co-morbidities were potential risk factors for TB (p<0.01). Analysis of diagnosis and treatment delay showed that 16.1 percent of smear positive patients took more than a week to be placed on treatment after being diagnosed of TB. Approximately 50 percent of the patients were diagnosed within four months of entering the prison institution.

Practical implications

Several potential risk factors identified suggest the need to strengthen screening for specific sub-groups within the prison population, such as those with poor socio-economic status and co-morbidities, as well as to consider the possible role of systematic screening for latent TB infection.

Originality/value

This study presents some important data to help understand the profile of TB patients in prisons in Japan, as well as showing that a detailed epidemiological analysis of existing records can provide useful insight.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 14 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

Keywords

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Article

Alice Bennett and Melanie Hunter

This paper aims to describe: the need for substance misuse treatment with high risk, personality disordered prisoners, and the implementation of two evidence-based…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to describe: the need for substance misuse treatment with high risk, personality disordered prisoners, and the implementation of two evidence-based psychological interventions aimed at addressing substance misuse within a high secure, personality disorder treatment unit and potential future evaluation options.

Design/methodology/approach

In addition to the literature base evidencing the need for substance misuse treatment with this population, the Iceberg and ‘InsideOut’ interventions are presented. These interventions adopt a risk reduction and health intervention approach respectively. This includes explanations of how they came to be implemented within a prison based personality disorder treatment service and potential ways to evaluate these services.

Findings

Evidence-based psychological interventions can be implemented for this population whilst being responsive to changing government priorities for substance misuse treatment. The organisation’s research strategy includes an intention to evaluate these interventions in order to inform future delivery.

Practical implications

The high levels of co-morbidity between personality disorder and substance misuse disorders in the high security prison estate highlights the need for substance related treatment for this population. Given the responsivity issues relevant to personality disordered offenders, the format of delivery of evidence-based psychological interventions has to be considered.

Originality/value

This paper discusses the application of evidence-based psychological interventions for substance use within a high secure, personality disordered population which has developed as a result of ministerial changes within the treatment of both substance misuse and personality disorder.

Details

Advances in Dual Diagnosis, vol. 9 no. 2/3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-0972

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Article

Vijaya Sunder M., L.S. Ganesh and Rahul R. Marathe

The evolution of Lean Six Sigma (LSS) within the operations management theory has enjoyed significant success in both manufacturing and services. Though the applicability…

Abstract

Purpose

The evolution of Lean Six Sigma (LSS) within the operations management theory has enjoyed significant success in both manufacturing and services. Though the applicability of LSS is evident in the services sector through various publications, academic research on the use of LSS in the Banking and Financial Services (BFS) is limited, and hence deserves greater attention. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the application of LSS in consumer banking in real-time setting.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study method is used to study the application of LSS in two consumer banks with stage 1 featuring identification of appropriate consumer banks where LSS projects could be undertaken, and suitable LSS readiness assessment was performed. In stage 2, LSS project opportunities were identified in the select banks through stakeholder engagement. Finally, in stage 3, LSS projects were executed for process improvements in a real-time setting.

Findings

The case studies provide evidence of the successful application of LSS in consumer banking and the associated multiple benefits. The extent of applicability and appropriate managerial implications in project management context are elaborated. An LSS project selection criterion is recommended as a part of the study. Further, the study explains five important managerial implications in BFS context, with an outlook for future research.

Research limitations/implications

Practitioner research shows that BFS organizations have changed their ways of working by adapting LSS over the last decade. However, the academic research concerning the applicability of LSS in BFS is apparently limited, and none of these are specific to “consumer banking.” This study serves as a strong foundation for future research in this area, which is at its nascence and upcoming in the researchers’ community. However, strong generalizations should not be made as this study is limited to two cases.

Practical implications

Since the cases are executed in the real-time setup of consumer banks, the paper has several practical implications. First, the paper confirms the applicability of LSS in consumer banking and concludes that LSS project management is merely a sub-set of LSS deployment. Second, LSS needs to be understood using a “systems thinking” perspective in order to move away from a narrow project-only approach. An LSS project selection criterion is recommended as a part of the study, which could serve as a managerial resource. Other managerial implications include effective management of stakeholders and change leadership as essential elements of LSS project management in banks.

Originality/value

LSS has been successful in the past few decades in the manufacturing and service sectors. However, its application in BFS is limited. This study illustrates the applicability of LSS in consumer banks, which deals with high volumes of data, customer bases and associated financial transactions.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 36 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

Keywords

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Article

Manu Gupta, Parag Talankar and Shivangi Chavda

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate practical approaches to addressing issues of risk reduction and disaster prevention in urban areas. In addition to exposure to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to illustrate practical approaches to addressing issues of risk reduction and disaster prevention in urban areas. In addition to exposure to natural hazards, urban areas represent complex risks and vulnerabilities together with complicated governance structures.

Design/methodology/approach

To address the challenge, SEEDS mobilised a “Disaster Watch Forum” – a citizens’ platform that brought citizens together to proactively engage with the local government. With hand-holding support from SEEDS, training by domain experts, internal team building and the forum has become a credible people-based institution addressing issues of risk reduction and prevention.

Findings

Urban risk reduction has remained a challenging issue with solutions often sought in high investment structural interventions. These have limited impact on the urban poor living in informal areas. This paper reveals “bottom-up” people-based approach that is able to engage with the “system” from “outside”. It reveals how people relate to day-to-day risks that affect their lives, making it the stepping stone to address higher order societal risks. Finally, the immense power and energy of youth and children work as local “agents of change”. Overall, the work aligns with priorities of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction.

Research limitations/implications

There are three principal implications for further research: with half the world now urbanized, urgent solutions are needed for improving disaster risk governance in cities; taking a “whole of society” approach in addressing a wider canvas of risks; and redirecting investments in urban areas towards managing risks, rather than managing disasters.

Practical implications

The model illustrated is replicable in urban areas facing risk. It worked well in a population catchment of 50,000 residents; to achieve scale would require enabling a federated structure of several localised forums.

Originality/value

The paper presents a hands-on experience in building an alternative approach to urban risk reduction. It has required authors to move from “government to governance” model making citizens active stakeholders in proactively addressing their own underlying vulnerabilities that lead to creation of and exacerbation of risks.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

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Abstract

Details

Understanding Intercultural Interaction: An Analysis of Key Concepts
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-397-0

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