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1 – 10 of over 3000
Article
Publication date: 27 September 2011

Gilad Sharon and Donald Barker

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate modeling of the reliability characteristics of the copper (Cu) used in plated through holes (PTHs) for electrical connections…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate modeling of the reliability characteristics of the copper (Cu) used in plated through holes (PTHs) for electrical connections across printed circuit boards (PCBs).

Design/methodology/approach

Assessments of the Cu damage in the first three reflow cycles are performed using finite element analysis. A two‐dimensional axi‐symmetric model of a PTH on a laminate board is validated against a three‐dimensional full model and test cases. Stress and strain measurements in the inner ring of the PTH are obtained in numerical simulations.

Findings

Loads applied after the reflow cycles contribute to subsequent mechanical disconnects. Reliability assessments relying on undamaged circuits are less accurate than estimates incorporating Cu damage following three reflow cycles.

Originality/value

In order to increase the accuracy of PCB reliability predictions significantly, prior‐to‐use damage should be calculated. In this paper, a modification to the reliability analysis is proposed.

Details

Multidiscipline Modeling in Materials and Structures, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1573-6105

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 2001

M.T. Sze, P. Ji and W.B. Lee

This paper studies a production planning problem in printed circuit board (PCB) assembly. A PCB assembly line has several non‐identical placement machines, so the…

Abstract

This paper studies a production planning problem in printed circuit board (PCB) assembly. A PCB assembly line has several non‐identical placement machines, so the placement times by different machines are various to the same type of components. Several mathematical models are formulated in order to obtain a best assignment of components to machines with the objective of minimizing the cycle time to have the best line throughput. Moreover, the data structures of the models are analyzed and compared with other similar models to search a good available algorithm. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate these models and is solved by a computer package.

Details

Assembly Automation, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-5154

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 1993

T. Galbraith

Flextronic Ltd, a UK leader in the manufacture and assembly of flexible circuits, have appointed Rob Lomer to the post of Quality Manager for both of their Chichester…

Abstract

Flextronic Ltd, a UK leader in the manufacture and assembly of flexible circuits, have appointed Rob Lomer to the post of Quality Manager for both of their Chichester sites. Mr Lomer has extensive quality management experience in the electronics environment, having introduced total quality management initiatives as well as statistical process control in previous posts. He is also intimately familiar with BS 7000/BS 5750 and ISO 9000/ EN 2900 in the USA as well as in the UK and mainland Europe.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 20 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Article
Publication date: 1 August 1998

Chris Bailey, Daniel Wheeler and Mark Cross

Solder materials are used to provide a connection between electronic components and printed circuit boards (PCBs) using either the reflow or wave soldering process. As a…

Abstract

Solder materials are used to provide a connection between electronic components and printed circuit boards (PCBs) using either the reflow or wave soldering process. As a board assembly passes through a reflow furnace the solder (initially in the form of solder paste) melts, reflows, then solidifies, and finally deforms between the chip and board. A number of defects may occur during this process such as flux entrapment, void formation, and cracking of the joint, chip or board. These defects are a serious concern to industry, especially with trends towards increasing component miniaturisation and smaller pitch sizes. This paper presents a modelling methodology for predicting solder joint shape, solidification, and deformation (stress) during the assembly process.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 10 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 July 2021

Yutian Yin, Hongda Zhou, Cai Chen, Yi Zheng, Hongqiao Shen and Yubing Gong

The simulated temperature profile of the printed circuit board assembly (PCBA) during reflow soldering process deviates from the actual profile. To reduce this relative…

Abstract

Purpose

The simulated temperature profile of the printed circuit board assembly (PCBA) during reflow soldering process deviates from the actual profile. To reduce this relative deviation, a new strategy based on the Kriging response surface and the Multi-Objective Genetic Algorithm (MOGA) optimizing method is proposed.

Design/methodology/approach

The simulated temperature profile of the PCBA during reflow soldering process deviates from the actual profile. To reduce this relative deviation, a new strategy based on the Kriging response surface and the MOGA optimizing method is proposed.

Findings

Several critical influencing parameters such as temperature and the convective heat transfer coefficient of the specific temperature zones are selected as the correction parameters. The hyper Latins sampling method is implemented to distribute the design points, and the Kriging response surface model of the soldering process is constructed. The updated model is achieved and validated by the test. The relative derivation is reduced from the initial value of 43.4%–11.8% in terms of the time above the liquidus line.

Originality/value

A new strategy based on the Kriging response surface and the MOGA optimizing method is proposed.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 34 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 July 2020

Chong Hooi Lim, M.Z. Abdullah, I. Abdul Azid, C.Y. Khor, M.S. Abdul Aziz and M.H.H. Ishaik

The purpose of this study is to investigate heat transfer and deformation of flexible printed circuit board (FPCB) under thermal and flow effects by using fluid structure…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to investigate heat transfer and deformation of flexible printed circuit board (FPCB) under thermal and flow effects by using fluid structure interaction. This study simulate the electronic cooling process when electronic devices are generating heat during operation at FPCB under force convection.

Design/methodology/approach

The thermal and flow effects on FPCB with attached ball grid array (BGA) packages have been investigated in the simulation. Effects of Reynolds number (Re), number of BGA packages attached, power supplied to the BGA packages and size of FPCB were studied. The responses in the present study are the deflection/length of FPCB (δ/L) and Nusselt number (Nu).

Findings

It is important to consider both thermal and flow effects at the same time for understanding the characteristic of FPCB attached with BGA under operating condition. Empirical correlation equations of Re, Prandtl number (Pr), δ/L and Nu have been established, in which the highest effect is of Re, followed by Pr and δ/L. The δ/L and Nu¯ were found to be significantly affected by most of the parametric factors.

Practical implications

This study provides a better understanding of the process control in FPCB assembly.

Originality/value

This study provides fundamental guidelines and references for the thermal coupling modelling to address reliability issues in FPCB design. It also increases the understanding of FPCB and BGA joint issues to achieve high reliability in microelectronic design.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 47 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

Abstract

Details

Circuit World, vol. 30 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 December 1985

A new Sensitek range of automatic continuity test systems has just been announced by Systran Donner Ltd. The company has also introduced the new Testronics 100 series of…

Abstract

A new Sensitek range of automatic continuity test systems has just been announced by Systran Donner Ltd. The company has also introduced the new Testronics 100 series of automatic continuity analysers.

Details

Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology, vol. 57 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-2667

Article
Publication date: 1 December 1998

Julia Evetts

This paper focuses on gender and technology in the organization. It considers some of the difficulties experienced by women building careers as professional engineers in a…

1993

Abstract

This paper focuses on gender and technology in the organization. It considers some of the difficulties experienced by women building careers as professional engineers in a high technology industrial organization in England. Using career history data from 15 women engineers, the paper examines the experience of gender in the organization and the attempts by the women to manage gender relations. The paper argues that the difficulties were not associated with the culture of engineering work itself: the women could manage the technology. The problems lay rather in the organization itself. The gendered expectations and processes within the organization constituted the real dilemma for women’s careers.

Details

Women in Management Review, vol. 13 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-9425

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 August 2007

K.H. Low and Yuqi Wang

The paper aims to present a modeling method for multi‐layer, multi‐material printed circuit boards (PCBs) in both micro‐structure and board levels.

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to present a modeling method for multi‐layer, multi‐material printed circuit boards (PCBs) in both micro‐structure and board levels.

Design/methodology/approach

The method incorporates a multilayer finite element model that is established in two parts: the first part is an elasto‐plastic damaging model, which is presented to model metallic plies in the multi‐layer PCBs, while the second is a bi‐phase model for glass‐fiber/epoxy‐resin composite ply with fiber/matrix structure.

Findings

Numerous composite parts and complex material properties of multi‐layer PCBs complicate the reliability of the simulation. Therefore, the board level simulation and the micro‐structure modeling cannot be performed at the same time. A multi‐layer FEM code can solve this problem: with the use of bi‐phase and elasto‐plastic plies in this code, the micro‐structure and board‐level modeling for multi‐layer PCBs can be incorporated.

Research limitations/implications

With the implementation of a virtual boundary method, the current multi‐layer model can be combined with the unit‐cell modeling method to perform detailed analysis at the micro‐structure level.

Originality/value

This paper presents a method for multi‐layer PCB modeling at both the micro‐structure and board levels. It provides a way to individually design the fabric types and the properties of glass fibers, epoxy resin, and copper foil in PCBs, to meet specific reliability requirements. With the proposed modeling, the static and shock responses of optimized PCBs can be analyzed with less computation.

Details

Circuit World, vol. 33 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0305-6120

Keywords

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