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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2005

Paul Michael Cozens, Greg Saville and David Hillier

The purpose of this paper is to critically review the core findings from recently published place‐based crime prevention research. The paper aims to critically evaluate…

33827

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to critically review the core findings from recently published place‐based crime prevention research. The paper aims to critically evaluate the available evidence on the contribution of crime prevention through environmental design as a crime prevention strategy.

Design/methodology/approach

Large‐scale evaluations of crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) are reviewed with a view to clarifying current knowledge on the evidence of crime prevention through environmental design.

Findings

The review concludes that there is a growing body of research that supports the assertion that crime prevention through environmental design is effective in reducing both crime and fear of crime in the community.

Research limitations/implications

Although the paper may not review all the evaluations of CPTED, it nonetheless provides a detailed compilation and overview of the most significant research in the area, including an extensive and modern bibliography on the subject. Research implications will be the subject of a forthcoming paper.

Practical implications

CPTED is an increasingly fashionable approach and is being implemented on a global scale. Additionally, individual components such as territoriality, surveillance, maintenance, access control, activity support and target‐hardening are being widely deployed. However, the evidence currently available is inconclusive and much criticised, which effectively prevents widespread intervention and investment by central government. The paper details the difficulties associated with demonstrating the effectiveness of CPTED.

Originality/value

The paper concludes that although empirical proof has not been definitively demonstrated, there is a large and growing body of research, which supports the assertion that crime prevention through environmental design is a pragmatic and effective crime prevention tool. This review provides an extensive bibliography of contemporary crime prevention through environmental design and a follow‐up paper will discuss the future research priorities for it.

Details

Property Management, vol. 23 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-7472

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 July 2016

Caroline L. Davey and Andrew B. Wootton

This paper aims to understand the delivery of crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) across Europe – from European-wide procedures through national schemes…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to understand the delivery of crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED) across Europe – from European-wide procedures through national schemes to effective local strategies.

Design/methodology/approach

The findings come from a review of published literature and reports, case studies and site visits conducted primarily during COST Action TU1203 (2013-2016).

Findings

Innovative approaches and methods to integrate crime prevention into urban design, planning and management have been generated by multi-agency partnerships and collaborations at European, national and city levels. Methods and procedures developed by the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) Working Group on “Crime Prevention through Urban Planning and Building Design” are pioneering. However, findings show that implementation is best achieved at a local level using methods and procedures tailored to the specific context.

Research limitations/implications

In-depth research is required to appreciate subtle differences between local approaches and conceptual models developed to better understand approaches and methods.

Practical implications

Practitioners and academics working to prevent crime benefit from participation in focused, multi-agency collaborations that, importantly, facilitate visits to urban developments, discussions with local stakeholders responsible for delivery “on the ground” and structured and sustained exploration of innovations and challenges.

Originality/value

The authors hope that this paper will contribute to developing a new direction for CPTED practice and research that builds on significant progress in creating safer environments over previous decades.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 14 July 2020

Che Khairil Izam Che Ibrahim, Sheila Belayutham, Patrick Manu and Abdul-Majeed Mahamadu

Designers have a key role to play in the Prevention through Design (PtD) practices in construction projects. Nonetheless, previous studies indicated that the issue of…

Abstract

Purpose

Designers have a key role to play in the Prevention through Design (PtD) practices in construction projects. Nonetheless, previous studies indicated that the issue of competencies to perform and sustain such practices over time is of a significant concern. This study aims to explore the key attributes of designers' competencies for PtD practices in construction.

Design/methodology/approach

By using the Scopus database, a total of 86 papers related to PtD in construction published in peer-reviewed journals were reviewed and analysed using the well-established systematic literature review (SLR) methodology.

Findings

The review indicates that in order to be competent in PtD implementation, designers need to be equipped with tacit and explicit knowledge, technical and soft skills and experience related to PtD. Furthermore, the review identifies attributes of these competencies. Additionally, a framework that links key PtD elements/principles with the PtD competencies is presented.

Practical implications

The findings would enable contribution to the industry by providing the necessary references for design organisations to improve their designers' PtD competencies and hence, be able to meet their responsibility under relevant occupational safety and health (OSH) legislative framework.

Originality/value

This study extends the PtD literature in the construction context by providing deeper insights into the conceptualisation of relationship between competent designers and PtD elements. The novelty also lies in the consolidation of PtD competency attributes for designers in construction that could act as a reference for any future developments related to PtD competency assessment for designers.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 28 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 12 February 2018

Il-Hyoung Cho and Kyujin Jung

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED), a crime prevention tool, on reducing rates of sexual…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED), a crime prevention tool, on reducing rates of sexual assault. In addition, the study attempts to understand if CPTED results in crime displacement in non-target areas.

Design/methodology/approach

This research utilizes a Weighted Displacement Quotient (WDQ) model to analyze the effects of CPTED, which is an appropriate tool in fields of regional-scale crime prevention and on sexual assault prevention. WDQ is capable of analyzing policy effectiveness while controlling for geographical crime displacement, a known side effect of CPTED in the literature.

Findings

The analysis results show that CPTED is an effective tool to prevent sexual assaults in South Korea. The sexual assault occurrence rate decreased in the CPTED implementation zone of Yeomri-dong Mapo-gu. WDQ showed that crime displacement occurred in adjacent areas in Daeheung-dong and Ahyun-dong. But, crime displacement was lower than the policy effectiveness in the target zone.

Originality/value

The policy implications of this research are immense. First, CPTED for the prevention of sexual assaults should be considered as a pre-control tool. Second, a strategic method for more effectively implementing CPTED is required. Third, because CPTED is a policy done on a regional scale, provisions need to be in place to manage crime displacement.

Article
Publication date: 11 July 2016

Sarah Isabella Chiodi

The purpose of this study is to analyse the nexus between Crime Prevention through Urban Design and Planning (CP-UDP) and e-participation in urban planning, with the idea…

1647

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this study is to analyse the nexus between Crime Prevention through Urban Design and Planning (CP-UDP) and e-participation in urban planning, with the idea that a comprehensive planning approach is needed in order to have effective safe cities.

Design/methodology/approach

This study relies on some European case studies on CP-UDP learned by the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (EU COST) Action TU1203 and on a personal research experience focused on CPTED and its potential development in Italy – which was based on literature review and interviews with key informants.

Findings

CP-UDP, as a proactive and potentially effective crime prevention strategy plays an important role in order to implement safer cities. Information and communications technology (ICT) can provide a valuable tool to enhance participatory planning. The thesis supported in this paper is that through the widespread of e-participation in urban planning is possible to implement safer cities if a comprehensive planning approach is applied and Italy has already made its first steps forward this direction.

Originality/value

The smart city concept pervades contemporary urban studies, supported by European policies, according to the logic that the use of ICT could contribute to sustainable development in its various dimensions. A new-generation CP-UDP focused on e-participation may enhance safer cities.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 October 2020

Fernanda Rodrigues, Flávio Antunes and Raquel Matos

The use of building information modelling (BIM) methodology has been increasing in the architecture, engineering, construction and operation sector, driven to a new…

Abstract

Purpose

The use of building information modelling (BIM) methodology has been increasing in the architecture, engineering, construction and operation sector, driven to a new paradigm of work with the use of three-dimensional (3D) parametric models. However, building information modelling (BIM) has been mostly used for as-built models of a building, not yet been widely used by designers during project and construction phases for occupational risks prevention and safety planning. This paper aims to show the capacity of developing tools that allow adding functionalities to Revit software to improve safety procedures and reduce the time spent on modelling them during the design phase.

Design/methodology/approach

To reach this objective, a structural 3D model of a building is used to validate the developed tools. A plugin prototype based on legal regulations was developed, allowing qualitative safety assessment through the application of job hazard analysis (JHA), SafeObject and checklists. These tools allow the automated detection of falls from height situations and the automated placement of the correspondent safety systems.

Findings

Revit application programming interface allowed the conception and addition of several functionalities that can be used in BIM methodology, and more specifically in the prevention of occupational risks in construction, contributing this paper to the application of a new approach to the prevention through design.

Originality/value

This paper is innovative and important because the developed plugins allowed: automated detection of potential falls from heights in the design stage; automated introduction of safety objects from a BIM Safety Objects Library; and the intercommunication between a BIM model and a safety database, bringing JHA integration directly on the project. The prototype of this work was validated for fall from height hazards but can be extended to other potentials hazards since the initial design stage.

Article
Publication date: 11 July 2016

Herbert Schubert

The contribution is focussed on the question of which logic and which distinctive lines of development have shaped the discourse on urban crime prevention and will…

1038

Abstract

Purpose

The contribution is focussed on the question of which logic and which distinctive lines of development have shaped the discourse on urban crime prevention and will probably shape it in the future.

Design/methodology/approach

Comparing the line of development in thinking about urban crime prevention: starting with the approaches of the rational choice theory and of architectural determinism that were integrated in the practical approach of crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED). Looking on the continuation in the recent past: aspects of social cohesion and disorganization in the neighbourhood – represented by the collective efficacy – were integrated with the traditional lines of argumentation. Continuing to the present, the actor network theory opens up advanced perspectives of the integration and development of urban crime prevention.

Findings

Comparison of the approaches of the rational choice theory and of architectural determinism. Their combination in the practical approach of CPTED. Integration of these lines of argumentation with aspects of social cohesion and disorganization in the neighbourhood represented by the collective efficacy and the absorption in the concept of second-generation CPTED in the recent past. Opening up for advanced perspectives of the integration and development of urban crime prevention by the actor network theory.

Originality/value

The process analysis by linking the rational choice theory, the architectural determinism, the collective efficacy theory and the actor network theory to a continuous development represents an innovative perspective on the discourse on urban crime prevention.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 15 July 2011

Leanne Monchuk

Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) aims to make the built environment less vulnerable to crime and disorder through its design. CPTED is applied in…

415

Abstract

Purpose

Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) aims to make the built environment less vulnerable to crime and disorder through its design. CPTED is applied in practice by Architectural Liaison Officers/Crime Prevention Design Advisors employed within each police force in England and Wales. Their aim is to advise built environment professionals (architects and planners) how opportunities for crime and disorder can be minimised through the design of a development without compromising on the design quality. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of relevant literature and an example of one force's promising, but as yet unevaluated, approach to embedding CPTED early in the planning process.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper takes a case study approach and outlines how Greater Manchester Police Design for Security Consultancy (GMP DFSC) liaise with built environment professionals in an attempt to design out opportunities for crime and disorder to occur at the pre‐planning stage of a development.

Findings

The findings suggest that the process and delivery of CPTED by GMP DFSC is unique when compared to the delivery of CPTED across other areas of England and Wales. Using the Crime Impact Statement (CIS), GMP DFSC are consulted on a range of proposed planning applications prior to the application being submitted to the local planning authority, opposed to later in the planning and development process, where the opportunities to “design out crime” become limited. The staff employed by GMP DFSC have previously worked within the built environment and are not warranted or retired police officers. GMP DFSC also charge a fee for the service which they provide.

Originality/value

This paper should be of interest to built environment professionals seeking to incorporate and embed the principles of CPTED into the design and pre‐planning stages of proposed developments.

Article
Publication date: 30 September 2013

Sue Ramsay

The purpose of this paper is to describe the contribution that Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) is making to the post-earthquake rebuild of…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to describe the contribution that Crime Prevention through Environmental Design (CPTED) is making to the post-earthquake rebuild of Christchurch, New Zealand. The paper traces the uptake of CPTED in Christchurch pre-earthquake and describes the steps taken to ensure the increasing use of CPTED in the rebuild.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper is a case study and discusses the author's experience of working within Christchurch before the earthquake and describes their involvement in the rebuild of Christchurch post-earthquake.

Findings

There has been significant process made in incorporating CPTED into the rebuild of Christchurch. A formal mandate to consider CPTED is included in the Central Christchurch Recovery Plan and a range of other initiatives have been established. These are broadening the uptake of CPTED throughout public and commercial rebuild projects and improving local advisory and practitioner capacity. CPTED is being included earlier in planning and design.

Originality/value

The Christchurch rebuild may be the most extensive application of CPTED yet. It is hoped that Christchurch's experience can be used as a model for other cities to increase their use of CPTED.

Details

Safer Communities, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-8043

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 11 July 2016

Miguel Saraiva, Irina Matijosaitiene, Mónica Diniz and Vilius Velicka

The purpose of this paper is to respond to the need for comparative studies on methodologies for implementing Crime Prevention through Urban Design and Planning (CP-UDP…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to respond to the need for comparative studies on methodologies for implementing Crime Prevention through Urban Design and Planning (CP-UDP) at the local level, particularly in peripheral Europe where CP-UDP’s top-down standards have poor dissemination and acceptance. This paper debates how local partnerships can help reduce crime and how a CP-UDP-based model can be introduced into municipal planning.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper discusses the challenge of CP-UDP in the framework of a post-crisis Europe and Europe 2020. Because there is a large gap between theory and practice, lack of a shared holistic approach, and scepticism, or lack of knowledge, of public authorities, at local-level planning professionals and the police have devised bottom-up initiatives based on interdisciplinary partnerships with the community. The paper describes, discusses and compares the implementation of such approaches in Lisbon (Portugal) and Vilnius (Lithuania).

Findings

The paper addresses the processes and challenges of establishing synergies and working relationships between police officers, public officials and the community, and it discusses six main causes for its (un)success. When these conditions were met, crime and social constraints reduced.

Practical implications

Lessons learned are deemed crucial to disseminate knowledge and best practices, paving the way for proper top-down policies and planning legislations in these and other countries.

Originality/value

This paper analyses the potentialities and shortcomings of local-level implementation of CP-UDP strategies as an alternative to failed top-down strategies in two realities mostly unknown of the international scientific community. The case study material is previously unpublished internationally.

Details

Journal of Place Management and Development, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8335

Keywords

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