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Abstract

Details

Energy Economics
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83867-294-2

Article
Publication date: 1 December 1997

Kuang‐Jung Chen

The practice of selling cigarettes by sticks is a phenomenon that can be observed among Asian countries. It is prevalent in urban centers where the retailing activity is…

40148

Abstract

The practice of selling cigarettes by sticks is a phenomenon that can be observed among Asian countries. It is prevalent in urban centers where the retailing activity is one of the major economic activities undertaken by the middle and lower echelons of the social class. In a study of the switching of consumers from one brand to the other as a response to price increases, the practice has shown a bi‐directional effect. In an inter‐brand shift, it acts as a buffer slowing down the change in preference by granting the consumers an ability to buy the same brand even if the budget is not enough for one pack. The opposite, however, happens in the intra‐brand (local to foreign) shift. The practice makes it easier for the consumer to shift by lowering the perceived “sacrifice” in incremental price vis‐à‐vis the differential value between the imported and local brand.

Details

Pricing Strategy and Practice, vol. 5 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0968-4905

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 June 2005

Esharenana E. Adomi

To survey the effects of a general price increase on cybercafé services in Abraka, Nigeria. The price increase introduced in September 2004 by the Association of Cybercaf…

737

Abstract

Purpose

To survey the effects of a general price increase on cybercafé services in Abraka, Nigeria. The price increase introduced in September 2004 by the Association of Cybercafé Operators in Abraka (ACOA) failed due to customers’ responses to it. The collapse of the pricing regime is investigated.

Design/methodology/approach

Uses a literature review, questionnaire, interviews, and personal observations to gather data, and uses these data to determine reasons behind the pricing structure of cybercafés in Abraka, Nigeria, and customers' reactions to those pricing structures.

Findings

Findings revealed that the cost of providing an alternative electrical power source ranked highest in what determined the price of cybercafé services prior to the period of the general price increase, followed by the ISP charge. A majority of the cybercafés experienced a drop in customer/client patronage, followed by a drop in daily income and customer dissatisfaction, due to the increased prices for internet service.

Originality/value

All the cafés have reduced their prices in order to satisfy their customers. Most of them reduced their prices in order to increase customer/user patronage. It was suggested that an increase in cybercafé service prices should not be introduced again to permit more users access and to encourage them to use the internet in the cafés.

Details

The Bottom Line, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0888-045X

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 March 2018

Toni Repetti and Susan Roe

State and local governments are considering large increases to the minimum wage. As restaurants employ many individuals paid at or below minimum wage, these changes may…

1997

Abstract

Purpose

State and local governments are considering large increases to the minimum wage. As restaurants employ many individuals paid at or below minimum wage, these changes may affect their businesses. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the anticipated effects of minimum wage growth on employment and pricing in US food and beverage operations.

Design/methodology/approach

The study utilizes an experimental design where restaurant owners and managers are presented with scenarios of differing levels of potential minimum wage increases and are asked to anticipate changes to employment and pricing.

Findings

Restaurant owners and managers involved in the study indicate the level of the minimum wage increase will significantly affect changes in pricing and employment levels. Results also show that restaurant demographics such as type of restaurant and average check do not significantly affect the relative change operators anticipate implementing. Specific ways participants plan to make adjustments are also presented.

Originality/value

The anticipated impact of minimum wage increases at the restaurant level is examined, which differs from previous studies that determine the impact at the industry level. This study evaluates large minimum wage increases of up to 100 per cent, which have previously not been studied.

Details

International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-6119

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 March 1990

Roger J. Sandilands

Allyn Young′s lectures, as recorded by the young Nicholas Kaldor,survey the historical roots of the subject from Aristotle through to themodern neo‐classical writers. The…

Abstract

Allyn Young′s lectures, as recorded by the young Nicholas Kaldor, survey the historical roots of the subject from Aristotle through to the modern neo‐classical writers. The focus throughout is on the conditions making for economic progress, with stress on the institutional developments that extend and are extended by the size of the market. Organisational changes that promote the division of labour and specialisation within and between firms and industries, and which promote competition and mobility, are seen as the vital factors in growth. In the absence of new markets, inventions as such play only a minor role. The economic system is an inter‐related whole, or a living “organon”. It is from this perspective that micro‐economic relations are analysed, and this helps expose certain fallacies of composition associated with the marginal productivity theory of production and distribution. Factors are paid not because they are productive but because they are scarce. Likewise he shows why Marshallian supply and demand schedules, based on the “one thing at a time” approach, cannot adequately describe the dynamic growth properties of the system. Supply and demand cannot be simply integrated to arrive at a picture of the whole economy. These notes are complemented by eleven articles in the Encyclopaedia Britannica which were published shortly after Young′s sudden death in 1929.

Details

Journal of Economic Studies, vol. 17 no. 3/4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3585

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 February 1970

The Secretary of State, in exercise of the powers conferred on her by section 4 of the Prices and Incomes Act 1966 and after consultation, in accordance with subsection…

Abstract

The Secretary of State, in exercise of the powers conferred on her by section 4 of the Prices and Incomes Act 1966 and after consultation, in accordance with subsection (3) of that section, with organisations appearing to her to represent to a substantial extent the interests of those particularly concerned, hereby makes the following Order :—

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 7 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

Article
Publication date: 10 October 2008

Magda Kandil and Nazire Nergiz Dincer

The paper aims to examine the effects of exchange rate fluctuations on real output, the price level, and the real value of components of aggregate demand in Egypt and Turkey.

2269

Abstract

Purpose

The paper aims to examine the effects of exchange rate fluctuations on real output, the price level, and the real value of components of aggregate demand in Egypt and Turkey.

Design/methodology/approach

Building on a theoretical model that decomposes movements in the exchange rate into anticipated and unanticipated components, the empirical investigation traces the effects through demand and supply channels.

Findings

In Turkey, anticipated exchange rate appreciation has significant adverse effects, contracting the growth of real output and the demand for investment and exports, while raising price inflation. Random fluctuations in Turkey have asymmetric effects that highlight the importance of unanticipated depreciation in shrinking output growth and the growth of private consumption and investment, despite an increase in export growth. In Egypt, anticipated exchange rate appreciation decreases export growth. Given asymmetry, the net effect of unanticipated exchange rate fluctuations, in Egypt, decreases real output and consumption growth and increases export growth, on average, over time.

Research limitations/implications

In light of the country‐specific evidence, future research should extend the investigation using panel estimation, incorporating various demand and supply shocks along with exchange rate fluctuations, to establish the relative importance of various shocks on macroeconomic performance across MENA countries.

Practical implications

While adhering to a flexible exchange rate policy to boost competitiveness, managing fundamentals to reduce excessive volatility impinging on the economic system over time should top the policy agenda.

Originality/value

Excessive volatility in the real effective exchange rate could be detrimental to real growth, over time, as the evidence for Turkey and Egypt illustrates.

Details

International Journal of Development Issues, vol. 7 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1446-8956

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 1966

(ELIZ.2, 1966, CH.33) An Act to establish a National Board for Prices and Incomes, and authorise the bringing into force of provisions requiring notice of price increases

Abstract

(ELIZ.2, 1966, CH.33) An Act to establish a National Board for Prices and Incomes, and authorise the bringing into force of provisions requiring notice of price increases, pay increases and other matters, and for enforcing a temporary standstill in prices or charges or terms and conditions of employment; in connection with recommendations made by the said Board, to amend the Restrictive Trade Practices Act 1956; to provide, for a period lasting not more than twelve months, for restricting price increases and pay increases and for other matters connected with prices and incomes; and for connected purposes.

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 1 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

Article
Publication date: 5 September 2016

Åsa Grytli Tveten, Jon Gustav Kirkerud and Torjus Folsland Bolkesjø

This study aims to investigate the effects of thermal–hydro interconnection on the revenues, market value and curtailment of variable renewable energy (VRE). The increasing

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to investigate the effects of thermal–hydro interconnection on the revenues, market value and curtailment of variable renewable energy (VRE). The increasing market shares of VRE sources in the Northern European power system cause declining revenues for VRE producers, because of the merit-order effect. A sparsely studied flexibility measure for mitigating the drop in the VRE market value is increased interconnection between thermal- and hydropower-dominated regions.

Design/methodology/approach

A comprehensive partial equilibrium model with a high spatial and temporal resolution is applied for the analysis.

Findings

Model simulation results for 2030 show that thermal–hydro interconnection will cause exchange patterns that to a larger extent follow VRE production patterns, causing significantly reduced VRE curtailment. Wind value factors are found to decrease in the hydropower-dominated regions and increase in thermal power-dominated regions. Because of increased average electricity prices in most regions, the revenues are, however, found to increase for all VRE technologies. By only assuming the planned increases in transmission capacity, total VRE revenues are found to increase by 3.3 per cent and VRE electricity generation increases by 3.7 TWh.

Originality/value

The current study is, to the authors' knowledge, the first to analyze the effect of interconnection between thermal- and hydropower-dominated regions on the VRE market value, and the authors conclude that this is a promising flexibility measure for mitigating the value-drop of VRE caused by the merit-order effect. The study results demonstrate the importance of taking the whole power system into consideration when planning future transmission capacity expansions.

Details

International Journal of Energy Sector Management, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6220

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 May 1968

The Secretary of State, in exercise of the powers conferred on her by section 4 of the Prices and Incomes Act 1966 and after consultation, in accordance with subsection…

Abstract

The Secretary of State, in exercise of the powers conferred on her by section 4 of the Prices and Incomes Act 1966 and after consultation, in accordance with subsection (3) of that section, with organisations appearing to her to represent to a substantial extent the interests of those particularly concerned, hereby makes the following Order:—

Details

Managerial Law, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0558

1 – 10 of over 131000