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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2004

L. Lin and X. Bai

Recent years have seen a rapid development of ink‐jet printing technology. This paper reviews the state‐of‐the‐art in ink‐jet printing technology and gives an overview of…

1220

Abstract

Recent years have seen a rapid development of ink‐jet printing technology. This paper reviews the state‐of‐the‐art in ink‐jet printing technology and gives an overview of ink‐jet printing into the immediate future. The focus is placed on various applications of jet printing technology. The potential of applying jetting technology in the conventionally surface coating dominated applications will also be explored.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 33 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2004

Andrew Hancock and Long Lin

UV curing technology has a number of unique advantages over the conventional curing technologies. However, until very recently, there had been few successful examples of…

1856

Abstract

UV curing technology has a number of unique advantages over the conventional curing technologies. However, until very recently, there had been few successful examples of the application of UV curing technology in ink‐jet printing. Several reasons, including the requirement of low viscosity for ink‐jet printing inks, were responsible for the lack of development of UV curable ink‐jet printing inks. This paper describes, in some details, the challenges that a formulator had to face in developing UV curable ink‐jet printing inks, together with information on the status quo of UV curable ink‐jet printing technology.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 33 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 August 2002

S. Elsayad, F. Morsy, S. El‐Sherbiny and E. Abdou

Many factors affect the print quality and ink transfer. These are either machine factors, paper factors, or Ink factors. The aim of this work was to find out to what…

1337

Abstract

Many factors affect the print quality and ink transfer. These are either machine factors, paper factors, or Ink factors. The aim of this work was to find out to what extent are the amount of ink transferred influenced by the previously mentioned factors. Atomic absorption was used for quantitatively measuring the amount of ink transferred. Copper phthalocyanine pigment was chosen. The amount of copper detected is taken as an indication of the amount of ink transferred. The results indicated that the amount of ink transferred decreased as the printing speed increased. It was expected to be increased with increasing printing pressure. But It was found that the amount of ink transferred to supercalendered paper decreased with increasing printing pressure. The amount of ink transferred increased as the ink viscosity increased. The type of ink resin was found to have a considerable effect on the amount of ink transferred.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 31 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1979

C.A. Smith

In the first of three articles reviewing Commercial Printing Ink Pigmentation the classification and various printing systems are considered.

Abstract

In the first of three articles reviewing Commercial Printing Ink Pigmentation the classification and various printing systems are considered.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 8 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2005

Hans Fritz

The PCB industry is quickly gearing up for the digital printing age. While photo imaging and screen‐printing have been commonly used as recognized and established…

Abstract

The PCB industry is quickly gearing up for the digital printing age. While photo imaging and screen‐printing have been commonly used as recognized and established techniques in the PCB industry, their high tooling costs and time‐consuming procedures are willingly exchanged by digital printing, following the establishment of this technology both in everyday office uses and in a variety of industrial applications. In the PCB industry, a number of companies have recently begun to offer various digital printing system configurations. This paper discusses the basic requirements of PCB ink‐jet printing systems. Possible solutions and basic system engineering considerations are presented, to show the optimal system configuration.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 31 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 November 2021

Chenfei Zhao, Jun Wang and Lini Lu

In flexible electronics applications, organic inks are mostly used for inkjet printing. Three-dimensional (3 D) printing technology has the advantages of low cost, high…

Abstract

Purpose

In flexible electronics applications, organic inks are mostly used for inkjet printing. Three-dimensional (3 D) printing technology has the advantages of low cost, high speed and good precision in modern electronic printing. The purpose of this study is to solve the high cost of traditional printing and the pollution emissions of organic ink. It is necessary to develop a water-based conductive ink that is easily degradable and can be 3 D printed. A nano-silver ink printed circuit pattern with high precision, high conductivity and good mechanical properties is a promising strategy.

Design/methodology/approach

The researched nano-silver conductive ink is mainly composed of silver nanoparticles and resin. The effect of adding methyl cellulose on the ink was also explored. A simple 3 D circuit pattern was printed on photographic paper. The line width, line length, line thickness and conductivity of the printed circuit were tested. The influence of sintering temperature and sintering time on pattern resistivity was studied. The relationship between circuit pattern bending performance and electrical conductivity is analyzed.

Findings

The experimental results show that the ink has the characteristics of low silver content and good environmental protection effect. The printing feasibility of 3 D printing circuit patterns on paper substrates was confirmed. The best printing temperature is 160°C–180°C, and the best sintering time is 30 min. The circuit pattern can be folded 120°, and the cycle is folded more than 60 times. The minimum resistivity of the circuit pattern is 6.07 µΩ·cm. Methyl cellulose can control the viscosity of the ink. The mechanical properties of the pattern have been improved. The printing method of 3 D printing can significantly reduce the sintering time and temperature of the conductive ink. These findings may provide innovation for the flexible electronics industry and pave the way for alternatives to cost-effective solutions.

Originality/value

In this study, direct ink writing technology was used to print circuit patterns on paper substrates. This process is simple and convenient and can control the thickness of the ink layer. The ink material is nonpolluting to the environment. Nano-silver ink has suitable viscosity and pH value. It can meet the requirements of pneumatic 3 D printers. The method has the characteristics of simple process, fast forming, low cost and high environmental friendliness.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 October 2003

S. Daplyn and L. Lin

Recent years have seen a significant increase in the use of inkjet technology for printing on textile fabrics. Typical inkjet printed textile products included curtains…

1409

Abstract

Recent years have seen a significant increase in the use of inkjet technology for printing on textile fabrics. Typical inkjet printed textile products included curtains, large advertising posters, flags and banners. As a result of the need for such inkjet printed products to have a greater durability, especially for outdoor applications, inks containing pigments as the colourants are gaining more interests. However, pigments may give rise to logistical problems in terms of their dispersion stability within the ink formulation, consequently blocking the nozzles within the inkjet print head. This paper reports methods for the preparation of pigment dispersions and of inkjet printing ink formulations and the methods for the evaluation of the suitability of pigmented ink formulations for jet printing on textile materials. In particular, the suitability of three magenta pigments for inkjet inks were assessed and reported.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 32 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 7 August 2019

Muhammad Ali, Long Lin, Saira Faisal, Iftikhar Ali Sahito and Syed Imran Ali

The purpose of this study is to explain the effects of screen printing parameters on the quantity of ink deposited and the print quality in the context of printing of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explain the effects of screen printing parameters on the quantity of ink deposited and the print quality in the context of printing of functional inks. Both these aspects of printing are crucial in the case of conventional and functional printing. This is because, in the case of conventional printing, the quantity of ink deposit affects the color strength while in the case of functional printing, it directly affects the resulting functionality of the ink layer.

Design/methodology/approach

In this work, an automatic lab-scale screen printer was used to print functional inks on a paper board substrate. The printing parameters, i.e. printing pressure and squeegee angle were altered and the resulting effects on the quantity of ink that was deposited were recorded. The quantity of ink deposit was related to its surface resistivity. In addition, the quality of the print was also assessed by examining the design registration quality.

Findings

The authors found that altering the squeegee angle has a significant effect on the properties of the resulting ink deposit. More importantly, the authors found that the deflection in the rubber blade squeegee was greatly dependent on the initial angle of the squeegee at the start of the printing stroke. For each set value of the squeegee angle that was considered, the actual angle during printing was recorded and used in the analysis. A printing pressure of three bars and squeegee angle of 20° resulted in the maximum weight of ink deposit with a correspondingly lowest surface resistivity.

Practical implications

This study is envisaged to have considerable practical implications in the rapidly growing field of functional printing of flexible substrates including, but not limited to, textiles. This is because, the study provides an insight into the effects of printing parameters on the characteristics of a functional ink deposit.

Originality/value

Screen printing of flexible substrates is a well-developed and arguably the most widely used printing technique, particularly for textiles. Numerous studies report on the analysis of various aspects of screen printing. However, to the best of the knowledge, the effects of printing parameters on the characteristics of functional inks, such as electrically conductive inks, have not been studied in this manner.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 48 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 November 2012

Gerard Cummins and Marc P.Y. Desmulliez

The purpose of this paper is to present an exhaustive review of research studies and activities in the inkjet printing of conductive materials.

7693

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to present an exhaustive review of research studies and activities in the inkjet printing of conductive materials.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper gives a detailed literature survey of research carried out in inkjet printing of conductive materials.

Findings

This article explains the inkjet printing process and the various types of conductive inks. It then examines the various factors that affect the quality of inkjet printed interconnects such as printing parameters, materials and substrate treatments. Methods of characterising both the inkjet printing process and the electrical properties of printed conductive materials are also presented. Finally relevant applications of this technology are described.

Originality/value

Inkjet printing is currently one of the cheapest direct write techniques for manufacturing. The use of this technique in electronic manufacturing, where interconnects and other conductive features are required is an area of increasing relevance to the fields of electronics manufacturing, packaging and assembly. This review paper would therefore be of great value and interest to this community.

Article
Publication date: 12 August 2022

Jayaraman Kathirvelan

The purpose of this paper is to deal with an identification of a novel ink-jet printing sensor fabrication technology for fabricating flexible carbon heaters of macro and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to deal with an identification of a novel ink-jet printing sensor fabrication technology for fabricating flexible carbon heaters of macro and micro sizes, carbon interdigitated (IDT) electrodes and silver IDT electrodes. The technology involved in the proposed ink-jet printing method and materials used for the formulation of homemade nano-conductive inks (digital inks) are discussed in detail. The ink-jet printed flexible carbon heaters of different sizes (macro and micro) and carbon IDT electrodes and flexible silver IDT electrodes can be used as the flexible sensing layers in electrochemical gas sensors for sensitive and selective gas sensing applications. The characterization of ink-jet printed carbon heaters on Kapton substrate and its results are discussed. Similarly, the results of formulation of silver nano-conductive ink and printing of silver IDT electrodes on Kapton and its characterization are reported here for the first time.

Design/methodology/approach

Flexible carbon heaters of different sizes (macro and micro), carbon micro-IDT electrodes and silver IDT electrodes patterns were developed using AutoCAD 2D and printed on the Kapton (polyimide sheet) flexible substrate using the home-made nano-conductive inks with the help of EpsonT60 commercial piezo-head-based drop-on demand technology printer with standard printing options.

Findings

The proposed novel method is able to print heater patterns and IDT electrode patterns of approximately 12 µm and approximately 1 µm thickness, respectively, on flexible substrate using the home-made nano-conductive inks of carbon and silver by using a commercial low-cost printer. The home-made nano-conductive inks can be re-used for multiple prints up to six months shelf life. The resistance of the carbon heater was measured as 88 O under normal atmospheric condition. The novel flexible carbon heater was tested for its functionality and found to be satisfactory. The resistance of the silver IDT flexible electrodes was measured as 9.5 O which is better than the earlier works carried out in this paper.

Research limitations/implications

The main challenge is associated with cleaning of printing ink ejection system in the existing commercial printers. The customization of the existing printer in the near future can minimize the printing challenges.

Practical implications

The novel ink-jet printing technology proposed in this work is cost-effective, capable of achieving bulk production of flexible sensor elements, and consumes the least device fabrication time and high material yielding. The printing can be done with commercial piezo-head-based ink-jet printers with custom-prepared nano-conductive inks. There is a huge market potential for this paper.

Originality/value

Both the carbon heaters and silver IDT electrodes were printed on Kapton flexible substrate by using the commercial printer for the first time. The paper is promising the revolution in flexible low-cost sensor fabrication for mass production, and it is an alternate for thin film and thick sensor fabrication methods. The future of sensor fabrication technology will be the ink-jet printing method. In this paper, the research developments of flexible carbon heaters and flexible silver IDT electrodes for the time are reported. The characterization of carbon heaters and silver IDT electrodes were carried out and confirmed that the results are favourable for gas sensor applications.

1 – 10 of over 4000