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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1999

Hans Löfsten

One of the main problems, when choosing between preventive or corrective maintenance for the production and maintenance departments in the eight firms studied, is to…

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3656

Abstract

One of the main problems, when choosing between preventive or corrective maintenance for the production and maintenance departments in the eight firms studied, is to attempt to establish the state of a particular production system or individual production line. In order to carry out a cost analysis it is imperative to be able to measure how preventive maintenance will both reduce the deterioration of the state of the object and improve the state of the object at the point in time that the maintenance is carried out. This can be explained by the fact that the departments lack methods for measuring and estimating the effects. The model presented in this paper determines whether to schedule preventive maintenance and the model trades off the capital costs of preventive maintenance and the sum of corrective maintenance and down‐time costs based on the production line’s state.

Details

International Journal of Operations & Production Management, vol. 19 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0144-3577

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 2006

R. Jiang, P. Ji and Albert H.C. Tsang

The purpose of this paper is to explore whether or not a preventive replacement model always gives a solution with a specified preventive effect and looks at the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore whether or not a preventive replacement model always gives a solution with a specified preventive effect and looks at the relationship between the preventive effect and cost saving.

Design/methodology/approach

The age and block replacement policies with the Weibull failure distribution are considered. Measures of the preventive effect associated with specific maintenance policies are derived.

Findings

The sufficient condition to achieve a given preventive effect is represented graphically as a function of the system's aging intensity and the cost ratio of failure and preventive replacements.

Practical implications

The models developed in the paper will help maintenance engineers to know whether a system is aged or not and then they can make a decision on replacement.

Originality/value

The optimal replacement models considered in this paper give a solution with a good preventive effect only if the maintained system is sufficiently aged. The criterion whether or not the system is sufficiently aged is set by the decision‐maker based on specific maintenance situations or maintenance objectives.

Details

Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, vol. 12 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2511

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Article
Publication date: 10 October 2016

Tawnya Bosko and Kathryn Wilson

The purpose of this paper is to assess the relationship between patient satisfaction and a variety of clinical quality measures in an ambulatory setting to determine if…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to assess the relationship between patient satisfaction and a variety of clinical quality measures in an ambulatory setting to determine if there is significant overlap between patient satisfaction and clinical quality or if they are separate domains of overall physician quality. Assessing this relationship will help to determine whether there is congruence between different types of clinical quality performance and patient satisfaction and therefore provide insight to appropriate financial structures for physicians.

Design/methodology/approach

Ordered probit regression analysis is conducted with overall rating of physician from patient satisfaction responses to the Clinician and Groups Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems survey as the dependent variable. Physician clinical quality is measured across five composite groups based on 26 Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) measures aggregated from patient electronic health records. Physician and patient demographic variables are also included in the model.

Findings

Better physician performance on HEDIS measures are correlated with increases in patient satisfaction for three composite measures: antibiotics, generics, and vaccination; it has no relationship for chronic conditions and is correlated with decrease in patient satisfaction for preventative measures, although the negative relationship for preventative measures is not robust in sensitivity analysis. In addition, younger physicians and male physicians have higher satisfaction scores even with the HEDIS quality measures in the regression.

Research limitations/implications

There are four primary limitations to this study. First, the data for the study come from a single hospital provider organization. Second, the survey response rate for the satisfaction measure is low. Third, the physician clinical quality measure is the percent of the physician’s relevant patient population that met the HEDIS measure rather than if the measure was met for the individual patient. Finally, it is not possible to distinguish if the significant coefficient estimates on the physician age and gender variables are capturing systematic differences in physician behavior or capturing patient bias.

Practical implications

The results suggest patient satisfaction and physician clinical quality may be complementary, capturing similar aspects of overall physician quality, across some clinical quality measures but for other measures satisfaction and clinical quality are unrelated or negatively related. Therefore, for some clinical quality metrics, it will be important to separately compensate clinical quality and satisfaction and understand the relationship between metrics. Finally, the strong relationship between the level of patient satisfaction and physician age, physician gender, and patient age are important to consider when designing a physician compensation package based on patient satisfaction; if these differences reflect patient bias they could increase inequality among medical staff if compensation is based on patient satisfaction.

Originality/value

This study is the first to use physician organization data to examine patient satisfaction and physician performance on a variety of HEDIS quality metrics.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. 30 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

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Article
Publication date: 27 July 2021

Samer Saab, Mohammad Al Abbas, Rola Najib Samaha, Rayana Jaafar, Khaled Kamal Saab and Samer Said Saab Jr

The purpose of this paper is to develop a simple deterministic model that quantifies previously adopted preventive measures driven by the trend of the reported number of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to develop a simple deterministic model that quantifies previously adopted preventive measures driven by the trend of the reported number of deaths in both Italy and India. In addition, the authors forecast the spread based on some selected quantified preventive measures. The optimal exiting policy is derived using the inverse dynamics of the model. Furthermore, the model developed by the authors is dependent on the daily number of deaths; as such, it is sensitive to the death rate but remains insensitive to trends in deaths.

Design/methodology/approach

In the wake of COVID-19, policymakers and health professionals realized the limitations and shortcomings of current healthcare systems and pandemic response policies. The need to revise global and national pandemic response mechanisms has been thrust into the public spotlight. To this end, the authors devise an approach to identify the most suitable governmental non-pharmaceutical intervention (NPI) policies, previously adopted in a community, country or region that serve as the foundation for most pandemic strategies.

Findings

Leveraging Italy, the authors compare the aftermath by considering three scenarios: (a) recently adopted preventive measures, (b) strictest preventive measures previously adopted, and (c) the optimal exiting policy. In comparison to the second scenario, the authors estimate about twice the number of recoveries and deaths within five months under the first scenario and about 80 times more under the optimal scenario. Whereas in India, the authors applied one scenario of recently adopted preventative measures to showcase the rapid turnaround of their model. According to the new timeline, almost 90% of all deaths in India could have been prevented if the policies implemented in April 2021 were put in place three months prior, i.e. in January 2021.

Originality/value

The novelty of the proposed approach is in the use of inverse dynamics of a simple deterministic model that allows capturing the trend of contact rate as a function of adopted NPIs, regardless of pandemic type.

Details

Library Hi Tech, vol. 39 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0737-8831

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Article
Publication date: 26 March 2021

Vera Stanković, Ana Batrićević and Vladan Joldžić

This study aims to highlight the most important preventive measures that should be proposed by policymakers and adopted by (inter)national legislative bodies by changing…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to highlight the most important preventive measures that should be proposed by policymakers and adopted by (inter)national legislative bodies by changing existing or adopting new legal documents. The implementation of these measures should be performed by state bodies responsible for ecotourism, natural and cultural resources protection and ecotourism services users.

Design/methodology/approach

The theoretical legal approach was applied, based on a systematic review of international legally binding and non-binding documents related to ecotourism, adopted by relevant international organizations. Analysis of norms for preventive protection of natural and cultural values was done and followed by law-reform research in the form of recommendations that should be adopted as binding.

Findings

International legal documents relevant to ecotourism analysed in this paper are divided into two groups. The first regulates exclusively ecotourism issues, whereas the second deals with sustainable development and indirectly refers to ecotourism, as one of its segments. Analysed international legal documents require unambiguous norms regulating preventive protective measures in ecotourism by prescribing actual obligations and prohibitions for relevant subjects. Given recommendations are grouped into five types according to the subjects they are addressing (ecotourism experts, policymakers, legislators, natural and cultural conservationists, local communities, educators).

Originality/value

This study is the first that points to the need to amending international legal documents related to ecotourism through recommendations regarding natural and cultural values’ preventive protection.

目的

这项研究旨在通过改变现有法律文件或建立新的法律文件, 强调决策者应提出并由(国际)国家立法机构通过最重要的预防措施。这些措施应由负责旅游、自然和文化资源保护的国家机构以及生态旅游服务用户来实施。

设计/方法论/方法

在系统审查相关国际组织采用的与生态旅游有关的具有法律约束力和非法律约束力的文件的基础上, 采用理论的法律方法对自然和文化价值的预防性保护规范进行分析, 然后以建议的形式进行了法律改革研究, 这些建议应被采纳为具有约束力的法律条文。

研究结果

本文将与生态旅游相关的国际法律文件分为两组。第一组专门规范生态旅游的问题, 第二组则涉及可持续发展, 而生态旅游也将作为部分内容在这一组进行阐述分析。经过分析的国际法律文件要求明确规范生态旅游的预防性保护措施, 规定有关主题的实际义务和禁止事项。根据所提出的主题(生态旅游专家、政策制定者、立法者、自然和文化保护主义者、当地社区、教育工作者), 这些建议会被分为五类进行阐述和分析。

独创性/价值

本论文首次提出了通过修改与生态旅游有关的国际法律文件对自然和文化价值的预防性保护的必要性。

Objetivo

El presente estudio tiene como objetivo destacar las medidas preventivas más importantes que deberían proponer los formuladores de políticas y adoptar los órganos legislativos (inter)nacionales mediante la modificación de los documentos legales existentes o la adopción de nuevos. La implementación de estas medidas debe ser realizada por los organismos gubernamentales responsables del ecoturismo, la protección de los recursos naturales y culturales y los usuarios de los servicios de ecoturismo.

Diseño/metodología/enfoque

Se ha aplicado un enfoque jurídico teórico, basado en la revisión sistemática de documentos internacionales legalmente vinculantes y no vinculantes relacionados con el ecoturismo, adoptados por las organizaciones internacionales pertinentes. Se ha realizado un análisis de las normas para la protección preventiva de los valores naturales y culturales, seguido de una investigación sobre la reforma legal en forma de recomendaciones que deberían adoptarse como vinculantes.

Hallazgos

Los documentos legales internacionales relevantes para el ecoturismo analizados en este documento se dividen en dos grupos. El primero regula exclusivamente los temas de ecoturismo, mientras que el segundo se ocupa del desarrollo sostenible y se refiere al ecoturismo indirectamente, como uno de sus segmentos. Los documentos legales internacionales analizados requieren normas inequívocas que regulen las medidas de protección preventiva en el ecoturismo estableciendo obligaciones y prohibiciones reales para los temas relevantes. Las recomendaciones dadas se clasifican en cinco tipos según los temas que abordan (expertos en ecoturismo, formuladores de políticas, legisladores, conservacionistas naturales y culturales, comunidades locales, educadores).

Originalidad/valor

Este estudio es el primero que apunta a la necesidad de modificar los documentos legales internacionales relacionados con el ecoturismo a través de recomendaciones sobre la protección preventiva de los valores naturales y culturales.

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Article
Publication date: 1 March 1997

AbulHasan M. Sadeq

Poverty is a global problem and the phenomenon is alarming in the third world including the Muslim Countries (MCs). This paper analyses Islam's view on poverty based on…

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1749

Abstract

Poverty is a global problem and the phenomenon is alarming in the third world including the Muslim Countries (MCs). This paper analyses Islam's view on poverty based on its ideological norms and values. Poverty has been defined from an Islamic perspective that leads to two poverty levels and hence two poverty lines which are quite different from the conventional of concepts of poverty. The basic Islamic sources suggest that Islam dislikes poverty and it provides a conducive framework for alleviation of poverty. Three broad categories of poverty alleviation measures have been analysed. First, the positive measures which include income growth, functional distribution of income, and equal opportunities to all. Second, the preventive measures which are control of ownership and prevention of malpractices in economics and business that lead to income concentration. Third, corrective measures which include compulsory transfer payments, recommended transfer payments, and state responsibility. The positive measures are expected to lead to high level income and its equitable distribution, the preventive measures are expected to limit concentration of wealth, while the corrective measures are meant for correcting imbalances in the distribution of income and wealth, and to upgrade economic conditions of the worse‐off population in the society. If these measures are applied, the problem of poverty could be solved quite substantially. The paper concludes with some recommendations with respect to poverty alleviation in the context of MCs.

Details

Humanomics, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0828-8666

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 27 July 2020

Zaleha Othman, Mohd Fareez Fahmy Nordin and Muhammad Sadiq

This study provides in-depth explanation of Goods and Services Tax (GST) fraud prevention towards sustainability business.

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1941

Abstract

Purpose

This study provides in-depth explanation of Goods and Services Tax (GST) fraud prevention towards sustainability business.

Design/methodology/approach

This study applies a qualitative research method, i.e. case study, to address the specific research objective.

Findings

The finding revealed a GST prevention model towards sustainable business. The finding shows that it is pertinent for the government to set preventive strategies in order to retain sustainable income for the government. Two essential dimensions emerged in the findings to support preventive strategies, namely macro- and micro-level measures.

Practical implications

The findings of this study provide managers, investors and policymakers with evidence to what extent GST fraud could be minimize in order to safeguard government source of revenue and retain sustainable business in a country. As GST is an important source of revenue for the government, it is thus crucial to prevent fraud from occurring.

Originality/value

Past studies have primarily focused on GST implementation from the perspective of service tax effectiveness and efficiency. However, this study examined the impact of GST fraud to determine measures that could ensure service tax sustainability using preventive strategies, in turn, introducing to the existing literature on indirect tax.

Details

Journal of Asian Business and Economic Studies, vol. 27 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2515-964X

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2006

S.A. Oke and O.E. Charles‐Owaba

This paper aims to revisit the preventive maintenance scheduling literature. The problem to be solved is the simultaneous scheduling of resource‐constrained preventive

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2624

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to revisit the preventive maintenance scheduling literature. The problem to be solved is the simultaneous scheduling of resource‐constrained preventive maintenance and operations. In particular, the expression that defines the period‐dependent cost function for a preventive maintenance scheduling activity is redefined. A case study is presented from the shipping industry.

Design/methodology/approach

In this paper a mathematical theory of differential calculus known as three‐dimensional wave equation is applied. The methodology involves transforming the preventive maintenance cost function that is expressed in terms of several variables into a more precise framework. The motivation for the work is the need to measure the total preventive maintenance scheduling cost more precisely than with the use of the existing linear cost structure.

Findings

In this paper the findings from the analysis carried out found evidence that validates the claim of the feasibility of analyzing preventive maintenance cost using the approach proposed.

Research limitations/implications

The paper shows that, in practice, maintenance managers strive to reduce the cost of preventive maintenance activities in order to achieve low cost production of goods. This would encourage a high patronage of customers and prevent decisions being made on wrong data. The approach presented here aims at correcting this weakness by revealing a more precise and reliable method of preventive maintenance scheduling cost computation. This is a scientific tool that should be of immense benefit to maintenance planners, particularly those actively engaged in scheduling functions.

Originality/value

The work in this paper is new, since a novel framework is presented in a way that has not been documented earlier.

Details

International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, vol. 23 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-671X

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Article
Publication date: 3 October 2016

Emmanuel Ebikake

The purpose of this paper is to provide an assessment of soft law as a technique for repressive and preventive anti-money laundering control (hereinafter AMLC).

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1766

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an assessment of soft law as a technique for repressive and preventive anti-money laundering control (hereinafter AMLC).

Design/methodology/approach

This article focuses heavily on understanding the nature of international anti-money laundering (AML) law-making process. The approach towards this question is interdisciplinary and looks at the treaty and non-treaty AML obligations through a prism of two theoretical lenses (legal positivism and liberal/legal process theory) to explain the role of soft law in the area.

Findings

Current international effort to combat money laundering (ML) is fragmented (as evident in the enormous variety of law-making processes), despite the role of soft law. Part of the problem is the divergent nature of domestic criminal legislation, which is reflected in the choice of predicate crime and a lack of procedural rule to identify and enforce the law at the state level. To address the limit of current efforts, the paper will propose a uniform codification of AML law directed by a more representative body or commission of experts offering means of restating, clarifying and revising the law authoritatively and systematically.

Research limitations/implications

The research is focused mainly on the theoretical issues relating to the subject of ML and less on any empirical case study.

Practical implications

The paper will focus on the role of soft law as a technique for repressive and preventive AMLC. Based on current analyses of the role of soft law as an alternative to hard law or as a complement to hard law (leading to greater cooperation), it attempts to outline the possible advantages and disadvantages that soft law could have in the context of AMLC. For example, the use of soft law promotes harmonisation of international AML standards through the Financial Action Task Force, while the role of the FATF remains unclear in international law. This is important for the purpose of responsibility, as the law on state responsibility clearly states when a State is responsible, in the event of a breach, and the consequence in international law.

Social implications

The implication of the paper is that it contributes to the on-going debate about the increasingly role of soft law-making in international law.

Originality/value

The research perspective to the study of ML is theoretical and focuses on the nature of the law.

Details

Journal of Money Laundering Control, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-5201

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Article
Publication date: 10 July 2017

Richard Ohene Asiedu, Ebenezer Adaku and De-Graft Owusu-Manu

This paper aims to contend that the circle of investigation into overruns cannot be complete unless the established critical failure factors are matched against their…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to contend that the circle of investigation into overruns cannot be complete unless the established critical failure factors are matched against their respective mitigating measures to avert the overruns. Extant literature is replete with factors that engender cost and time overruns within the design and construction phase. The constraint is the lack of a scientific approach in establishing a tackling mechanism to address the root causes and stakeholder responsibilities.

Design/methodology/approach

The research is based on nine unique grand factors previously established and reported in literature about the Ghanaian Construction Industry. A focus group discussion convened through a purposive sampling technique led to the establishment of a list of mitigating measures and strategies.

Findings

The paper established a checklist of 114 mitigating measures categorised into preventive, predictive and corrective approaches. Additionally, several short to medium term key strategies have been recommended to avert the occurrence of cost and time overruns.

Originality/value

The mitigating measures can be adopted as a checklist of good practice to help practitioners enhance the effectiveness of project budget and schedule control. It is also supposed to serve as a guide to practitioners in averting overruns through predictive, preventive and/or corrective causes. A unique approach in averting the occurrence of cost and time overruns.

Details

Construction Innovation, vol. 17 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1471-4175

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