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Article
Publication date: 15 January 2018

Qingyun Xu, Bing Xu, Ping Wang and Yi He

This paper aims to address the following problems: What are the firms’ optimal pricing and quality policies under three scenarios (no bundling, pure bundling and mixed…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to address the following problems: What are the firms’ optimal pricing and quality policies under three scenarios (no bundling, pure bundling and mixed bundling)? In what condition will one bundling strategy dominate the others? How does the degree of complementarity affect the firms’ decision?

Design/methodology/approach

Using the game theory, this study first establishes three models of bundling strategies: no bundling, pure bundling and mixed bundling and then obtains the optimal prices and quality decisions. This study uses numerical analysis to explore the relationships between the prices (demands and profits) and some key parameters and to obtain some valuable management complications.

Findings

Some interesting and valuable management implications are established: regardless of the degree of complementarity, adopting a pure bundling or mixed bundling strategy is better than separately selling an individual product; a high degree of complementarity leads to reduced profit in the no bundling and mixed bundling scenarios, whereas the condition in the pure bundling strategy is the opposite; and when the degree of complementarity is adequately large, choosing pure bundling strategy is more profitable.

Research limitations/implications

On the one hand, this study does not calculate the profit sharing ratio, and hence, the equilibrium profit sharing ratio can be explored in future work. On the other hand, marketing efforts (e.g. advertising and promotion) can be included in the study.

Practical implications

This study derives the necessary conditions for the most effective bundling strategy that maximizes firm’s profits, and these conclusions can provide a decision reference to the bundling decisions of firms.

Originality/value

First, the optimal bundling strategies in a horizontal supply chain consisting of two firms is considered. Under the pure and mixed bundling strategies, the two firms sell the bundled product by building a cooperative program. Second, both the pricing policies and quality decisions of supply chain members under the different bundling strategies are studied.

Details

Kybernetes, vol. 47 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0368-492X

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Article
Publication date: 9 May 2016

Sérgio Dominique-Ferreira, Helder Vasconcelos and João F. Proença

Consumer price sensitivity has become a major issue over the past few decades. This paper aims to investigate the importance that insurance customers give to premiums…

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4927

Abstract

Purpose

Consumer price sensitivity has become a major issue over the past few decades. This paper aims to investigate the importance that insurance customers give to premiums, insurers, intermediary recommendations and bundling strategies. The relationship between attributes and consumer price sensitivity is also studied.

Design/methodology/approach

To calculate the importance of attributes and part-worth utilities, a Conjoint Analysis with Full Profile was performed. To segment the market, a two-stage cluster analysis was performed. The traditional formula for estimating price elasticity of demand was also used.

Findings

Price sensitivity is affected by the level of purchase involvement, bundled discounts and brand loyalty. Also, brand loyalty has a strong influence on customer acceptance of bundled discounts. Price bundling increases a firm’s revenues and profits.

Research limitations/implications

The size of the sample of the second stage of the research could be higher.

It would also be interesting to have the collaboration of an actuary to carry out more precise analysis of premium estimation of bundling strategies and to study the ideal number of products that would compose the bundling strategy. Moreover, it could be relevant to consider life insurance products as part of the bundling strategy. It would also be interesting to study whether there is any benefit in applying the bundle discount to the anchor product instead of applying it to the accessory product.

Practical implications

Insurers and intermediaries can benefit from price bundling strategies to increase sales and profit.

Originality/value

The study contributes to the service marketing literature and marketing of the insurance sector by providing empirical evidence of the impact of price bundling on insurance customer sensitivity, with the use of a methodological and experimental approach.

Details

Journal of Services Marketing, vol. 30 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0887-6045

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Article
Publication date: 2 March 2020

Yong Liu, Xiaoying Wang and Wenwen Ren

This paper attempts to analyze the relationship between the complementarity degrees of imperfect complementary products and sales strategies and give appropriate sales…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper attempts to analyze the relationship between the complementarity degrees of imperfect complementary products and sales strategies and give appropriate sales strategies for a two-stage supply chain.

Design/methodology/approach

With respect to two-stage supply chain consisting of two manufacturers who produce imperfect complementary products and one retailer who sells the products, aiming at bundling sales strategy, the authors define complementarity elasticity of products and use it to measure the degree of complementary between two products. Based on Stackelberg game and cooperation, the authors analyze the relationship between the complementarity degrees of imperfect complementary products and appropriate sales strategies.

Findings

As the impact of complementarity degree on sales strategy decision-making is better, the authors can pinpoint out which sales decision-making is optimal and which bundling sales strategy is the best for a two-stage supply chain. Considering that the degree of complementarity has a significant impact on the product sales strategy, the authors can point out which sales decision-making is optimal, that is, which bundled sales strategy is the optimal in the secondary supply chain of selling complementary products.

Practical implications

An innovative bundling can expand the sales of existing products and new products. It helps a retailer transcend and defeat competitors by reducing marketing expenses while increasing profits. Proper use of bundling can improve consumers utility and create an overall positive effect for both the enterprises and consumer.

Originality/value

The research can help some retailers to make many appropriate bundling sales strategies.

Details

Journal of Business & Industrial Marketing, vol. 35 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0885-8624

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 10 September 2019

Sérgio Dominique-Ferreira and Cristina Antunes

The purpose of this paper is to investigate and identify the price sensitivity of consumers of three- and five-star hotels and to determine the impact of bundling

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6091

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate and identify the price sensitivity of consumers of three- and five-star hotels and to determine the impact of bundling strategies on consumers’ price sensitivity.

Design/methodology/approach

To calculate price sensitivity, authors apply the van Westendorp’s price sensitivity meter (PSM). To understand the impact of bundling strategies, univariate and bivariate techniques are applied.

Findings

PSM results reveal the optimal prices and the range of acceptable prices for three- and five-star hotel. The bundling strategy results reveal that five-star customers are less sensitive to mixed-leader bundling. Regarding mixed-joint bundling, managers could improve sales through bundling strategies if they selected an attractive service (e.g. restaurants).

Practical implications

Findings assist hotel managers to understand the different price sensitivities, according to the hotel typology. Managers can manage prices without the risk of losing market share or revenue. The results help managers in deciding which bundling strategies they can create, as well as the services to be included to achieve highest profitability.

Originality/value

No research to date to the best of the authors’ knowledge has attempted to understand and compare the role of bundling strategies in three- and five-stars hotels. Moreover, no research has attempted to measure and compare customers’ price sensitivity of three- and five-stars hotels.

Details

European Journal of Management and Business Economics, vol. 29 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2444-8494

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2004

José M. Barrutia Legarreta and Carmen Echebarria Miguel

This article proposes a new approach to bundling for both the marketing of services and relationship marketing. Reviews the literature on both bundling and relationship…

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3734

Abstract

This article proposes a new approach to bundling for both the marketing of services and relationship marketing. Reviews the literature on both bundling and relationship marketing and puts forward a new theoretical approach. Uses the case method as a means of defending the argument and justifies its use in this specific research project. Demonstrates that collaborative relationship bundling can constitute the strategic core of a company; at least, if the firm's primary goal is to maximise the opportunities of attracting valuable customers within competitive markets. Research bears out some results from previous studies, while it finds other results to be questionable. Shows that the strategic implications of bundling are only partially explained in terms of a price or product focus, which was what previous research had concentrated on. A specific price bundle can have more strategic implications than a different specific product bundle, due to the associative power of bundling and its interactive capacity. As an essential part of this approach, a company must define bundling through an in‐depth appraisal of the actual contextual experience of the customer, rather than focusing solely on reservation prices, which is where previous literature had laid its main emphasis. Calculates the lifetime value of the average customer attracted through bundling as compared to that of the average customer in the sector studied, and thus is able to demonstrate that the customer attracted through bundling is of greater value. The case method provides an in‐depth explanation but the results it provides may not necessarily be generalised into other contexts. Develops therefore a model to identify the factors that explain the success registered in the case selected for analysis. Puts forward 11 propositions suitable for comparative application in other contexts.

Details

International Journal of Service Industry Management, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0956-4233

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Article
Publication date: 19 July 2021

Misun Won and Stephen L. Shapiro

The purpose of this study is to examine consumer behaviors toward a bundle of tickets and lodging using two different message framing: (1) scarcity framing for a high…

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121

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to examine consumer behaviors toward a bundle of tickets and lodging using two different message framing: (1) scarcity framing for a high demand event, the All-Star Game, and (2) discount framing for a lower demand event, an MLB mid-week game.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected through two online surveys of 836 sport consumers in total on Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) and were analyzed using a mix of analysis of variances (ANOVAs) and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA).

Findings

Consumers are likely to buy products separately in a scarce situation. When discounts are offered as benefits of choosing a bundle, consumers with high willingness to pay (WTP) have higher purchase intentions (PI) and perceived value toward cumulative discounts.

Originality/value

This is the one of few studies that investigate (1) price bundling of products from two disparate industries where consumer demands fluctuate, (2) the effects of scarcity in a bundle, and (3) all possible discount messaging in a bundle.

Details

Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, vol. 11 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2042-678X

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Article
Publication date: 6 November 2007

Roger M. Heeler, Adam Nguyen and Cheryl Buff

The paper seeks to propose and test a theory of the psychological impact of price bundling that is derived from bundling's economic impact. It is called the inferred bundle

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2596

Abstract

Purpose

The paper seeks to propose and test a theory of the psychological impact of price bundling that is derived from bundling's economic impact. It is called the inferred bundle saving hypothesis. In the absence of explicit information about bundle savings, consumers infer a bundle saving when presented with a bundle offer. It is suggested that inferred bundle saving provides a simple, parsimonious explanation for pre‐ and post‐purchase bundle effects.

Design/methodology/approach

The theory is tested in two laboratory studies that employ partial replications of two prior price bundle studies.

Findings

The results show that the inferred bundle saving effect is robust in both product and service contexts, and can potentially explain the bundle effects found in these two studies.

Research limitations/implications

Additional experimental studies are recommended to further test the proposed theory.

Practical implications

First, contrary to convention, it is not always optimal for firms to integrate price information in a single bundle price. Second, firms may sometimes use the pricebundling format to signal a bundle saving without actually offering one. Third, firms can manage consumption and expected refund of bundles by manipulating consumer perception of bundle saving.

Originality/value

It is intuitive that consumers expect a bundle saving. However, this paper is the first to establish empirically the existence of this inferred bundle saving and demonstrate its potential as a theoretical explanation for various bundle effects. The research challenges the extant view that price bundling per se always enhances consumer pre‐purchase evaluation. Moreover, it connects economic and psychological research, as well as pre‐ and post‐purchase analysis, of bundle effects.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 16 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 25 January 2011

Raj Arora

This paper aims to use a mixed method (qualitative and quantitative) approach to exploring the effectiveness of price bundling.

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4691

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to use a mixed method (qualitative and quantitative) approach to exploring the effectiveness of price bundling.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on a concurrent, two‐studies design where quantitative and qualitative data are both collected (concurrently or sequentially) and analyzed separately. The first study is based on a nested experimental design, and the second study is based on in‐depth interviews. The setting for the study is frequently purchased products, specifically teeth‐whitening products. The bundled items are: teeth whitener, toothpaste, mouthwash, toothbrush and dental floss. Various forms of discounts are tested to assess the effectiveness of bundles. While bundling has been investigated in marketing settings, the focus has been limited to consumer durables using quantitative scales. The experimental study is followed by a qualitative investigation in order to add further insight into the consumer's choice of a bundle. This mixed method approach provides rich narrative that adds important insights about the decision process and offers suggestions for advertising development.

Findings

The findings do not support a bundling approach. Although the consumers perceive higher value of the bundle, the attitudes, intentions and narratives support promoting these items individually rather than as a bundle.

Research limitations/implications

Caution is advised in extrapolating the results beyond the issues investigated in the study.

Practical implications

The findings suggest caution for marketers in designing product bundles, positioning, and promotion strategies.

Originality/value

There are three major contributions of this study. First, the current literature suggests price bundling is an effective strategy. This study suggests that for certain products bundling may not be effective. Second, the past literature has not investigated the influence of type of discount on effectiveness of a bundle. Third, most studies in price bundling are quantitative in nature. This study uses a mixed method approach. The quantitative study is followed by a qualitative study to add further insights that will help understand consumer motivations behind the preferences.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 28 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 31 October 2008

Raj Arora

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effectiveness of price bundling and message framing on attitudes, intentions, and beliefs about attributes of teeth…

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4159

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effectiveness of price bundling and message framing on attitudes, intentions, and beliefs about attributes of teeth whitening products. Although each of these variables, message framing and price bundling, has been explored individually, few attempts have been made to investigate them jointly. This study is based on a full factorial design that allows for testing of interaction effects. Second, the market for whitening products is maturing, resulting in a target market that is gaining knowledge about these products. Thus, we use knowledge as a covariate in the above investigation to determine if the communication strategy should be changed as the product moves from introduction to maturity.

Design/methodology/approach

The study is based on a 2 × 2 factorial design with price bundling (bundle price – individual price) and framing (positive – negative). The setting for the study is a hypothetical brand name of teeth whitening products.

Findings

The results reveal a mixed picture with respect to effectiveness of pricing and framing on attitudes and intentions. The effect of price bundling is not significant on attitudes; it is significant on intentions. Framing has a greater impact on intentions than on attitudes. Nevertheless, the interaction effects are significant on both attitudes as well as intentions. Finally, the impact of knowledge as a covariate is significant.

Research limitations/implications

Caution is advised in extrapolating the results beyond the issues investigated in the study.

Practical implications

The findings help marketers in formulating effective marketing strategy using both price bundling and message framing strategies.

Originality/value

Although price bundling and message framing have been explored in marketing studies, the research is lacking on the combined effects of these two important variables. The findings show a significant interaction effect of pricing and framing on changing attitudes and intentions. Prior research recommends using negative framing. The present research shows that for bundle products, a positive framing approach is desirable.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 17 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 29 August 2019

Xiong Zhang, Wei T. Yue and Wendy Hui

The emergence of internet-enabled technology has led to the software service model in which the software firm, instead of the consumer, maintains software ownership. This…

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255

Abstract

Purpose

The emergence of internet-enabled technology has led to the software service model in which the software firm, instead of the consumer, maintains software ownership. This model can curtail software piracy more effectively than the traditional on-premises software model. However, software firms are not abandoning traditional on-premises software but embracing both models simultaneously. In this study, the authors consider a firm’s software bundling decision in combination with its piracy deterrence strategy. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors build three stylized models to analytically compare the bundling strategies under three scenarios: no piracy, piracy is present and piracy is present while the firm applies digital rights management (DRM).

Findings

The authors find pure bundling (PB) to be the optimal strategy due to the combination of competition and cannibalization effects in mixed bundling (MB). Simultaneously, consumers may enjoy greater surplus in PB than in MB, making PB the preferred strategy for both the firm and consumers. Interestingly, the win-win outcome coexists with some degree of piracy in the market.

Originality/value

The results provide important insights for firms and policy-makers and contribute to the literature on piracy and product bundling. First, the authors show piracy could be another driver for product bundling, which has never been discussed in prior literature. Second, the authors suggest an alternative perspective; that PB may be a desirable outcome for both firms and consumers when considering piracy and DRM. More surprisingly, this desirable outcome occurs with some level of piracy in the market. The presence of piracy leads to competition and cannibalization effects in MB, which eventually results in the win-win outcome in the software market for both the firm and the consumers.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 30 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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