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1 – 10 of 45
Article
Publication date: 30 July 2021

Bing Zhang, Raiyan Seede, Austin Whitt, David Shoukr, Xueqin Huang, Ibrahim Karaman, Raymundo Arroyave and Alaa Elwany

There is recent emphasis on designing new materials and alloys specifically for metal additive manufacturing (AM) processes, in contrast to AM of existing alloys that were…

Abstract

Purpose

There is recent emphasis on designing new materials and alloys specifically for metal additive manufacturing (AM) processes, in contrast to AM of existing alloys that were developed for other traditional manufacturing methods involving considerably different physics. Process optimization to determine processing recipes for newly developed materials is expensive and time-consuming. The purpose of the current work is to use a systematic printability assessment framework developed by the co-authors to determine windows of processing parameters to print defect-free parts from a binary nickel-niobium alloy (NiNb5) using laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) metal AM.

Design/methodology/approach

The printability assessment framework integrates analytical thermal modeling, uncertainty quantification and experimental characterization to determine processing windows for NiNb5 in an accelerated fashion. Test coupons and mechanical test samples were fabricated on a ProX 200 commercial LPBF system. A series of density, microstructure and mechanical property characterization was conducted to validate the proposed framework.

Findings

Near fully-dense parts with more than 99% density were successfully printed using the proposed framework. Furthermore, the mechanical properties of as-printed parts showed low variability, good tensile strength of up to 662 MPa and tensile ductility 51% higher than what has been reported in the literature.

Originality/value

Although many literature studies investigate process optimization for metal AM, there is a lack of a systematic printability assessment framework to determine manufacturing process parameters for newly designed AM materials in an accelerated fashion. Moreover, the majority of existing process optimization approaches involve either time- and cost-intensive experimental campaigns or require the use of proprietary computational materials codes. Through the use of a readily accessible analytical thermal model coupled with statistical calibration and uncertainty quantification techniques, the proposed framework achieves both efficiency and accessibility to the user. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that following this framework results in printed parts with low degrees of variability in their mechanical properties.

Article
Publication date: 20 June 2016

Yaususi Kanada

A methodology for designing and printing three-dimensional (3D) objects with specified printing-direction using fused deposition modeling (FDM), which was proposed by a…

Abstract

Purpose

A methodology for designing and printing three-dimensional (3D) objects with specified printing-direction using fused deposition modeling (FDM), which was proposed by a previous paper, enables the expression of natural directions, such as hair, fabric or other directed textures, in modeled objects. This paper aims to enhance this methodology for creating various shapes of generative visual objects with several specialized attributes.

Design/methodology/approach

The proposed enhancement consists of two new methods and a new technique. The first is a method for “deformation”. It enables deforming simple 3D models to create varieties of shapes much more easily in generative design processes. The second is the spiral/helical printing method. The print direction (filament direction) of each part of a printed object is made consistent by this method, and it also enables seamless printing results and enables low-angle overhang. The third, i.e. the light-reflection control technique, controls the properties of filament while printing with transparent polylactic acid. It enables the printed objects to reflect light brilliantly.

Findings

The proposed methods and technique were implemented in a Python library and evaluated by printing various shapes, and it is confirmed that they work well, and objects with attractive attributes, such as the brilliance, can be created.

Research limitations/implications

The methods and technique proposed in this paper are not well-suited to industrial prototyping or manufacturing that require strength or intensity.

Practical implications

The techniques proposed in this paper are suited for generatively producing various a small number of products with artistic or visual properties.

Originality/value

This paper proposes a completely different methodology for 3D printing than the conventional computer-aided design (CAD)-based methodology and enables products that cannot be created by conventional methods.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 22 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 July 2022

Kashif Ishfaq, Muhammad Asad, Muhammad Arif Mahmood, Mirza Abdullah and Catalin Pruncu

The purpose of this study is to explore the applications of 3D printing in space sectors. The authors have highlighted the potential research gap that can be explored in…

234

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to explore the applications of 3D printing in space sectors. The authors have highlighted the potential research gap that can be explored in the current field of study. Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an additive manufacturing technique that uses metallic powder, ceramic or polymers to build simple/complex parts. The parts produced possess good strength, low weight and excellent mechanical properties and are cost-effective. Therefore, efforts have been made to make the adoption of 3D printing successful in space so that complex parts can be manufactured in space. This saves a considerable amount of both time and carrying cost. Thereof the challenges and opportunities that the space sector holds for additive manufacturing is worth reviewing to provide a better insight into further developments and prospects for this technology.

Design/methodology/approach

The potentiality of 3D printing for the manufacturing of various components under space conditions has been explained. Here, the authors have reviewed the details of manufactured parts used for zero-gravity missions, subjected to onboard international space station conditions and with those manufactured on earth. Followed by the major opportunities in 3D printing in space which include component repair, material characterization, process improvement and process development along with the new designs. The challenges like space conditions, availability of power in space, the infrastructure requirements and the quality control or testing of the items that are being built in space are explained along with their possible mitigation strategies.

Findings

These components are well comparable with those prepared on earth which enables a massive cost saving. Other than the onboard manufacturing process, numerous other components as well as a complete robot/satellite for outer space applications were manufactured by additive manufacturing. Moreover, these components can be recycled onboard to produce feedstock for the next materials. The parts produced in space are bought back and compared with those built on earth. There is a difference in their nature, i.e. the flight specimen showed a brittle nature, and the ground specimen showed a denser nature.

Originality/value

This review discusses the advancements of 3D printing in space and provides numerous examples of the applications of 3D printing in space and space applications. This paper is solely dedicated to 3D printing in space. It provides a breakthrough in the literature as a limited amount of literature is available on this topic. This paper aims at highlighting all the challenges that additive manufacturing faces in the space sector and also the future opportunities that await development.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 28 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 September 2022

Agnieszka Chmielewska, Bartlomiej Adam Wysocki, Elżbieta Gadalińska, Eric MacDonald, Bogusława Adamczyk-Cieślak, David Dean and Wojciech Świeszkowski

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of remelting each layer on the homogeneity of nickel-titanium (NiTi) parts fabricated from elemental nickel and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of remelting each layer on the homogeneity of nickel-titanium (NiTi) parts fabricated from elemental nickel and titanium powders using laser powder bed fusion (LPBF). In addition, the influence of manufacturing parameters and different melting strategies, including multiple cycles of remelting, on printability and macro defects, such as pore and crack formation, have been investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

An LPBF process was used to manufacture NiTi alloy from elementally blended powders and was evaluated with the use of a remelting scanning strategy to improve the homogeneity of fabricated specimens. Furthermore, both single melt and up to two remeltings were used.

Findings

The results indicate that remelting can be beneficial for density improvement as well as chemical and phase composition homogenization. Backscattered electron mode in scanning electron microscope showed a reduction in the presence of unmixed Ni and Ti elemental powders in response to increasing the number of remelts. The microhardness values of NiTi parts for the different numbers of melts studied were similar and ranged from 487 to 495 HV. Nevertheless, it was observed that measurement error decreases as the number of remelts increases, suggesting an increase in chemical and phase composition homogeneity. However, X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the presence of multiple phases regardless of the number of melt runs.

Originality/value

For the first time, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, elementally blended NiTi powders were fabricated via LPBF using remelting scanning strategies.

Article
Publication date: 28 June 2019

Maryam Ataeefard and Sara Khamseh

In the current study, the authors prepared conductive nano-structured thin films composed of copper on the surface of the printed paper using a magnetron sputtering…

Abstract

Purpose

In the current study, the authors prepared conductive nano-structured thin films composed of copper on the surface of the printed paper using a magnetron sputtering system. Furthermore, the printability of conductive films for the sake of re-using printed paper and its additional applications were also investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

Paper-based electronic devices have been the matter of intense interest because of their easy accessibility, lightweight, low cost, biodegradable, recyclable and ecofriendliness. Furthermore, these devices are inexpensive compared to other substrates. Nowadays, flexible energy and electronic devices made of the paper substrate are receiving a significant interest because of the issue of sustainable energy production from the environment. One of the most reliable techniques for the deposition of thin films and creating conductive patterns on the paper is magnetron sputtering.

Findings

The printed and coated printed papers were evaluated with X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive (SEM-EDX), four-point probe conductivity and spectroscopic measurements.

Practical implications

The paper investigates the printability of conductive paper attributable to its second application.

Originality/value

The authors prepared conductive nanostructured copper-based thin films on the surface of the printed paper. They recovered and reused the paper as a root of raw material due to the environmental issue.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 48 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 July 2021

Rajae Jemghili, Abdelmajid Ait Taleb and Mansouri Khalifa

Although many researchers have widely studied additive manufacturing (AM) as one of the most important industrial revolutions, few have presented a bibliometric analysis…

Abstract

Purpose

Although many researchers have widely studied additive manufacturing (AM) as one of the most important industrial revolutions, few have presented a bibliometric analysis of the published studies in this area. This paper aims to evaluate AM research trends based on 4607 publications most cited from year 2010 to 2020.

Design/methodology/approach

The research methodology is bibliometric indicators and network analysis, including analysis based on keywords, citation analysis, productive journal, related published papers and authors indicators. Two free available software were employed VOSviewer and Bibexcel.

Findings

Keywords analysis results indicate that among the AM processes, Selective Laser Melting and Fused Deposition Modeling techniques, are the two processes ranked on top of the techniques employed and studied with 35.76% and 20.09% respectively. The citation analysis by VOSviewer software, reveals that the medical applications field and the fabrication of metal parts are the areas that interest researchers greatly. Different new research niches, as pharmaceutical industry, digital construction and food fabrication are growing topics in AM scientific works. This study reveals that journals “Materials & design”, “Advanced materials”, “Acs applied materials & interfaces”, “Additive manufacturing”, “Advanced functional materials” and “Biofabrication” are the most productive and influential in AM scientific research.

Originality/value

The results and conclusions of this work can be used as indicators of trends in AM research and/or as prospects for future studies in this area.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 27 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 25 July 2022

Cara Greta Kolb, Maja Lehmann, Johannes Kriegler, Jana-Lorena Lindemann, Andreas Bachmann and Michael Friedrich Zaeh

This paper aims to present a requirements analysis for the processing of water-based electrode dispersions in inkjet printing.

334

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to present a requirements analysis for the processing of water-based electrode dispersions in inkjet printing.

Design/methodology/approach

A detailed examination of the components and the associated properties of the electrode dispersions has been carried out. The requirements of the printing process and the resulting performance characteristics of the electrode dispersions were analyzed in a top–down approach. The product and process side were compared, and the target specifications of the dispersion components were derived.

Findings

Target ranges have been identified for the main component properties, balancing the partly conflicting goals between the product and the process requirements.

Practical implications

The findings are expected to assist with the formulation of electrode dispersions as printing inks.

Originality/value

Little knowledge is available regarding the particular requirements arising from the systematic qualification of aqueous electrode dispersions for inkjet printing. This paper addresses these requirements, covering both product and process specifications.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 28 no. 11
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1995

K. Akinade, R. Burgess, M. Campbell, S. Carver, L. Sanderson, R. Wade and C. Melton

The increased interest in the electronics industry to search for alternatives to lead‐containing solders is evidenced by the number of recently published articles on…

Abstract

The increased interest in the electronics industry to search for alternatives to lead‐containing solders is evidenced by the number of recently published articles on lead‐free solders in this journal and other journals. At the latest Surface Mount International conference, several papers were presented on lead‐free solder alloys, conductive adhesives and organic preservatives, all in search of replacements for lead‐containing finishes. The efforts to find a replacement for tin/lead are in response to possible legislation banning lead or possible taxation on the use of lead. In an attempt to reduce the use of lead in this company's assembly operation, five lead‐free solder pastes and four corresponding flux vehicles (for A, B, C and E pastes) were evaluated. All of the flux vehicles passed the standard industry tests except for two flux vehicles (pastes B and C) that failed the copper mirror test. An assembly trial of the lead‐free pastes was carried out by building liquid crystal display panels with minimal process modification. Printability, process compatibility and solder joint reliability were assessed. This paper describes the preliminary results of the authors' investigation.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Article
Publication date: 14 June 2018

Marco Attene

The class of models that can be represented by STL files is larger than the class of models that can be printed using additive manufacturing technologies. Stated…

Abstract

Purpose

The class of models that can be represented by STL files is larger than the class of models that can be printed using additive manufacturing technologies. Stated differently, there exist well-formed STL files that cannot be printed. This paper aims to formalize such a gap and describe a fully automatic procedure to turn any such file into a printable model.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on well-established concepts from combinatorial topology, this paper provide an unambiguous description of all the mathematical entities involved in the modeling-printing pipeline. Specifically, this paper formally defines the conditions that an STL file must satisfy to be printable, and, based on these, an as-exact-as-possible repairing algorithm is designed.

Findings

It has been found that, to cope with all the possible triangle configurations, the algorithm must distinguish between triangles that bind solid parts and triangles that constitute zero-thickness sheets. Only the former set can be fixed without distortion.

Research limitations/implications

Owing to the specific approach used that tracks the so-called “outer hull,” models with inner cavities cannot be treated.

Practical implications

Thanks to this new method, the shift from a 3D model to a printed prototype is faster, easier and more reliable.

Social implications

The availability of this easily accessible model preparation tool has the potential to foster a wider diffusion of home-made 3D printing in non-professional communities.

Originality/value

Previous methods that are guaranteed to fix all the possible configurations provide only approximate solutions with an unnecessary distortion. Conversely, this procedure is as exact as possible, meaning that no visible distortion is introduced unless it is strictly imposed by limitations of the printing device. Thanks to such unprecedented flexibility and accuracy, this algorithm is expected to significantly simplify the modeling-printing process, in particular within the continuously emerging non-professional “maker” communities.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 24 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 April 2014

Robert W. Kay, Gerard Cummins, Thomas Krebs, Richard Lathrop, Eitan Abraham and Marc Desmulliez

Wafer-level stencil printing of a type-6 Pb-free SAC solder paste was statistically evaluated at 200 and 150 μm pitch using three different stencil manufacturing…

Abstract

Purpose

Wafer-level stencil printing of a type-6 Pb-free SAC solder paste was statistically evaluated at 200 and 150 μm pitch using three different stencil manufacturing technologies: laser cutting, DC electroforming and micro-engineered electroforming. This investigation looks at stencil differences in printability, pitch resolution, maximum achievable bump height, print co-planarity, paste release efficiency, and cleaning frequency. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper, the authors present a statistical evaluation of the impact of stencil technology on type-6 tin-silver-copper paste printing. The authors concentrate on performances at 200 and 150 μm pitch of full array patterns. Key evaluated criteria include achievable reflowed bump heights, deposit co-planarity, paste release efficiency, and frequency of stencil cleaning. Box plots were used to graphically view print performance over a range of aperture sizes for the three stencil types.

Findings

Fabrication technologies significantly affect print performance where the micro-engineered electroformed stencil produced the highest bump deposits and the lowest bump height deviation. Second in performance was the conventional electroformed, followed by the laser-cut stencil. Comparisons between the first and fifth consecutive print demonstrated no need for stencil cleaning in the case for the micro-engineered stencil for all but the smallest spacings between apertures. High paste transfer efficiencies, i.e. above 85 per cent, were achieved with the micro-engineered stencil using low aperture area ratios of 0.5.

Originality/value

Stencil technology influences the maximum reflowed solder bump heights achievable, and bump co-planarity. To date, no statistical analysis comparing the impact of stencil technology for wafer-level bumping has been carried out for pitches of 200 μm and below. This paper gives new insight into how stencil technology impacts the print performance for fine pitch stencil printing. The volume of data collected for this investigation enabled detailed insight into the limitations of the printing process and as a result for suitable design guidelines to be developed. The finding also shows that the accepted industry guidelines on stencil design developed by the surface mount industry can be broken if the correct stencil technology is selected, thereby increasing the potential application areas of stencil printing.

Details

Soldering & Surface Mount Technology, vol. 26 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0954-0911

Keywords

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