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Article
Publication date: 5 February 2018

Neeta Sharma and Prem Vrat

Weddings in India have become more extravagant in recent years. The ostentation goes well with the food also. Hundreds of varieties and great stock of food served making…

Abstract

Purpose

Weddings in India have become more extravagant in recent years. The ostentation goes well with the food also. Hundreds of varieties and great stock of food served making it a wasteful affair which would lead to the unsustainable demand for the natural resources. The purpose of this paper is to link the stock-induced consumption phenomenon with food waste generation in Indian weddings.

Design/methodology/approach

This study begins with the identification of the factors which would be responsible to make the food consumption stock-induced. A system dynamics (SD) model is developed using SD software STELLA (version 10.0) to assess the amount of stock-induced food waste. The impact of the factors on this waste is analyzed and estimation is made about the financial implications of this waste. Different scenarios have been analyzed to arrive at a most desirable scenario in the Indian context. Finally, the paper provides the recommendations for managerial implications to prevent the potential disastrous consequences of this waste.

Findings

A rigorous simulation analysis was conducted for different food-serving scenarios. The outcome of SD analysis shows that an enormous amount of food is wasted in the form of stock-induced consumption and dustbin waste. Impact analysis of factors on waste generation reveals that food wastage in marriages is entirely a behavioral phenomenon and can be controlled by exercising self and enforced behavioral control measures. Waste cost estimation gives an insight about the severity of the topic for policy making.

Social implications

The study has a very high social relevance and facilitates decision makers to take required actions to mitigate the stock-induced food waste in marriages. The study conducted will encourage the researchers to use SD in analyzing complex systems for quantitative estimations.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study that analyzes the food waste in Indian weddings in relation with the huge stock served using SD. The study provides valuable insights in the direction to make the country food secure.

Details

Journal of Advances in Management Research, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0972-7981

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 March 2022

Nitin Gupta, Prem Vrat and Ravindra Ojha

The Healthcare sector is one of the important sectors of the Service Industry. It is believed that in this sector, the customer server relationship is very critical, and…

Abstract

Purpose

The Healthcare sector is one of the important sectors of the Service Industry. It is believed that in this sector, the customer server relationship is very critical, and even the slightest gap in the people quality may have a huge impact on the delivered service quality. Some of these enablers are doctors, nursing staff and support staff. Furthermore, the nonpeople quality enablers such as diagnostic services, facilities, hygiene levels and so on are also likely to impact the delivered service quality. It was also felt that the degree of impact each enabler has on the service quality could vary. Therefore there is a need for structured and deep analysis. The paper attempts to identify, analyze and prioritize the enablers that impact the delivered service quality.

Design/methodology/approach

The enablers have been identified through literature review and inputs from experts in the healthcare fraternity. The authors have explored different decision-making tools such as analytic hierarchy process (AHP), analytic network process (ANP), stepwise weight assessment ratio analysis, Hybrid Model and DEMATEL (Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory) for the analysis of data in this paper. Based on the strengths of the approach and careful considerations by focus group discussions, DEMATEL was chosen as the best option. It is simple, unique, sparingly used in the healthcare sector, effective in prioritizing and gives meaningful insights on importance, cause and effect factors. DEMATEL approach converts the complex problem with interrelated factors into a clear structure that makes simple interrelationships among factors in the form of cause and effects digraph, and hence, the authors chose to use it. A case study in one of the hospitals has also been conducted to demonstrate the applicability of the developed index. The case study very strongly validates the developed index.

Findings

This research paper has found that there are people quality enablers such as the doctor, nursing staff, support staff and nonpeople quality enablers such as facilities, diagnostic services and hygiene levels maintenance, which impact the delivered service quality. It also concludes that the delivered service quality depends not only on the quality but also on the availability of these enablers. The inputs received from the experts have been run through the DEMATEL methodology and importance computed for each. The top five priority enablers are Quality of Doctor, Availability of Doctor, Quality of Support Staff, Quality of Nursing Staff and Availability of Support Staff.

Research limitations/implications

The weights of the enablers have been obtained using the DEMATEL tool. These weights have been calculated using the inputs from 22 experts, which meets the statistical requirement (Skulmoski, 2007). However, a larger group of experts can be reached, and based on the inputs received from them, the tool can be revalidated for repeatability and reproducibility. Using Fuzzy DEMATEL can also be explored for further analysis.

Practical implications

The proposed framework to assess the service quality level of a healthcare organization is based on a sound approach of DEMATEL. The service index arrived, thereafter, can be used to rate the delivered service quality by any healthcare organization. It can be used to compare the similar type of healthcare organizations across locations. This Index can facilitate improvements in the healthcare organization through internal and external benchmarking. It also helps the organization to know the gaps, understand the root cause, improve upon them and become the best in class. This Index uses the inputs from the end customers to calculate the rating, which makes it more reliable and accurate. The overall scores obtained from the Index can provide the ranking to the healthcare providing organizations and options to customers to choose from best. The service quality index can be used by an organization to continuously monitor their delivered service quality scores and improve them to become the best in class. The research paper highlights the significant role played by the people quality and its strong impact/contribution on the delivered service quality. Hence, it is believed that it will encourage the healthcare organizations to prioritize the improvement and upgrade of the people quality over the nonpeople quality aspect.

Originality/value

Putting people and nonpeople quality enablers in one single model and assigning weights to them using the DEMATEL approach is a new application in healthcare. Developing an Index to measure the delivered service quality in the healthcare sector is also different and new.

Details

Journal of Health Organization and Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1477-7266

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 13 January 2022

Nitin Gupta, Prem Vrat and Ravindra Ojha

The education sector acts as an input for every other sector and contributes around 7% to the service industry; hence, it is important to identify, measure and analyze the…

Abstract

Purpose

The education sector acts as an input for every other sector and contributes around 7% to the service industry; hence, it is important to identify, measure and analyze the drivers that impact the delivered service quality.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper used different approaches to identify measure and analyze the drivers that impact the service quality. In addition to a thorough literature review, qualitative tools like brainstorming, the focused group technique, and the survey technique have been used. Decision-making tools like the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), and a quantitative tool, one-sample t-test, with the help of MINITAB software, were used to analyze the inputs received from 179 experts. By using the stated approach, the planned research outcomes have been achieved.

Findings

Quality of teachers, quality of students, quality of policies, and quality of facilities have been identified as the key drivers that impact quality of education. The paper highlights that the people quality drivers play a significantly important role in the quality of education when compared to the quality of non-people drivers. From the statistical analysis of the hypotheses, it was inferred that the People quality consisting of the quality of a teacher and the quality of students are the two prominent drivers to the Quality of education. This paper demonstrates the importance of the quality of a teacher and its significance to the quality of education. The recommendations made might be considered for the implementation, which can improve the quality of education in the country.

Research limitations/implications

This paper is focused on the data collected from the experts in the top-ranked management institutes only. The data from the experts from undergraduate institutions and other management institutes could have added more value.

Practical implications

In the paper, the drivers were identified and further analyzed to suggest that teacher quality is a dominant driver of education quality. The findings also suggest that there should be a high focus on having a great quality teacher as compared to the facilities. The weights identified will enable the researcher to arrive at the overall quality scores of any Institute. As a part of the process, the user just needs to collect the ratings from the end customers (the parents of the students) against each driver, and the institute level scores can be derived. These scores can then be used by the Institute's management to analyze the results and improve upon the weak areas to improve the delivered service quality in the education sector.

Originality/value

A holistic approach to exploring major drivers that impact the quality of education is a new approach. Moreover, using different tools like AHP, hypothesis testing, t-test, using the coefficient of variation in a single paper has not been attempted before. The revalidations of accepted hypotheses with respondents is also a new approach.

Details

Journal of Advances in Management Research, vol. 19 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0972-7981

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 May 2017

Lalit Upadhayay and Prem Vrat

The Indian technical education has experienced an exponential growth since 1995. However, the technical education system was not able to sustain it and the enrollments…

Abstract

Purpose

The Indian technical education has experienced an exponential growth since 1995. However, the technical education system was not able to sustain it and the enrollments, particularly in engineering, fell down considerably. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the growth of Indian technical education from system dynamics (SD) perspective.

Design/methodology/approach

Technical education is a complex system in which the outcome of a decision comes with a third order delay. SD is an appropriate tool to analyze the causal structure and behavior of complex systems. This study developed an analogy from the physics of a boomerang to do the comparative assessment of “sudden overshoot and collapse” phase in the growth of Indian technical education. Further, it compared the technical education growth with the Gartner hype cycle. The growth model of Indian technical education was developed using SD software STELLA (version 10.0).

Findings

The model was simulated for five different policy scenarios. The outcome of the SD analysis shows that the “goal-seeking behaviour,” which produces stable growth without hampering quality, is the best proposition amongst all scenarios considered in the study. It identifies policies which will enable long-term stability in the Indian technical education system as well as policies which will lead to perpetual instability in the system.

Research limitations/implications

The study conducted will encourage researchers to use SD in analyzing complex systems for sustainability and in the selection of appropriate policies.

Originality/value

The paper uses boomerang analogy for analyzing the growth in engineering enrollments and highlights the presence of “the boomerang effect,” a term coined by the authors for sudden overshoot and collapse behavior, in the causal structure which is injurious to the education system.

Details

Journal of Advances in Management Research, vol. 14 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0972-7981

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 February 2017

Ajay Bohtan, Prem Vrat and Anil K. Vij

The purpose of this paper is to identify the various strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) in the supply chain of the existing Indian public distribution…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the various strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) in the supply chain of the existing Indian public distribution system (PDS) and to analyse the same with a view to arriving at the vital recommended strategies for making the supply chain more effective and efficient.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper examines a new hybrid method for improving the usability of SWOT analysis. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) has been integrated with SWOT analysis. Use of the AHP method on the SWOT factors has yielded analytically determined priorities for the factors included in SWOT analysis and made them commensurable. The main aim in applying the hybrid method was to improve the quantitative information basis of strategy planning processes. The paper was started by listing the various factors of the four different groups of SWOT with reference to the PDS. After further shortlisting, pairwise comparisons were carried out using a software (Super Decisions) to arrive at prioritised factors for each group. The strategy options were then formulated and prioritised on the basis of the existing weightages of each factor.

Findings

The results indicated that use of available ICT solutions as part of the “Digital India” is vital in achieving the most important potential strategy alternatives in improving the supply chain for the PDS.

Practical implications

The analysis helps in identifying strategies to improve the existing supply chain of the Indian PDS and make it more efficient and cost effective.

Originality/value

This paper provides some useful insight into the SWOT analysis of the Indian PDS with specific reference to the supply chain management issues of the PDS.

Details

Journal of Advances in Management Research, vol. 14 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0972-7981

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 October 2017

Ravindra Ojha and Prem Vrat

Manufacturing sector growth continues to be topical in the growth journey of Indian economy. The purpose of this paper is to present the modelling and analysis of the…

Abstract

Purpose

Manufacturing sector growth continues to be topical in the growth journey of Indian economy. The purpose of this paper is to present the modelling and analysis of the combined impact of three key driving sub-systems on the Indian manufacturing growth. It has provided relevant insights and recommendations for its sustainable growth.

Design/methodology/approach

The impact of three key driving sub-systems: quality of highway-related infrastructure, manufacturing labour productivity and circular material-consumption in the growth of manufacturing has been studied. A System Dynamics (SD) based model to understand long-term implications of the policy variables on manufacturing growth has been developed. Five scenarios have been simulated for analysis.

Findings

Seven policy variables have been identified which have a significant impact on Indian manufacturing growth. Some relevant insights from the analysis of SD based system-behaviour have been provided which would facilitate the manufacturing growth.

Research limitations/implications

The paper has addressed the dynamics of only three sub-systems in the study of manufacturing growth. The other sub-systems which also have an impact on the manufacturing growth: Good governance, education quality and technology are recommended to be studied through SD based modelling.

Practical implications

Specific recommendations for accelerating the manufacturing growth have been made in the paper which has strong practical implications for growth of Indian economy.

Social implications

Manufacturing sector continues to have a significant impact on the prosperity of India. It facilitates in enhancement of employment and the micro-economic health aspects. Therefore, there is a need to understand the dynamics of the key policy variables affecting manufacturing growth which is very relevant for the society at large.

Originality/value

An application of the SD approach to analyse long-term implication of policy variables of three sub-systems that have a significant impact in manufacturing growth and five specific recommendations to the policy makers is the value-add.

Details

Journal of Advances in Management Research, vol. 14 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0972-7981

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 January 2018

Monica Verma, Kanika T. Bhal and Prem Vrat

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship of gender-sensitive practices and family support in predicting psychological well-being of women assessed as…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship of gender-sensitive practices and family support in predicting psychological well-being of women assessed as stress, job satisfaction, commitment and intent to leave. Using the crossover theory, it also examines how gender-sensitive practices lead to family support, which in turn leads to reduced stress leading to high satisfaction and commitment and reduced intention to leave.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were obtained from a sample of 302 women employees working in call centers in NCR, India on psychometrically sound scales.

Findings

Analysis revealed that gender-sensitive practices are positively related to family support through the mechanism of crossover. Amply supported by data, the study exhibits the complementary relationship between gender-sensitive practices and family support, and their impact on psychological well-being of women employees.

Research limitations/implications

The sample may reflect same source bias as the data are collected from a single source.

Practical implications

The implementation of effective gender-sensitive practices might invite strong family support and then, both can be a source of great happiness to women employees and can lead to reduction in stress and, hence, greater job satisfaction, commitment and lesser intent to leave.

Originality/value

Very few research exist which have taken up the issue together. So, this study is an endeavor toward understanding the relationship between gender-sensitive practices and family support and their effect on job outcomes in a novel socio-cultural environment.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 40 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 25 November 2019

Nitin Gupta and Prem Vrat

The purpose of this paper is to compare some major National Quality Award/Business Excellence Models (NQA/BEM) in terms of the criteria employed and their relative…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare some major National Quality Award/Business Excellence Models (NQA/BEM) in terms of the criteria employed and their relative weights. It shows that these models vary both in terms of criteria and their weights. Whereas some of them are changing weights frequently, others are almost static. It employs the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) to allocate scores to 12 criteria identified in the model by Agrawal et al. (1998) to propose a modified quality award model similar to that. The six quality award models used in the USA, Canada, Europe, Australia, Japan and India are compared with the proposed model using AHP and their relative rankings are obtained.

Design/methodology/approach

First, a literature review is done to identify various quality award models globally, with their features being compared. Furthermore, paired comparison technique is used to rationalize the relative weights of proposed 12 criteria, and then AHP is again used to rank this proposed model with six major award models.

Findings

This paper shows that the six NQA models vary substantially on parameter weights. They do not include some relevant criteria to evaluate the organizational performance holistically. It also reveals how some models have been revising criteria weights very frequently, whereas others are static. In some models, the results get much higher weightage than enablers, and hence the performance may not be sustainable. The modified Agrawal et al. (1998) model is taken as a base model, with weights rationalized in it using the AHP. The rankings obtained using AHP reveal that proposed model scores over the other six prominent quality award models. The result also reveals that for organizational excellence, the quality of people plays a major role in the successful implementation of quality processes. Hence, it is very important to focus on improving the quality of people before expecting improvement in the quality of products and services.

Research limitations/implications

The paired comparison results are based on the researchers’ own perception and do not consider interdependence among the criteria, which is a limitation of AHP. Analytic network process can be further explored to overcome the limitation. The proposed model has not been tested in a variety of real-world situations, which can constitute a scope for further work in the direction.

Practical implications

The proposed model framework and weightages evolved using AHP can provide a universally acceptable quality award model framework. The companies can adopt it with or without modifications to address their contextual adaptation. It can possibly become a standard model framework globally. This model does not capture the measurement of the softer aspects that impact the people quality. As people play an important role in the success of the implementation of any practice, hence measurement of people quality is another important aspect that can be further studied and researched.

Originality/value

This comparative study & analysis of National Quality Award/Business Excellence Models using AHP is presented for the first time. The authors have not come across any such studies in their literature review. This paper is an original conceptualization of the application of the AHP on the various Quality Award model parameters, and it has been submitted exclusively to JAMR for publishing.

Details

Journal of Advances in Management Research, vol. 17 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0972-7981

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 10 May 2019

Aman Bhatnagar, Prem Vrat and Ravi Shankar

The purpose of this paper is to determine compatibility groups of different fruits and vegetables that can be stored and transported together based upon their requirements…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to determine compatibility groups of different fruits and vegetables that can be stored and transported together based upon their requirements for temperature, relative humidity, odour and ethylene production. Pre-cooling which is necessary to prepare the commodity for subsequent shipping and safe storage is also discussed.

Design/methodology/approach

The methodology used in this journal is an attempt to form clusters/groups of storing together 43 identified fruits and vegetables based on four important parameters, namely, temperature, relative humidity, odour and ethylene production. An agglomerative hierarchical clustering algorithm is used to build a cluster hierarchy that is commonly displayed as a tree diagram called dendrogram. The same is further analyzed using K-means clustering to find clusters of comparable spatial extent. The results obtained from the analytics are compared with the available data of grouping fruits and vegetables.

Findings

This study investigates the usefulness and efficacy of the proposed clustering approach for storage and transportation of different fruits and vegetables that will eventually save huge investment made in terms of developing infrastructure components and energy consumption. This will enable the investors to adopt it for using the space more effectively and also reducing food wastage.

Research limitations/implications

Due to limited research and development (R&D) data pertaining to storage parameters of different fruits and vegetables on the basis of temperature, relative humidity, ethylene production/sensitivity, odour and pre-cooling, information from different available sources have been utilized. India needs to develop its own crop specific R&D data, since the conditions for soil, water and environment vary when compared to other countries. Due to the limited availability of the research data, various multi-criteria approaches used in other areas have been applied to this paper. Future studies might be interested in considering other relevant variables depending upon R&D and data availability.

Practical implications

With the increase in population, the demand for food is also increasing. To meet such growing demand and provide quality and nutritional food, it is important to have a clear methodology in terms of compatibility grouping for utilizing the available storage space for multi-commodity produce and during transportation. The methodology used shall enable the practitioners to understand the importance of temperature, humidity, odour and ethylene sensitivity for storage and transportation of perishables.

Social implications

This approach shall be useful for decision making by farmers, Farmer Producer Organization, cold-storage owners, practicing managers, policy makers and researchers in the areas of cold-chain management and will provide an opportunity to use the available space in the cold storage for storing different fruits and vegetables, thereby facilitating optimum use of infrastructure and resources. This will enable the investors to utilize the space more effectively and also reduce food wastage. It shall also facilitate organizations to manage their logistic activities to gain competitive advantage.

Originality/value

The proposed model would help decision makers to resolve the issues related to the selection of storing different perishable commodities together. From the secondary research, not much research papers have been found where such a multi-criteria clustering approach has been applied for the storage of fruits and vegetables incorporating four important parameters relevant for storage and transportation.

Details

Journal of Advances in Management Research, vol. 16 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0972-7981

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 19 August 2021

Veepan Kumar, Ravi Shankar and Prem Vrat

In today’s uncertain business environment, Industry 4.0 is regarded as a viable strategic plan for addressing a wide range of manufacturing-related challenges. However, it…

Abstract

Purpose

In today’s uncertain business environment, Industry 4.0 is regarded as a viable strategic plan for addressing a wide range of manufacturing-related challenges. However, it appears that its level of adoption varies across many countries. In the case of a developing economy like India, practitioners are still in the early stages of implementation. The implementation of Industry 4.0 appears to be complex, and it must be investigated holistically in order to gain a better understanding of it. Therefore, an attempt has been made to examine the Industry 4.0 implementation for the Indian manufacturing organization in a detailed way by analyzing the complexities of relevant variables.

Design/methodology/approach

SAP-LAP (situation-actor-process and learning-action-performance) and an efficient interpretive ranking process (e-IRP) were used to analyze the various variables influencing Industry 4.0 implementation. The variables were identified, as per SAP-LAP, through a thorough review of the literature and based on the perspectives of various experts. The e-IRP has been used to prioritize the selected elements (i.e. actors with respect to processes and actions with respect to performance) of SAP-LAP.

Findings

This study ranked five stakeholders according to their priority in Industry 4.0 implementation: government policymakers, industry associations, research and academic institutions, manufacturers and customers. In addition, the study also prioritized important actions that need to be taken by these stakeholders.

Practical implications

The results of this study would be useful in identifying and managing the various actors and actions related to Industry 4.0 implementation. Accordingly, their prioritized sequence would be useful to the practitioners in preparing the well-defined and comprehensive strategic roadmap for Industry 4.0.

Originality/value

This study has adopted qualitative and quantitative approaches for identifying and prioritizing different variables of Industry 4.0 implementation. This, in turn, helps the stakeholder to comprehend the concept of Industry 4.0 in a much simpler way.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 29 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

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