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The purpose of this study was to describe the content of food advertisements broadcast during prime‐time network programs and determine what changes have occurred over the…
The purpose of this study was to describe the content of food advertisements broadcast during prime‐time network programs and determine what changes have occurred over the last 30 years. The sample comprised foods advertisements (N = 38, N = 31, N = 91, N = 105, N = 108) from 1971, 1977, 1988, 1992 and 1998, respectively. Of the commercials shown in 1977, 1988, 1992 and 1998, 31, 35, 20, and 15 per cent, respectively, were for food advertisements (data were unavailable for 1971). Using simple linear regression, the hourly rate for total commercials is increasing significantly (p = 0.04) by 1.4 commercials per hour each year. However, the hourly rate for food advertisements is not changing over time in a statistically significant fashion. There is very strong evidence of an association between the type of food advertised and year (chi‐square = 62.691, p < 0.001). The top four categories contributing to the chi‐square are: restaurants, low‐nutrient beverages, protein‐rich foods, and breads and cereals which, together, account for 75 per cent of the chi‐square value. For the past three decades, the “prime‐time diet” has comprised mostly low nutrient density foods that are promoted by slender, healthy actors.
Key issues of the application of modelling and simulation for the management of the Malaysian Kelang Container Terminal are discussed. The aim of the investigation is to…
Key issues of the application of modelling and simulation for the management of the Malaysian Kelang Container Terminal are discussed. The aim of the investigation is to improve the logistics processes at the port. The model simulates all processes required to operate the seaport efficiently and provides detailed statistics on the seaport through‐put and utilisation characteristics with a high level of accuracy. The quay cranes allocation, the resources allocations and the scheduling of the different operations are modelled to maximise the performance of the port. The assignment of prime movers to transport containers to a yard area is also considered.
Many individuals experience a sense of déjà vu when smelling a particular scent in the air or on hearing a name or words from the past. At times even the faintest scent or…
Many individuals experience a sense of déjà vu when smelling a particular scent in the air or on hearing a name or words from the past. At times even the faintest scent or sound may evoke old memories and stir the senses. This is particularly true when the names of long‐ago television and radio programs are heard. Depending on one's age and the part of the country in which one lived, people born before the “baby boom” years (1946–1964) often feel a profound sense of nostalgia about such radio programs as Mr. District Attorney and Fibber McGee and Molly or the television shows Howdy Doody and Toast of the Town/Ed Sullivan Show. These early programs are considered part of the “golden age” of radio and television broadcasting.
MALAYSIA: COVID-19 emergency buys prime minister time
VINE is produced at least four times a year with the object of providing up‐to‐date news of work being done in the automation of library housekeeping processes, principally in the UK. It is edited and substantially written by the Information Office for Library Automation based in Southampton University Library and supported by a grant from the British Library Research and Development Department. Copyright for VINE articles rests with the British Library Board, but opinions expressed in VINE do not necessarily reflect the views and policies of the British Library. The subscription for 1981 and 1982 for VINE is £20 for UK subscribers and £23 for overseas subscribers — subscription year runs from January to December.
Wherever television is a commercial venture which earns a significant percentage of revenues from advertising, it tends to be transformed to better serve the needs of ad…
Wherever television is a commercial venture which earns a significant percentage of revenues from advertising, it tends to be transformed to better serve the needs of ad agencies and their clients. One oft raised complaint is that in an attempt to raise ratings and viewership, advertisers insist that shows cater to the “lowest common denominator” of society; as a result, quality programming is often compromised, eliminated, or banished to time periods when viewing is inconvenient. Programme diversity is also undermined. This paper suggests that the strategies of commercial television often restrict high quality programming even if the actual sponsors are committed to quality and diversity. This is done to create an environment which will best serve the majority of sponsors, and thus attract maximum advertising revenues. A history of Voice of Firestone (a long‐lived programme on U.S. Radio and TV) will be used as an example of this tendency. In an era when Europe is becoming more involved with commercial television, the lesson of such examples is especially significant.
European television is on the brink of being transformed by a new breed of commercial stations which garner revenues from advertisements — not merely taxes, governmental…
European television is on the brink of being transformed by a new breed of commercial stations which garner revenues from advertisements — not merely taxes, governmental subsidies, and/or legislation which requires viewers to underwrite the programmes they watch. European commercial television, now in its infancy and usually only available to those with cable TV, exhibits all the signs of being an emerging “enfant terrible”. “Annual double‐digit gains in … (TV) advertising in Europe” will continue for the next 20 years, predicts John Eger, a major international media consultant and former senior Vice President of CBS Worldwide Enterprises.
– This paper aims to quantify the potentials for the development of combined heat and power (CHP) in Europe.
This paper aims to quantify the potentials for the development of combined heat and power (CHP) in Europe.
To this end, it uses the TIMES-EU energy-economic model and assesses the impact of key policy options and targets in the area of CO2 emissions reduction, renewable energies and energy efficiency improvements. The results are also compared with the cogeneration potentials as reported by the Member States in their national reports.
The paper shows that CHP output could be more than doubled and that important CHP penetration potential exists in expanding the European district heating systems. This result is even more pronounced with the far-reaching CO2 emissions reduction necessary in order to meet a long-term 2 degree target. Nevertheless, the paper also shows that strong CO2 emission reductions in the energy sector might limit the CHP potential due to increased competition for biomass with the transport sector.
Given the proven socio-economic benefits of using CHP, the paper identifies the areas for future research in order to better exploit the potential of this technology such as the combination of CHP and district cooling or country- and industry-specific options to generate process heat.
The necessity to assess television programming as programming (rather than merely as a vehicle to deliver advertising audiences) is discussed against the background of…
The necessity to assess television programming as programming (rather than merely as a vehicle to deliver advertising audiences) is discussed against the background of commercial television's rapidly changing technology, a principal effect of which has been to fragment formerly “mass” audiences. Traditional ratings data (because they lack adequate quantitative detail, contain no qualitative information, and measure programs only after they are aired) are becoming an insufficient basis for making either programming or advertising decisions. As audiences become increasingly segmented, the necessity to understand them (exactly who they are and why they watch particular programs) becomes apparent‐whether for purposes of developing programs, scheduling them, or ascertaining whether they constitute an efficient vehicle within which to place advertising messages. Audience understanding can come only from a considerably expanded base of systematic research.
Two time metaphors are often adopted to express the passage of time: the ego-moving metaphor that conceptualizes the ego as moving toward the stationary event (e.g. we are approaching the holiday) or the event-moving metaphor that conceptualizes the event as moving toward the stationary ego (e.g. the holiday is approaching us). This paper aims to investigate the influence of the time metaphor on regulatory focus, as well as its downstream marketing implications.
Five studies were conducted. Studies 1a–1c examined the moderating effect of the valence of events on the relationship between time metaphors and regulatory focus. Studies 2–3 investigated the downstream marketing implications of the above effects.
The findings indicated that compared to the event-moving metaphor, the ego-moving metaphor is more likely to evoke a promotion focus when consumers anticipate a positive event. However, when the event is negative, the ego-moving metaphor is more likely to evoke a prevention focus compared to the event-moving metaphor.
This research extends the previous literature on regulatory focus activation by showing that time metaphors affect regulatory focus, and that event valence plays a critical moderating role in the relationship.
Many companies rely on positive events (e.g. holidays, anniversaries) to market their products. The findings of this research suggest that companies promoting products with promotion-related benefits or products with higher risks should adopt an ego-moving metaphor to describe the coming of the event. In contrast, companies promoting products with prevention-related benefits or products with low risks should adopt an event-moving metaphor to describe the coming of the event.
This research showed that the effects of time metaphors on consumers’ regulatory focus depend on the valence of the events. It also demonstrated the downstream implications of time metaphors by showing that time metaphors influence consumer product choices and financial decisions.