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Article
Publication date: 17 December 2021

Alexandra A. Henderson and Claire E. Smith

While presenteeism is empirically linked to lower productivity, the role of a person's motives for engaging in presenteeism has been overlooked. Using a Conservation of…

Abstract

Purpose

While presenteeism is empirically linked to lower productivity, the role of a person's motives for engaging in presenteeism has been overlooked. Using a Conservation of Resources Theory framework, we examine the moderating effects of presenteeism motives (approach and avoidance motives) on the presenteeism–productivity relationship.

Design/methodology/approach

A sample of 327 dental hygienists with chronic health conditions was surveyed. Moderated multiple regression was used to test study hypotheses.

Findings

Results indicate that presenteeism does indeed appear to detriment productivity. However, we demonstrate that motives are an important moderator, such that high approach motives appear to mitigate the negative effects of presenteeism on productivity.

Practical implications

Based on our findings, we suggest managers strive to improve the approach motives of their employees through processes such as job enrichment.

Originality/value

This study demonstrates that presenteeism is not always detrimental to productivity, as approach motives appear to mitigate the negative effects of presenteeism on productivity. These results could drive future research on presenteeism, as well as inform best practices related to managing workers with chronic health issues.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

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Article
Publication date: 1 December 2021

Gloria Guidetti, Sara Viotti, Daniela Converso and Ilaria Sottimano

Building on prior studies on the role of health-related and job-related issues in affecting presenteeism, the present study tested a mediation model of the relationship…

Abstract

Purpose

Building on prior studies on the role of health-related and job-related issues in affecting presenteeism, the present study tested a mediation model of the relationship between job demands and presenteeism by exploring the mediation effect of menopausal symptoms.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected through a self-report questionnaire involving social service menopausal employees (N = 204) from a public municipal organization. The survey was cross-sectional and non-randomized.

Findings

Results revealed that job demands, namely emotional, cognitive and physical demands, were significantly and positively associated with presenteeism. Furthermore, mediation analysis evidenced that physical job demands were also associated with higher levels of menopausal physical symptom bothersomeness, which in turn serves as a condition to increase the act of presenteeism.

Originality/value

The findings of this study widen the perspective on presenteeism research by evidencing the role of an overlooked health-related factor in relation to the act of presenteeism, that is the menopausal transition. Insights for the development of targeted preventive measures of the act of presenteeism and menopausal symptom management in the workplace may also be derived from these results.

Details

International Journal of Workplace Health Management, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8351

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2021

Amlan Haque

Presenteeism refers to attending work while ill and not being able to work to full capacity. Applying the social cognitive theory (SCT), this paper examines the…

Abstract

Purpose

Presenteeism refers to attending work while ill and not being able to work to full capacity. Applying the social cognitive theory (SCT), this paper examines the relationships among presenteeism, job satisfaction (JS), and employee turnover intentions (ETIs), and the mediational influence of JS on the relationship between presenteeism and ETIs.

Design/methodology/approach

A web-based survey, including a pilot test, was administered to collect data targeting a sample of 200 full-time Bangladeshi employees. With a two-step method of the structural equation modelling technique, this paper examines four hypotheses among the variables of presenteeism, JS and ETIs.

Findings

Significant negative relationships were identified between presenteeism and JS, as well as between JS and ETIs. Further investigations showed a significant positive relationship between presenteeism and ETIs. Notably, presenteeism on ETIs was found to be fully mediated by JS.

Practical implications

The study results suggest that presenteeism can be detrimental to both JS and ETIs among Bangladeshi employees; however, a reduction in rates of presenteeism can be achieved if employees' JS is valued and increased. Both the theoretical and managerial implications, including future research opportunities, are discussed.

Originality/value

Following the SCT, this paper extends the knowledge of presenteeism in a non-Western context. It is also a first reported empirical study among Bangladeshi employees demonstrating the influence of presenteeism and its detrimental effects on employees' motivational behaviour. This study makes a unique contribution to the presenteeism literature by examining JS and ETIs from the perspective of SCT.

Details

International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1741-0401

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Article
Publication date: 28 May 2021

Amlan Haque, Mario Fernando and Peter Caputi

The dominant view of responsible leadership (RL) has so far lacked adequate testing for employees' motivational outcomes, including presenteeism. Presenteeism, or…

Abstract

Purpose

The dominant view of responsible leadership (RL) has so far lacked adequate testing for employees' motivational outcomes, including presenteeism. Presenteeism, or attending work while being ill and unable to work at full capacity, causes productivity loss and imposes a significant economic burden to businesses and national economies. Applying the social identity theory of leadership (SITL), this paper aims to offer a conceptual framework supporting the relationship between RL and presenteeism and incorporating the mediating roles of organisational commitment and employees' turnover intentions.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper conducts a systematic literature review using a Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) flowchart with the existing research on RL, presenteeism, organisational commitment and employee turnover intentions covering the main contributors to this research stream. The proposed model offers eight propositions to promote the examination of RL in more insightful ways.

Findings

A shift in focus to the aspect of value-based leadership and presenteeism allows this paper to explore probable employee motivational outcomes, especially with consideration of organisational commitment and turnover intentions. While extant studies about presenteeism have tended to identify negative consequences, this paper explores different contexts in which RL could be crucial and positive. Based on a PRISMA flowchart, this paper provides a conceptual framework and directions that scholars might use to guide organisations and evaluate future research studies in RL and presenteeism.

Research limitations/implications

The implications of this paper lie first in highlighting the demand for scholars to employ RL when conducting research reviews in organisational leadership and presenteeism. Beyond this broad purpose, this paper will help researchers to develop a holistic and pragmatic research approach more systematically and coherently. It is hoped that this conceptual framework can potentially lead to higher employee productivity and retention.

Originality/value

The systematic literature review offers a novel framework that will allow future researchers to conduct and explore empirical studies in organisational leadership. The suggested propositions will direct future scholars and practitioners to explore solutions in which presenteeism can be recognised at work and managed to achieve practical application of RL within organisational settings.

Details

Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Administration, vol. 13 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1757-4323

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 29 April 2021

Jirachat Tangchareonsamut, Chathaya Wongrathanandha, Siriluk Khamsee and Wichai Aekplakorn

The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of absenteeism and presenteeism and explore their association with work performance among support workers in a medical…

Abstract

Purpose

The aim of the study is to determine the prevalence of absenteeism and presenteeism and explore their association with work performance among support workers in a medical school hospital in Thailand.

Design/methodology/approach

A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,102 support workers in the Faculty of Medicine Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, in June–August 2020. The World Health Organization Health and Work Performance Questionnaire (HPQ) was used to assess absenteeism, presenteeism, work performance and related factors. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine the association between current work performance and absenteeism and presenteeism in the past year.

Findings

A total of 505 (45.8%) support workers completed the self-report questionnaire. Prevalence of sickness absence, non-sickness absence and presenteeism in the past year was 54.2%, 81.4% and 48.1%, respectively. Sickness absence and presenteeism in the past year were significantly associated with increased odds of poor work performance: (OR 3.05, 95% CI: 1.24–7.49) and (OR 5.12, 95% CI: 2.25–11.64), respectively. Support workers with high levels of stress and burnout were 3.89 (95% CI: 1.56–9.68) and 2.66 (95% CI: 1.50–4.72) times more likely to report poor work performance.

Originality/value

Sickness absence and presenteeism are associated with poor work performance in hospital support workers. Other factors such as stress and burnout also contribute to poor work performance, and interaction among these factors needs further research. To improve productivity, hospital administrators might consider intervention programs to enhance work performance among workers with sickness absence and presenteeism.

Details

Journal of Health Research, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0857-4421

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Article
Publication date: 10 May 2021

Clio Berry, Jeremy E. Niven, Laura A. Chapman, Sophie Valeix, Paul E. Roberts and Cassie Marie Hazell

Postgraduate researchers (PGRs) appear to be particularly vulnerable to mental health problems. Mental health-related stigma and discrimination may be endemic within…

Abstract

Purpose

Postgraduate researchers (PGRs) appear to be particularly vulnerable to mental health problems. Mental health-related stigma and discrimination may be endemic within universities, creating a threatening environment that undermines PGRs’ health and well-being. These environmental characteristics may increase PGRs’ absenteeism and presenteeism, attendance behaviours that have great personal and institutional consequences. The study of this issue, however, has been limited to date.

Design/methodology/approach

This was a mixed methods psychological study using cross-sectional data provided by 3,352 UK-based PGRs. Data were collected in a new national survey (U-DOC) led by a British University in 2018–2019. We used structural equation modelling techniques to test associations between workplace mental health-related stigma and discrimination, presenteeism, absenteeism and demographic characteristics. The authors analysed qualitative survey data with framework analysis to deductively and inductively explore associations between workplace culture, stigma and discrimination, and attendance behaviours.

Findings

The authors found that some PGRs report positive perceptions and experiences of the academic mental health-related workplace culture. However, experiences of mental health stigma and discrimination appear widespread. Both quantitative and qualitative results show that experiences of mental health-related stigma are associated with greater absenteeism and presenteeism. People with mental health problems appear especially vulnerable to experiencing stigma and its impacts.

Practical implications

Key implications include recommendations for universities to improve support for PGR mental health, and to encourage taking annual leave and necessary sickness absences, by providing a more inclusive environment with enhanced mental health service provision and training for faculty and administrative staff.

Originality/value

This study presents the first large-scale survey of PGR experiences of mental health-related stigma and discrimination, and their associations with absenteeism and presenteeism.

Details

Studies in Graduate and Postdoctoral Education, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-4686

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Article
Publication date: 7 March 2016

Chiara Panari and Silvia Simbula

The purpose of this paper is to examine the antecedents and consequences of the phenomenon of presenteeism in the educational sector. Particularly, the authors tested the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the antecedents and consequences of the phenomenon of presenteeism in the educational sector. Particularly, the authors tested the relationship between excessive work responsibilities, presenteeism, work-to-family conflict and workers’ emotional exhaustion.

Design/methodology/approach

A self-report questionnaire was administered to 264 teachers in secondary schools.

Findings

A subsequent mediation of presenteeism and work-to-family conflict between work responsibilities and emotional exhaustion was found.

Originality/value

The findings of this study will provide help today’s organisations for better understanding and managing the new phenomenon of presenteeism in order to promote workers’ well-being and performance.

Details

International Journal of Workplace Health Management, vol. 9 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8351

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Article
Publication date: 16 September 2013

Luo Lu, Cary L. Cooper and Hui Yen Lin

The aim of this study was two-fold: first, to examine the noxious effects of presenteeism on employees' work well-being in a cross-cultural context involving Chinese and…

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Abstract

Purpose

The aim of this study was two-fold: first, to examine the noxious effects of presenteeism on employees' work well-being in a cross-cultural context involving Chinese and British employees; second, to explore the role of supervisory support as a pan-cultural stress buffer in the presenteeism process.

Design/methodology/approach

Using structured questionnaires, the authors compared data collected from samples of 245 Chinese and 128 British employees working in various organizations and industries.

Findings

Cross-cultural comparison revealed that the act of presenteeism was more prevalent among Chinese and they reported higher levels of strains than their British counterparts. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that presenteeism had noxious effects on exhaustion for both Chinese and British employees. Moreover, supervisory support buffered the negative impact of presenteeism on exhaustion for both Chinese and British employees. Specifically, the negative relation between presenteeism and exhaustion was stronger for those with more supervisory support.

Practical implications

Presenteeism may be used as a career-protecting or career-promoting tactic. However, the negative effects of this behavior on employees' work well-being across the culture divide should alert us to re-think its pros and cons as a career behavior. Employees in certain cultures (e.g. the hardworking Chinese) may exhibit more presenteeism behaviour, thus are in greater risk of ill-health.

Originality/value

This is the first cross-cultural study demonstrating the universality of the act of presenteeism and its damaging effects on employees' well-being. The authors' findings of the buffering role of supervisory support across cultural contexts highlight the necessity to incorporate resources in mitigating the harmful impact of presenteeism.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 18 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 20 February 2009

Evangelia Demerouti, Pascale M. Le Blanc, Arnold B. Bakker, Wilmar B. Schaufeli and Joop Hox

The opposite of absenteeism, presenteeism, is the phenomenon of employees staying at work when they should be off sick. Presenteeism is an important problem for…

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7839

Abstract

Purpose

The opposite of absenteeism, presenteeism, is the phenomenon of employees staying at work when they should be off sick. Presenteeism is an important problem for organizations, because employees who turn up for work, when sick, cause a reduction in productivity levels. The central aim of the present study is to examine the longitudinal relationships between job demands, burnout (exhaustion and depersonalization), and presenteeism. We hypothesized that job demands and exhaustion (but not depersonalization) would lead to presenteeism, and that presenteeism would lead to both exhaustion and depersonalization over time.

Design/methodology/approach

The hypotheses were tested in a sample of 258 staff nurses who filled out questionnaires at three measurement points with 1.5 years in‐between the waves.

Findings

Results were generally in line with predictions. Job demands caused more presenteeism, while depersonalization was an outcome of presenteeism over time. Exhaustion and presenteeism were found to be reciprocal, suggesting that when employees experience exhaustion, they mobilize compensation strategies, which ultimately increases their exhaustion.

Research limitations/implications

These findings suggest that presenteeism can be seen as a risk‐taking organizational behavior and shows substantial longitudinal relationships with job demands and burnout.

Practical implications

The study suggests that presenteeism should be prevented at the workplace.

Originality/value

The expected contribution of the manuscript is not only to put presenteeism on the research agenda but also to make both organizations and scientists attend to its detrimental effects on employees' wellbeing and (consequently) on the organization.

Details

Career Development International, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1362-0436

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Article
Publication date: 18 September 2019

Fay Giæver and Lise Tevik Løvseth

The purpose of this paper is to seek a deeper understanding of presenteeism by utilising the perspective of job crafting to explore how a selected group of physicians make…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to seek a deeper understanding of presenteeism by utilising the perspective of job crafting to explore how a selected group of physicians make sense of their decision to attend work while ill and of their experience of doing so. Job crafting implies that employees not only respond to their job description, but also proactively change tasks, relationships and perceptions in order to experience work in meaningful ways.

Design/methodology/approach

A narrative methodological framework involving interviews was adopted to explore the ways in which a selected group of 20 Norwegian hospital physicians engaged in job crafting during presenteeism. The resulting data were analysed using theory-led thematic analysis utilizing the theoretical perspective of job crafting.

Findings

It was evident that physicians were indecisive and insecure when evaluating their own illness, and that, via task, relational and cognitive crafting, they trivialised, endured and showcased their illness, and engaged in presenteeism in various ways. Furthermore, physicians to some extent found themselves caught in dysfunctional circles by contributing to the creation of a work environment where presenteeism was maintained and seen as expected.

Research limitations/implications

Future research should address a wider range of contexts, and use longitudinal methods to explore the multifaceted, context-specific and evolving nature of presenteeism and job crafting in more depth. Interventions aimed at countering the negative implications of presenteeism should address the issue from both a social and a systemic point of view.

Originality/value

The findings extend the current understanding of presenteeism by demonstrating the multifaceted and evolving nature of the ways in which personal illness and presenteeism are perceived and enacted over time.

Details

Qualitative Research in Organizations and Management: An International Journal, vol. 15 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5648

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