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Article
Publication date: 9 May 2016

Wen Jiang and Xu Chen

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the manufacturer’s production, pricing and green technology investment decision problem when strategic customer behavior and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the manufacturer’s production, pricing and green technology investment decision problem when strategic customer behavior and carbon emissions-sensitive random demand is taken into consideration and discuss the impact of carbon emissions-sensitive demand on the manufacturer’s operation strategies, total carbon emissions and maximum expected profit.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors formulate a model to introduce carbon emissions-sensitive demand into the newsvendor framework with strategic customer behavior. The authors characterize the rational expectations equilibrium to derive the optimal solutions to the manufacturer. The authors analyze the effects of carbon emissions-sensitive demand on the manufacturer’s optimal strategies, total carbon emissions and maximum expected profit by comparative analysis.

Findings

The authors obtain the manufacturer’s optimal production, pricing and green technology investment strategies under rational expectations equilibrium in scenario of price-sensitive demand and that of carbon emissions-sensitive demand, respectively. The authors find that as customer demand changes from price-sensitive demand to carbon emissions-sensitive demand, the manufacturer’s optimal prices are the same but optimal production quantity, optimal unit carbon emissions and maximum expected profit go down. Though the total emissions decrease, the carbon emissions reduction would not increase as the demand is more carbon emissions-sensitive. Whether it increases or decreases depends on the model parameters.

Originality/value

Carbon emissions-sensitive demand and strategic customer behavior are considered simultaneously in an integrated model. The result can guide the manufacturer decision-making. The proposed model are hoped to shed light to the future works in the field of sustainable supply chain management.

Details

Industrial Management & Data Systems, vol. 116 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-5577

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Article
Publication date: 2 October 2017

Monami Das Roy and Shib Sankar Sana

This research work introduces an imperfect production system where the demand is assumed to be stochastic and it is influenced by random selling price. The shift time from…

Abstract

Purpose

This research work introduces an imperfect production system where the demand is assumed to be stochastic and it is influenced by random selling price. The shift time from an “in-control” state to an “out-of-control” state is exponentially distributed. The accumulated inventory contains both perfect and defective items which are all sold with a free repair warranty (FRW) offer. Complete back ordering of shortages are taken into account. The purpose of this paper is to determine the optimal selling price and hence the optimal production lot size such that the expected profit is maximized.

Design/methodology/approach

The general model is discussed separately for both types of uniformly distributed selling price-sensitive demand pattern: additive type and multiplicative type. Numerical examples and graphical representations of the optimal solutions are provided to illustrate the models.

Findings

This paper helps the manager to manage future situations and it may be considered as a base work for the researchers to work in this direction.

Research limitations/implications

The main limitation of this model is to consider a single item for a single channel system. There are many correlated issues that need to be further investigated. The future study in this direction may include the consideration of multi-items, diverse demand pattern with different types of price distributions.

Originality/value

In the production inventory literature, plenty of articles are available considering imperfect production but none of them have considered selling price-sensitive stochastic demand where the sales price is random in character under an FRW offer.

Details

Journal of Advances in Management Research, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0972-7981

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Book part
Publication date: 12 September 2017

Terje A. Mathisen, Finn Jørgensen, Pål A. Pedersen and Georgina Santos

A substantial part of airports’ revenues relates to charges covering the costs of services supplied by the airport. Charges are imposed on carriers, which in turn pass…

Abstract

A substantial part of airports’ revenues relates to charges covering the costs of services supplied by the airport. Charges are imposed on carriers, which in turn pass them or a percentage of them, on to passengers. In the present chapter, special attention is given to regional airports characterized by low traffic volumes, enabling only one or a few carriers to serve each destination. A classic economic model is presented to analyze how the pass-on rate depends on supply and demand characteristics and market structure. Some illustrative examples assuming combinations of common specifications for market characteristics are also presented, showing pass-on rates ranging from 50% to more than 100%. Consequently, market structure and characteristics of carriers and passengers are decisive for how passengers experience changes in airport charges. The differences between the optimal charge from the perspectives of the airport and the welfare of society are specifically addressed. It is demonstrated that knowledge of the pass-on rate in the monopoly cases may be sufficient to infer how the mark-up will be affected by a change in marginal costs. Consequently, the understanding of the pass-on rate is relevant for airport owners and for decision-makers when considering the welfare of passengers and other politically stated goals.

Details

The Economics of Airport Operations
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78714-497-2

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Article
Publication date: 10 December 2020

Ayad Hendalianpour, Mohammad Hamzehlou, Mohammad Reza Feylizadeh, Naiming Xie and Mohammad Hossein Shakerizadeh

This study examines the potential of contracts as one of the supply chain coordination mechanisms under competitive conditions. It also investigates a two-echelon supply…

Abstract

Purpose

This study examines the potential of contracts as one of the supply chain coordination mechanisms under competitive conditions. It also investigates a two-echelon supply chain model with two manufacturers and two retailers to develop a competitive structure in grey stochastic demand.

Design/methodology/approach

Supply chain demand is considered as a stochastic phenomenon depending on the selling price of the product. Also, products can be replaced by market manufacturers. Each retailer faces the pricing of products from two manufacturers, leading to competition between downstream retailers. In the present study, the duopoly supply chain model was presented based on the wholesale price contract, revenue-sharing contract and quantity discount contract separately.

Findings

Grey optimization and analysis of their coordination were presented. The results showed the high performance of revenue-sharing contracts in the supply chain. Thus, manufacturers will give the next priority to quantity discount contracts.

Originality/value

Ordering is the main factor contributing to competitive decision-making. Meanwhile, decision-making along with ordering and pricing will be required due to the nature of the demand.

Details

Grey Systems: Theory and Application, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2043-9377

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Article
Publication date: 29 June 2012

Nita H. Shah, Ajay S. Gor and Chetan A. Jhaveri

The purpose of this paper is to study integrated inventory system and pricing and ordering strategy for vendor‐buyer supply chain system. Here, the vendor offers a trade…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study integrated inventory system and pricing and ordering strategy for vendor‐buyer supply chain system. Here, the vendor offers a trade credit to the buyer when the buyer's order quantity exceeds a given pre‐specified quantity. Therefore, to incorporate the concept of vendor‐buyer integration and trade credit linked, the authors analyze the model to determine the optimal strategy for an integrated vendor‐buyer inventory system under the condition of credit linked to the order quantity when demand is quadratic.

Design/methodology/approach

A mathematical model for integrated inventory system is developed when demand rate is increasing function of the time and decreasing function of the retail price. By analyzing the total channel profit function, the authors developed some useful results to characterize the optimal solution and provide an iterative algorithm to find the retail price, buyer's order quantity and the number of shipments per production run from the vendor to the buyer.

Findings

By developing a solution algorithm, the optimal retail price, order quantity and number of shipments from the vendor to the buyer are provided. Numerical examples and sensitivity analyses are presented to validate the proposed model. Through extensive numerical analyses, it is observed that a longer credit term increases profits of the player for the entire supply chain. The vendor should establish the threshold for allowing trade credit comprehensively to ensure the greatest benefit for both players.

Originality/value

Most of the research articles available in the literature considered the constant demand or linearly changing demand. In this paper, a mathematical model is developed considering time dependent quadratic demand. Very few researchers have investigated joint optimal policy in vendor‐buyer supply chain system, considering trade credit is linked to order quantity, and still there are not many findings on the benefit of integrated policy and trade credit.

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1980

Kathryn Rudie Harrigan

How should your company respond to the complex competitive challenge of declining demand? The model described here can increase your prospects of success.

Abstract

How should your company respond to the complex competitive challenge of declining demand? The model described here can increase your prospects of success.

Details

Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 1 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0275-6668

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Article
Publication date: 19 February 2020

Ata Allah Taleizadeh, Mahsa Noori-Daryan and Shib Sankar Sana

This paper aims to deal with optimal pricing and production tactics for a bi-echelon green supply chain, including a producer and a vendor in presence of three various…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to deal with optimal pricing and production tactics for a bi-echelon green supply chain, including a producer and a vendor in presence of three various scenarios. Demand depends on a price, refund and quality where the producer controls quality and the vendor proposes a refund policy to purchasers to encourage them to order more.

Design/methodology/approach

In the first scenario, the members seek to optimize their optimum decision variables under a centralized decision-making method while in the second scenario, a decentralized system is assumed where the members make a decision about variables and profits under a non-cooperative game. In the third scenario, a cost-sharing agreement is concluded between the members to provide a high-quality item to the purchasers.

Findings

The performance of the proposed model is investigated by illustrating a numerical example. A sensitivity analysis of some key parameters has been done to study the effect of the changes on the optimal values of the decision variables and profits. From sensitivity analysis, the real features are observed and mentioned in this section.

Originality/value

This research examines the behavior of partners in a green supply chain facing with a group of purchasers whose demand is the function of a price, greenery degree and refund rate. This proposed mathematical model is developed and analyzed which has an implication in supply chain model.

Details

Journal of Modelling in Management, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5664

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Book part
Publication date: 25 March 2010

Pedro Pita Barros

Purpose – Pharmaceutical expenditures have an important role in Europe. The attempts to control expenditure have used a wide range of policy measures. We reviewed the main…

Abstract

Purpose – Pharmaceutical expenditures have an important role in Europe. The attempts to control expenditure have used a wide range of policy measures. We reviewed the main measures adopted by the European Union countries, especially in countries where governments are the largest third-party payers.

Methodology – To complement a literature review on the topic, data was gathered from national reviews of health systems and direct inquiries to several government bodies.

Findings – Almost all countries regulate prices of pharmaceutical products. Popular policy measures include international referencing to set prices (using as benchmark countries that have set lower prices), internal reference pricing systems to promote price competition in domestic markets, and positive lists for reimbursement to promote consumption of generics (including in some cases substitution by pharmacists of drugs prescribed by physicians). Despite the wide range of policy measures, it is not possible to identify a “silver bullet” to control pharmaceutical expenditures. We also identified two main policy challenges: policy coordination among countries within the European Union to maintain incentives for R&D at the global level, and the development of new relationships with the pharmaceutical industry; namely, the so-called risk-sharing agreements between the pharmaceutical industry and governments/regulators (or large third-party payers).

Details

Pharmaceutical Markets and Insurance Worldwide
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-716-5

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2002

Charles X. Wang

A supply chain is two or more parties linked by a flow of goods, information, and funds. When one or more parties of the supply chain try to optimize their own profits…

Abstract

A supply chain is two or more parties linked by a flow of goods, information, and funds. When one or more parties of the supply chain try to optimize their own profits, system performance may be hurt. Supply chain contract is a coordination mechanism that provides incentives to all of its members so that the decentralized supply chain behaves nearly or exactly the same as the integrated one. We have seen a vast literature on supply chain contracts recently. However, little work has been done on the relationships of those supply chain contract models. In this paper, we provide a general framework that synthesizes existing results for a variety of supply chain contract forms.

Details

Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, vol. 7 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-8546

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Article
Publication date: 12 February 2018

Syed Asif Raza and Mohd. Nishat Faisal

This paper aims to develop efficient decision support tools for a firm’s environment protection by using greening effort while yet improving profitability by utilizing…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to develop efficient decision support tools for a firm’s environment protection by using greening effort while yet improving profitability by utilizing pricing and inventory decisions with discount consideration.

Design/methodology/approach

This study proposed a mathematical model for price- and greening effort-dependent demand rate with discount considerations. Later, the mathematical model is extended to the situation in which the demand rate is also dependent on the stock level, in addition to the price and greening effort. Efficient solution methodologies are developed for finding the optimal solution to the proposed models.

Findings

Simple yet elegant models are proposed to mimic real-life applications. Structural properties of the models are explored to outline efficient algorithms with quantity discounts.

Research limitations/implications

The paper considers monopoly and assumes deterministic demand. Only a more commonly observed all-units discount scheme is studied.

Practical implications

The models provide decision support tools for firms in pursuit of joint profit maximization and environment consciousness goals.

Social implications

The study develops environment-friendly approaches for inventory management and improving the profitability alike.

Originality/value

This study is among the first to consider environmental protection with an investment in greening effort along with inventory management and pricing decision. The study also explored the effect of all-unit quantity discounts.

Details

Journal of Modelling in Management, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5664

Keywords

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