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Book part
Publication date: 15 December 1998

Fraser McLeod

This paper addresses the problem of bunching of buses and how it may be counter-acted. An algorithm is presented for providing selective priority to buses at traffic…

Abstract

This paper addresses the problem of bunching of buses and how it may be counter-acted. An algorithm is presented for providing selective priority to buses at traffic signals according to their headways, the highest levels of priority being given to those buses with the highest headways, i.e. those buses which are running late or falling behind the bus in front.

Alternative selective priority strategies are evaluated in terms of their effects on bus journey time regularity, bus delay and general traffic delay. A simulation model SPLIT (Selective Priority for Late buses Implemented at Traffic signals) has been developed to investigate the performance of different priority strategies. The paper describes the details of the model, including bus stop dwell times and overlapping bus services, and compares results obtained from the model for a number of different priority strategies.

This work was driven by the keen interest in bus priority applications in London within the EC DGVII project INCOME.

Details

Mathematics in Transport Planning and Control
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-08-043430-8

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Article
Publication date: 21 September 2015

Iestyn Williams

The purpose of this paper is to take forward consideration of context in health care priority setting and to offer some practical strategies for priority setters to…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to take forward consideration of context in health care priority setting and to offer some practical strategies for priority setters to increase receptiveness to their work.

Design/methodology/approach

A number of tools and methods have been devised with the aim of making health care priority setting more robust and evidence based. However, in order to routinely take and implement priority setting decisions, decision makers require the support, or at least the acquiescence, of key external parties. In other words, the priority setting process requires a receptive context if it is to proceed unhindered.

Findings

The priority setting process requires a receptive context if it is to proceed unhindered.

Originality/value

This paper develops the concept of legitimacy in the “authorising environment” in priority setting and describes strategies which might help decision makers to create a receptive context, and to manage relationships with external stakeholders.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 29 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 1984

J. Browne and B.J. Davies

Much research has been reported on the possibilities of using various heuristic priority rules to sequence batches through a job shop. The SPT (Shortest Priority Time…

Abstract

Much research has been reported on the possibilities of using various heuristic priority rules to sequence batches through a job shop. The SPT (Shortest Priority Time) heuristic, or modifications to it, has been proved useful in many studies. This paper reports on the results obtained when simulating the work flow through a real machine shop. The simulation model has been used to test the effect on well known priority rules of releasing batches into the shop in order of decreasing expected throughput time. The important effect of this “phased release” of batches was to increase the percentage of batches delivered in finished parts stores on time, particularly in the case where priority rules were in use which might otherwise have resulted in poor delivery. This has important repercussions for management because it implies that by “phased” release of batches in the manner discussed, a large proportion of batches will be delivered on time whatever priority rule is in operation in the shop.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 4 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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Book part
Publication date: 15 December 1998

Jarkko Niittymäki

Traffic signal control is one of the oldest application areas of fuzzy sets in transportation. In general, fuzzy control is found to be superior in complex problems with…

Abstract

Traffic signal control is one of the oldest application areas of fuzzy sets in transportation. In general, fuzzy control is found to be superior in complex problems with multi-objective decisions. In traffic signal control, several traffic flows compete for the same time and space, and different priorities are often set to different traffic flows or vehicle groups

The public transport priorities are a very important part of the effective traffic signal control. Normally, the public transport priorities are programmed by using special algorithms, which are tailor-made for each intersection. The experiences have proved that this kind of algorithms can be very effective if some compensation algorithms and the traffic-actuated control mode are used. We believe that using the fuzzified public transport priority algorithms, the measures of effectiveness of traffic signal control can be even better. In this paper, our fuzzy control algorithm of the public transport priorities will be presented.

Details

Mathematics in Transport Planning and Control
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-08-043430-8

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Book part
Publication date: 12 August 2014

Craig Mitton, François Dionne and Diane Schmidt

The purpose of this chapter is to describe a method for priority setting that can be used to identify options for disinvestment, and is also meant to serve as a tool for…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this chapter is to describe a method for priority setting that can be used to identify options for disinvestment, and is also meant to serve as a tool for re-allocation of resources to achieve better outcomes with a given pot of resources.

Approach

This chapter draws on findings from the application of a priority setting and resource allocation framework known as Program Budgeting and Marginal Analysis (PBMA). Case studies are used to illustrate key points around implementation including factors for success and guidelines for improving priority setting in practice.

Findings

PBMA has been applied in over 150 settings over the last 30 years. Purposes varied from focusing strictly on disinvestment to examining opportunities for re-allocation. Many organizations report continued use of the framework and decision makers typically express a desire to not revert to historical allocation or political negotiation in deciding on the funding for programs.

Practical implications

Practical implications of this body of work on priority setting abound in that there are significant opportunities to improve resource allocation practice including better engagement of staff, clinicians and public members, greater use of evidence in decision making and improving process transparency.

Social implications

As healthcare resources are limited, particularly in predominantly publicly funded health systems, prudent use of resources is critical. Actually applying the appropriate tools to ensure that funding aligns with organizational and system objectives is paramount.

Originality/value

Although there is a large body of literature on priority setting particularly in countries like the United Kingdom and Canada, this chapter serves to highlight key messages specifically in the context of fiscal constraint and in relation to the concept of disinvestment or service reduction.

Details

Reconfiguring the Ecosystem for Sustainable Healthcare
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78441-035-3

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Book part
Publication date: 20 July 2005

Lilia Pavlovsky

It has been suggested that “space and artifacts constitute systems of communication which organizations build up within themselves” (Gagliardi, 1992a, b, p. vi) and…

Abstract

It has been suggested that “space and artifacts constitute systems of communication which organizations build up within themselves” (Gagliardi, 1992a, b, p. vi) and reflect the cultural life within that organization. This is a study of how the “landscape” of a public library (“Library X”), as an information retrieval system, relates to the values of the people who created it. The efforts here are geared towards understanding the physical instantiation of institutional culture and, more specifically, institutional values as they are reflected through the artifact.

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Advances in Library Administration and Organization
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-338-9

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Abstract

Details

Megaproject Risk Analysis and Simulation
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-830-1

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Book part
Publication date: 31 July 2013

Cathy Van Dyck, Nicoletta G. Dimitrova, Dirk F. de Korne and Frans Hiddema

The main goal of the current research was to investigate whether and how leaders in health care organizations can stimulate incident reporting and error management by…

Abstract

Purpose

The main goal of the current research was to investigate whether and how leaders in health care organizations can stimulate incident reporting and error management by “walking the safety talk” (enacted priority of safety).

Design/methodology/approach

Open interviews (N=26) and a cross-sectional questionnaire (N=183) were conducted at the Rotterdam Eye Hospital (REH) in The Netherlands.

Findings

As hypothesized, leaders’ enacted priority of safety was positively related to incident reporting and error management, and the relation between leaders’ enacted priority of safety and error management was mediated by incident reporting. The interviews yielded rich data on (near) incidents, the leaders’ role in (non)reporting, and error management, grounding quantitative findings in concrete case descriptions.

Research implications

We support previous theorizing by providing empirical evidence showing that (1) enacted priority of safety has a stronger relationship with incident reporting than espoused priority of safety and (2) the previously implied positive link between incident reporting and error management indeed exists. Moreover, our findings extend our understanding of behavioral integrity for safety and the mechanisms through which it operates in medical settings.

Practical implications

Our findings indicate that for the promotion of incident reporting and error management, active reinforcement of priority of safety by leaders is crucial.

Value/originality

Social sciences researchers, health care researchers and health care practitioners can utilize the findings of the current paper in order to help leaders create health care systems characterized by higher incident reporting and more constructive error handling.

Details

Leading in Health Care Organizations: Improving Safety, Satisfaction and Financial Performance
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78190-633-0

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Article
Publication date: 23 September 2020

Mahesh Kumar, Omkarprasad S Vaidya and Rajiv Kumar Srivastava

The purpose of this paper is to improve the understanding of the role of the bottlenecks in the dynamic software development supply chains. The paper examines the effects…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to improve the understanding of the role of the bottlenecks in the dynamic software development supply chains. The paper examines the effects of the task priorities in the software development and investigates the possible strategies to manage them effectively.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, a software development supply chain has been simulated. This includes modeling of the various sizes of software requirement, different priorities, variations in development times, quality defects, etc. The model assumes a fixed set of resources of various skills. The model is studied for the bottlenecks, throughput, work in progress (WIP), etc. under various work preemption scenarios.

Findings

The results indicate that job priorities impact the bottleneck formulation, throughput and WIP of the software development. The work interruption policies to accommodate priority jobs adversely impact the throughput. Selective introduction of interruptions by leaving the bottlenecks from interruptions helps balancing the throughput and priorities.

Research limitations/implications

The impact of the learning curve and knowledge acquisition time needed by the resources to restart the interrupted work has not been considered in this paper, which can be a future area of research.

Practical implications

The paper helps the practicing managers evaluate the dynamics of the bottlenecks with various task management approaches and comprehend the possible tradeoffs between priority and throughout.

Originality/value

The paper looks at software development from a perspective of workflow dynamics. This is a pioneer effort, as it utilizes simulation and modeling approach in understanding the software supply chains better.

Details

South Asian Journal of Business Studies, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-628X

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 11 February 2020

Noha El-Bassiouny, Ahmed Amin and Ahmad Jamal

The main research attempts guiding questions about management research agendas had been relevance questions versus rigor questions. Researchers have also attempted to set…

Abstract

Purpose

The main research attempts guiding questions about management research agendas had been relevance questions versus rigor questions. Researchers have also attempted to set management research agendas in particular sectors. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, no research, however, has addressed the infrastructural and foundational questions of what moral priorities and ethical principles should guide the future development of management research. Because the Islamic theological approach is a “transcendental values integration” approach, it presents a potentially viable source of reference particularly for scholars interested in ethical philosophical paradigmatic approaches. Islamic literature has presented guiding principles as to how to balance priorities through the Jurisprudence of Priorities (Fiqh Al-Awlawiyyat). The purpose of this exploratory conceptual paper is to synchronize the Islamic background literature on the jurisprudence of priorities with management research development and agendas. The research is exploratory in nature.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is conceptual, merging Islamic literature with management research for the development of a framework to potentially guide management researchers in prioritizing their research agendas.

Findings

The research resulted in the conceptualization of a framework aiding researchers in the prioritization of their research agendas.

Research limitations/implications

The research has implications for management scholars who are interested to prioritize their research projects and agendas. The research presents a schematic diagram and guiding framework through which scholars can reflect on their choice of research topics.

Practical implications

The research is also relevant to funding agencies as they devise the funding priorities in the management field.

Originality/value

This paper addresses the unique and foundational question of what moral priorities and ethical principles should guide the future development of management research. The authors build on a religious-philosophical approach, drawing on the Islamic jurisprudence of priorities as a literature base. The authors, therefore, address the key principles of responsible research regarding how it can be relevant on the infrastructural level to society and how the benefit to key stakeholders should be tackled. To the authors’ knowledge, this was not done in previous literature.

Details

Journal of Humanities and Applied Social Sciences, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2632-279X

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