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Publication date: 27 September 2021

Jianjun (John) Zhu, Thomas S. Gruca and Lopo L. Rego

This study examines the empirical relationship between four broad antecedents of brand equity (branding strategy, brand structure, brand positioning and target market) and…

Abstract

This study examines the empirical relationship between four broad antecedents of brand equity (branding strategy, brand structure, brand positioning and target market) and two separate dimensions of revenue premium: price premium and volume premium. Our modeling framework aims to explain how different antecedents of brand equity influence the realized velocity and margin of branded product sales, key drivers of operating cash flow. Our generalizable empirical analyses are based on a representative dataset of over 6,500 brands, across 200 consumer-packaged goods categories, spanning three years. We find that only 20% of brands command revenue premiums, for which volume premiums are the critical determinant. Branding strategies and brand structure primarily impact volume premium. In contrast, brand positioning has little effect. Target market substantially affects both premiums. Overall, these four elements account for 73% and 69% of the explained variations in price and volume premiums, respectively. This study provides generalizable, important, and novel insights for the theory and practice of brand management regarding price positioning and extending brands into new categories.

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Marketing Accountability for Marketing and Non-marketing Outcomes
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-563-9

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2006

Lisa M. Wood and Barry J. Pierson

The research outlined in this paper seeks to establish whether or not there are discernible differences in the positioning attributes of Aldi and Sainsbury's. Particular…

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18066

Abstract

Purpose

The research outlined in this paper seeks to establish whether or not there are discernible differences in the positioning attributes of Aldi and Sainsbury's. Particular emphasis is given to price positioning and to what extent this can be explained by product quality differences.

Design/methodology/approach

Price differences are assessed using the shopping basket technique and product quality differences are evaluated using perceptual discrimination tests conducted blind of brand. Where differences between products are discernible, product preference is identified.

Findings

The study identified discernible differences in the pricing strategies of Sainsbury's and Aldi particularly amongst the higher added value products. Although differences in product quality were evident in some product categories, there was no statistically significant preference for one brand over the other.

Research limitations/implications

Owing to the resource intensive nature of perceptual discrimination tests, this research was conducted on a relatively small number of products and cannot be extrapolated to the full range of products available from either retailer, though it may indicate comparable quality.

Originality/value

This paper evaluates the brand description of two UK‐based retailers, Sainsbury's and Aldi. In market positioning, they are at different ends of the retailing spectrum, with Sainsbury's a high added value retailer with an ABC1 consumer profile, and Aldi a hard discounter with a largely C2D consumer base. However, this study is based on a retail site that has the two brands located directly opposite each other in a conspicuously AB suburb of a major UK city. This location deviates from the holistic profile of the Aldi brand and as such provides a special research site.

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International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 34 no. 12
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 2006

Olga Ampuero and Natalia Vila

This paper seeks to discuss the need to understand consumer perceptions in order to correctly design product packing and to achieve the desired position in the minds of consumers.

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96376

Abstract

Purpose

This paper seeks to discuss the need to understand consumer perceptions in order to correctly design product packing and to achieve the desired position in the minds of consumers.

Design/methodology/approach

Data collection was divided into two phases. The first, (based on designers' opinions), to determine the key graphic variables in the design of packaging. The second, (based on consumers' opinions), to associate each packaging with a positioning strategy. The seven product‐positioning strategies selected were represented from the consumers' standpoint using multidimensional scaling. Four maps were obtained related to: alternative packaging colours; alternative packaging typography; alternative packaging graphical forms; alternative packaging images

Findings

Each positioning strategy appears associated with particular packaging dimensions.

Research limitations/implications

Consumers have exhibited harmonious perceptions towards products‐packaging strategies, so one can conclude that a general feeling as to what a particular packaging exactly means exists. So the general opinion should guide packaging designers to appropriately meet consumers' expectations.

Originality/value

A range of simulated packaging was prepared for the 46 consumers that took part in the two‐phase experiment: One of the seven positioning strategies was explained. For example: “Product ‘A’ is positioned as reasonably priced. People say the price is OK”; Case to be solved: “From this selection, choose the packaging that seems most suitable for product ‘A’, taking its characteristics into account”. The simulated packaging alternatives were shown and the subject chose the options that seemed most suitable (colour, typography, forms and images). The sequence was repeated for the remaining six positioning typologies.

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Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 23 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 7 October 2014

Ronald L. Hess Jr and Lawrence Ring

The purpose of this paper is to better understand the unique competitive positioning characteristics of off-price retailers and how they compare to other types of…

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1282

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to better understand the unique competitive positioning characteristics of off-price retailers and how they compare to other types of retailers. The authors compare off-price and upscale off-price retailers with four major formats of retailers: first, discount department store/warehouse club retailers; second, moderate department store retailers; third, department store retailers; and finally, specialty department store retailers.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper employs a representative sample that was randomly drawn from four primary metropolitan cities in the USA. The data were collected using telephone interviews by a prominent, marketing research firm. A series of discriminant analyses were conducted to examine the data.

Findings

The findings of the paper indicate that the off-price formats were consistently positioned at extreme points along the price/value continuum, signifying the strongest value-orientation among the other retail formats. The authors also found that while the upscale off-price format followed the specialty department stores in terms of fashion. The results point to an important disadvantage of the off-price format – although strong on price/value, they often fall short on fashion and many other store attributes that may be important to luxury-oriented customers.

Research limitations/implications

The paper employed a sample from several cities collected using a telephone interview methodology within the US. Due to these limitations, the findings of this paper may be hampered by this methodology and not generalize to regions outside of the US. Future research should examine how the demise of most of the upscale off-price retailers and growth of flash web sites have changed the competitive structure of retailing.

Practical implications

The results demonstrate that the positioning of the off-price retail format is unique from other formats. The retail formats occupy distinct positions. The off-price retail format is strongly associated with the price/value position but only moderately fashionable to customers, especially when compared with the department and specialty department store formats. In contrast, the upscale off-price format, while also strongly positioned along the price/value continuum, is considered much more fashionable than the off-price retail format. In fact, the upscale off-price retail format only trails the specialty department store format in terms of fashion.

Originality/value

The unique characteristics of the off-price retail format and growing interest from upscale department stores underscores the need for a comprehensive understanding of the motives of the off-price shopper. This paper provides retailers with a more complete understanding of the store attributes that differentiate the off-price retail format from other major retail store formats. The overall objective of this study is to offer a comprehensive view of the positioning of off-price retailers compared with many alternative retail formats.

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International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 42 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

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Article
Publication date: 4 June 2010

Li Fei, Mi Bu, Wang Gao and Li Xiang

The purpose of this paper is to study the positioning points of successful retail enterprises in China, and to try to conclude the general law for selecting the positioning points.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the positioning points of successful retail enterprises in China, and to try to conclude the general law for selecting the positioning points.

Design/methodology/approach

By analyzing the evaluation data of countrywide samples and the impact factors of customer satisfaction, the authors select some successful retail enterprises in China to be the study samples. On the base of that, the performance concerning positioning points of the samples are discussed.

Findings

The paper reaches five valuable conclusions: first, successful retail enterprises have definite positioning points; second, successful retail enterprises commonly have a main positioning point and a second best positioning point; third, successful retail enterprises could choose commodity, service, price or shopping environment as their positioning point; fourth, retail enterprises in the same retail format could have different positioning points; fifth, the non‐positioning points of successful retail enterprises are usually above the industry average level, while those of retail enterprises in successful tendency could hardly reach the industry average level.

Research limitations/implications

The limitation of samples (only large‐scale supermarkets) might still make the practical applications on other retail formats limited. Meanwhile, the criteria for identifying the successful enterprises in this paper are mainly customer satisfaction and loyalty, without considering the financial performance.

Practical implications

The conclusions in this paper have great significance for Chinese retail enterprises to establish a unique competitive advantage.

Originality/value

The conclusion concerning positioning points of this paper might be the first to answer the key issues in Chinese retail enterprises' positioning strategies.

Details

Nankai Business Review International, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8749

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1989

William Giles

In this, the second edition, the experience of actually running amarketing planning process in organisations further updates and revisesthe highly practical emphasis. The…

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1362

Abstract

In this, the second edition, the experience of actually running a marketing planning process in organisations further updates and revises the highly practical emphasis. The need for vision, how to enunciate it, and the interface between various levels of managers are integrated specifically into the process. Further analysis using the SWOT technique is provided together with enhanced insight into maintaining competitive advantage. Essentially a practical manual on running a planning process, the worksheet method has been well tried and tested. The experience of managers who have implemented the process using the first edition is included to enhance the technique′s dynamism and effectiveness.

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Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 7 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 1 November 2000

Stavros P. Kalafatis, Markos H. Tsogas and Charles Blankson

Tests the relevance of positioning within the domain of business marketing through the application of a new typology of positioning strategies. The proposed typology is…

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39921

Abstract

Tests the relevance of positioning within the domain of business marketing through the application of a new typology of positioning strategies. The proposed typology is tested in a well‐established market sector which is characterised by commodity products and consequently the research deals with positioning as applied to actual companies rather than specific brands. Our results offer strong support as to the stability of the proposed typology and the relevance of the concept of positioning in business markets. The authors suggest that although business positioning is predominantly determined by hard criteria (e.g. product quality) and relationship building factors (e.g. personal contact), other considerations such as company structures (i.e. geographical coverage), breadth of offerings and degree of integration (i.e. location in the distribution chain), also play an important part. Finally, we offer support to the claim that, level of familiarity with a specific company is a contributing factor to perceptions of the pursued positioning strategies.

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Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 15 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

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Article
Publication date: 7 September 2010

Nigel F. Piercy, David W. Cravens and Nikala Lane

Harsh economic conditions have put pricing higher on the agenda but responses to pricing challenges have frequently been tactical. The intent is to build on basic pricing

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22147

Abstract

Purpose

Harsh economic conditions have put pricing higher on the agenda but responses to pricing challenges have frequently been tactical. The intent is to build on basic pricing principles to emphasize a strategic perspective on pricing built around opportunities to deliver superior customer value.

Design/methodology/approach

Our logic is drawn from the observation of company pricing practices and interesting moves from conventional to innovative pricing strategies.

Findings

Our observations underline the need for executives to adopt a more strategic view of price and to examine the scope for raising prices, especially in a post‐recession economic scenario.

Practical implications

Our action agenda addresses: why there is an urgent need to make pricing decisions strategically, particularly as economic recovery occurs, with important insights coming from innovative pricing models designed to deliver superior customer value; the role of price in strategic positioning – key management considerations are whether price is to play an active or passive role in marketing the product or service, and whether price is high or low compared to alternatives; the challenges of raising prices in recession and recovery conditions, where analysis underlines the importance of considering product differentiation from a customer perspective and comparing this with how strongly the customer needs the product; and the need to design a value‐based pricing strategy which integrates the conclusions reached about the strategic role of price.

Originality/value

Viewing pricing as a “quick fix” and the only route to maintaining sales or protecting market share underplays the strategic importance of pricing and its long‐term strategic implications. We propose a management action agenda for making pricing decisions strategically.

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Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 31 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0275-6668

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1985

William Giles

Originally written as a workshop manual with the intention of closing the gap between current accepted marketing planning concepts and actual management practice, this…

Abstract

Originally written as a workshop manual with the intention of closing the gap between current accepted marketing planning concepts and actual management practice, this special issue is a clear, methodical guide to the planning process covering corporate goals, market analysis, competitive comparison, internal allocation, SWOT analysis, strategies and tactics, marketing plan evaluation, and controls and measurements. Included are 32 worksheets to encourage systematic organisation of relevant information. The text's method relies on the shared experiences of managers, and has been successfully used in diverse areas, from computers and banking to industrial packaging.

Details

Marketing Intelligence & Planning, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-4503

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Article
Publication date: 6 February 2019

Mauricio Palmeira, Jing Lei and Ana Valenzuela

Companies often extend brands to higher or lower quality tiers to access different market segments. However, the impact of such extensions on the brand and its subsequent…

Abstract

Purpose

Companies often extend brands to higher or lower quality tiers to access different market segments. However, the impact of such extensions on the brand and its subsequent offerings is not yet conclusive. While some studies found an “averaging” pattern (all models contribute equally to the overall perception of the brand: a symmetric effect), others found a “best-of-brand” pattern (the positive impact of an upstream extension is much greater than the negative impact of a downstream extension: an asymmetric effect). This paper aims to reconcile these seemingly conflicting findings by assessing the conditions under which each pattern is likely to emerge.

Design/methodology/approach

Three experimental studies are presented to test the conditions under which a symmetric or asymmetric pattern of brand evaluation would merge. Study 1 examined the impact of judgment focus (quality vs expertise) on the pattern of brand evaluations. Study 2 tested the impact of having a comparative set on the assessment of specific brand dimensions. Study 3 examined the impact of the informativeness of price positioning on product quality expectations.

Findings

Brand evaluations and attitudes are determined by the presence of a comparative brand and judgment focus. When brands are evaluated without a comparison, a symmetric pattern emerges, as a low-tier extension hurts a brand as much as a high-tier extension helps it. In contrast, when brands are evaluated with a comparison, focusing the assessment on quality leads to a symmetric pattern, while focusing it on expertise leads to an asymmetric one.

Research limitations/implications

The present research specifies conditions under which a low-tier model may hurt brand perceptions. We used hypothetical brands to avoid the impact of preexisting attitudes. While we expect our results to generalize to real brands, this may be considered a limitation of the present research.

Practical implications

The current research delineates the circumstances under which vertical line extensions have positive, neutral or negative impact on brand perceptions and future product expectations. We introduce the presence of a comparison set as a key variable and show how it interacts with assessment focus to affect brand evaluations. When thinking about the impact of extensions on brand perceptions, marketers need to consider which assessment focus is likely to be triggered by environmental cues and whether comparisons are salient.

Originality/value

Brand extension is an important area of investigation as evidenced by the vast literature dedicated to the subject. The present paper advances knowledge in this area by identifying key factors affecting the impact of vertical extensions on brand perceptions.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 53 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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