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Book part
Publication date: 3 June 2019

Daniel Azevedo

Stakeholders all over the European Union (EU), including academics, local and national authorities, business representatives, civil society, and the EU institutions are…

Abstract

Stakeholders all over the European Union (EU), including academics, local and national authorities, business representatives, civil society, and the EU institutions are interested in creating a better life for citizens inhabiting rural areas. Building up on previous successful policies, including for instance the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) and political actions, such as those outlined in the Cork 2.0 Declaration, these stakeholders assessed the current and future challenges of EU rural areas. The EU agri-food sector is not only the backbone of the EU rural areas but it is also a driver of the EU economy, that is, delivering 44 million jobs in the EU and representing 3.7% of EU GDP. The EU is thus the world’s number one exporter of agricultural and food products amounting to 138 billion, in 2017.

Today, the technological progress and the digital economy are transforming the EU economy in a way and speed never seen before; agriculture and food production are no exception. Obviously, the agriculture and the food production activities may have less obvious significance to the smart city but are key in the smart village concept. The ongoing technological transformation of agriculture will certainly enable and influence the design and implementation of any concept of smart villages. The question is therefore complex: How can agriculture and food production contribute and influence the smart villages concept and related policy strategies? This chapter dwells on this issue.

Details

Smart Villages in the EU and Beyond
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78769-846-8

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Article
Publication date: 26 July 2013

Susanna Levina Middelberg

The purpose of this paper is to identify, present and compare agricultural production financing alternatives available to grain producers in South Africa. From the South…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify, present and compare agricultural production financing alternatives available to grain producers in South Africa. From the South African perspective, agricultural land cannot always be utilised as collateral and therefore alternative financing has developed.

Design/methodology/approach

The study makes use of an exploratory study by applying qualitative techniques. The research population was agricultural finance providers in South Africa and semi‐structured interviews were conducted with representatives of the sample.

Findings

The production financing alternatives identified and presented include: grain contract financing; grain contract financing with additional collateral; and corporate farming. A comparison of these alternatives indicates that although the traditional balance sheet financing is a cheaper form of financing, using agricultural land as collateral has a number of limitations, especially within the South African context.

Practical implications

Using agricultural land as collateral to obtain production financing is not always viable considering the present South African agricultural environment. Commercial grain producers should therefore consider the identified alternative production financing.

Originality/value

Limited research on agricultural production finance from the South African perspective has been performed. Furthermore, no previous research on identifying production financing alternatives without utilising agricultural land as collateral has been performed. This paper therefore provides new knowledge by combining South African practice with theory.

Details

Agricultural Finance Review, vol. 73 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0002-1466

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2019

Juan Maria Sagarna Garcia and David Pereira Jerez

The purpose of this paper is to provide insights about the approaches and techniques of professionals that nowadays are designing Digital Products and Services (DPS) in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide insights about the approaches and techniques of professionals that nowadays are designing Digital Products and Services (DPS) in the European agriculture. The emphasis is paid on the integration of end-users and participatory approaches such as agile, considering its current influence.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was conducted to professionals of businesses and entities from 14 European countries. A balanced sample of replies was achieved between private–public background, size of the business or experience of experts. Afterwards, the collection of answers and the opinions of professionals were compared with the state of the art referred in the literature. It allowed checking its soundness and critically discusses the results.

Findings

From the raw analysis of responses, professionals show awareness about the importance of end-user involvement and they are eager to incorporate innovative farmers and early adopters to collect the best requirements for products and services. They also declare knowledge and uptake in their companies of new approaches, such as agile. Confronting results with literature, the discussion highlights some inconsistencies and possibilities for leveraging. Types of end-users considered should be enlarged. Their superficial participation must also be avoided.

Originality/value

There is a lack of research on procedures for projects in agro-food sector. Due to the momentum in the digital transformation of agriculture, there are many project teams working in developing DPS and are relevant to discuss about proper methodologies for improving success.

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Article
Publication date: 15 June 2018

Caterina Cavicchi and Emidia Vagnoni

The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the role of and relationships between human, structural and relational capital assets for strategic management in a farm

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the role of and relationships between human, structural and relational capital assets for strategic management in a farm business. In particular, it analyzes the interaction between human capital’s creativity skills and the introduction of climate-smart technologies for the competitiveness of the firm.

Design/methodology/approach

An explorative case study was conducted on one of the largest Italian farm businesses to gain an understanding of the drivers of intellectual capital (IC) and of their implications for strategic management. Full-time employees’ perception of the skills required to achieve strategic goals and their perception of whether they possessed these abilities were investigated to determine if an alignment was present. The skills were subsequently classified using the framework of Amabile (1988) into domain-relevant and creativity-relevant skills. Then, two linear regression models were used to investigate the effects of training on the acquisition of these two sets of skills.

Findings

The analysis confirmed the strategic role of interactions among human capital assets to effectively exploit the structural capital of the company. When investigating employees’ perceptions, a gap emerged about informatics capabilities and knowledge of soils. As the company’s investments in innovation are oriented to ICT technologies, the company could strengthen informatics training to enable its employees to implement effective innovation.

Originality/value

The paper contributes to the literature on IC by highlighting the role of interconnections of assets to align organizations with their strategic goals. Therefore, the provision of IC accounting contributes to the strategic management of human capital.

Details

Journal of Intellectual Capital, vol. 19 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1469-1930

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Article
Publication date: 31 December 2007

Lisa Jack and James V.H. Jones

The use of management accounting in the agricultural industry has received very little attention by accounting researchers. Agriculture is currently in an era of…

Abstract

The use of management accounting in the agricultural industry has received very little attention by accounting researchers. Agriculture is currently in an era of significant change and adjustment, where change in accounting practice needs to occur in response to external pressures. The traditional use of the gross margin system of accounting has tended to underline a notion that has had a powerful influence on farm business planning that most costs are fixed and that the best way of reducing them to achieve profit maximisation is to spread them by increasing the scale of operation. This logic has been supported by an economic environment heavily influenced by agricultural policy measures that focused on artificial support for market prices and/or direct payments linked to production activities. We argue that the decoupling of support from production has combined with a number of other changes related to payments and cost structures (including those linked to the recent dramatic rise in the price of oil) to provide a very different economic context for farm business planning. The response we advocate to this changed situation is to make greater use of two alternative methods of cost analysis; namely relevant costing and target costing. These have been developed and applied outside agriculture. They have not so far been used in a formal sense within agriculture but have links to existing methodologies used in farm business planning, such as partial budgeting, and in intuitive approaches already adopted by farmers as revealed in recent fieldwork.

Details

Journal of Applied Accounting Research, vol. 8 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0967-5426

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Case study
Publication date: 11 February 2019

Larry Gene Straub and John Perry

The case illustrates how environmental forces affect an industry’s profitability. PESTEL and five forces analyses can be used to examine the retail agricultural equipment industry.

Abstract

Theoretical basis

The case illustrates how environmental forces affect an industry’s profitability. PESTEL and five forces analyses can be used to examine the retail agricultural equipment industry.

Research methodology

Single case study.

Case overview/synopsis

Jonathan Sullivan has a decision to make. His company is struggling due to difficult industry conditions. He is questioning if the company can continue to survive. MEC is an agricultural equipment dealer. The industry has experienced boom-and-bust periods since the company was founded. But the current downturn seems different. The past five years have been difficult as manufacturers have changed their dealership practices. Jonathan has struggled with some of the new practices the manufacturers have implemented. These new practices could negatively impact the company’s ability to survive. Jonathan wonders, “What is the best path forward for the business?”

Complexity academic level

The case is designed to be used in an undergraduate strategic management course.

Details

The CASE Journal, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 1544-9106

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 11 June 2021

Jacqueline Zonichenn Reis, Rodrigo Franco Goncalves, Epaminondas de Souza Lage and Irenilza de Alencar Nääs

Considering the relevance of innovative business models in the digitally transformed market and the lack of clarity on the internet of services (IoS) contribution for a…

Abstract

Purpose

Considering the relevance of innovative business models in the digitally transformed market and the lack of clarity on the internet of services (IoS) contribution for a business model deployment in current literature, this study aims to fill this gap by evaluating a business model that converges to an IoS adoption in a direct sale of free-range eggs from farmers to consumers.

Design/methodology/approach

From the bibliographical research regarding the IoS and business model, the authors developed an IoS-based model framework. The framework has been evaluated in a real business scenario by using a single case study through an interview with the entrepreneur and documental analysis.

Findings

As the main result, a framework with the attributes can be considered a tool for an IoS-based business model deployment. The case study concluded that the business is aligned with the IoS adoption, and the framework presents adherence to it.

Research limitations/implications

The case study was limited to only one company owing to the IoS’s novelty and the lack of correlated business models. Although the case study limits to the agriculture field, the proposed framework may be broadly applied.

Originality/value

Considering that the lack of a comprehensive business model causes new businesses to face challenges, it is relevant bringing up the present case study of the IoS-based business model, which correlates these two subjects, still poorly explored in the scientific literature: IoS and business models.

Details

Innovation & Management Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2515-8961

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 4 March 2021

Paulo Henrique Bertucci Ramos and Marcelo Caldeira Pedroso

This paper aims to identify and analyze the agtech classification and categorization systems in the Brazilian context.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to identify and analyze the agtech classification and categorization systems in the Brazilian context.

Design/methodology/approach

The systematic literature review (SLR) was carried out according to the protocol of Kitchenham and Charters (2007). The classification systems found in literature were evaluated using the thinking aloud protocol, as proposed by Ericsson and Simon (1993). The responses obtained were evaluated through lexicographic analysis, described by Bécue-Bertaut (2019) and content analysis, described by Bardin (2011).

Findings

SLR identified four agtech classification systems. The model proposed by Dias, Jardim, and Sakuda (2019) was the one with the highest adherence to classify Brazilian agtechs. From the analysis of the systems found in literature, the authors proposed a new categorization model of agricultural startups (agtechs).

Research limitations/implications

The study has limitations in relation to the theoretical and empirical validation of the model proposed by the authors. This limitation can be the subject of subsequent research.

Practical implications

The SLR study considers the evolution of the classification systems of a new agribusiness reality, the agtechs. In addition, there is a practical contribution in proposing a new classification system that attempts to address some of the limitations found in previous studies.

Originality/value

Agtechs are startups focused on developing solutions for agriculture and have shown a significant increase in recent years. However, there are few studies focused on this type of company. Even rarer are the studies that seek to classify and categorize them. The present work opens the horizon for future studies focused on this new reality.

Details

Innovation & Management Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2515-8961

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Book part
Publication date: 8 June 2021

RajatJyoti Sarkar and Moumita Karmakar

Improving food security at the household level is very crucial in India as here many people are suffering from persistent hunger and malnutrition. In India, mounting…

Abstract

Improving food security at the household level is very crucial in India as here many people are suffering from persistent hunger and malnutrition. In India, mounting pressure of population, adverse threats of climate change, fragmented land holding, high input cost etc. are very important which prevent to ensure food security. In India, there is malnutrition in all age groups, especially among children. Problem of low birth weight due to undernutrition of mother during pregnancy and underweight of children is very common in the country. The purchasing power of certain section of the society is so low that they cannot access food at the market price. They need the safety net of food subsidy. In India, food problem in the normative sense still continues to exist as millions of poor suffer from persistent hunger and malnutrition. This is the task to which food security system must address itself in future. There are some important factors which can increase yield growth and domestic supply of food substantially. Among these factors education and knowledge regarding improving farm efficiency, provision of an improved agricultural technology to the farmers, delivery of modern farm inputs, technical know-how, institutional credit to the farmers, and crop diversification are very essential to build a huge stock of food grains in India. Educated and trained people can acquire new skills and technologies required for growing agricultural output to meet the domestic demand.

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2019

Jeremias Lachman and Andrés López

The purpose of this paper is to study the factors that act as innovation obstacles in precision agriculture (PA) technologies in Argentina, one of the world leading…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to study the factors that act as innovation obstacles in precision agriculture (PA) technologies in Argentina, one of the world leading exporters of cereals and oilseeds. The focus of this study is on the supply side, i.e. the factors that are perceived by PA firms as obstacles for the expansion of their market.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a survey to 67 firms that develop PA technologies in Argentina, this study examines the impact of different types of obstacles on firms’ growth and innovation activities. This analysis is complemented with the results that emerge from a series of interviews with different stakeholders (such as firms’ managers, policymakers and experts).

Findings

In this study, it was determined that market and cost factors negatively affect firms’ growth, while institutional obstacles reduce the amount of innovation efforts. In turn, knowledge barriers positively impact on the relevance firms assigned to R&D activities. This study helps identify different strategies that firms have put in place to overcome the barriers they face. Finally, policy implications of the results are discussed.

Originality/value

PA technologies may contribute to greening agricultural production and offer an opportunity for the emergence of domestic suppliers of innovative equipment and services based on the use of data science, artificial intelligence and Internet of Things. To the bets of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study that explores the obstacles that prevent growth and impact on innovation activities of PA firms. The insights from this study are valuable for both researchers and policymakers aiming to foster emergence of high-tech clusters in developing countries.

Propósito

El propósito de este trabajo es estudiar los factores que actúan como obstáculos a la innovación en tecnologías emergentes, tomando el caso de la agricultura de precisión en Argentina.

Diseño/metodología/aproximación

Estudiamos el caso de la agricultura de precisión en Argentina combinando técnicas econométricas y análisis cualitativo. Sobre la base de una encuesta a 67 empresas que desarrollan tecnologías de agricultura de precisión en Argentina, examinamos el impacto de diferentes tipos de obstáculos en el crecimiento de las empresas y las actividades de innovación. Este análisis se complementa con hallazgos derivados de una serie de entrevistas con diferentes actores (gerentes de empresas, responsables de políticas, expertos, agricultores, etc.).

Resultados

Encontramos que los obstáculos de mercado y de costos afectan negativamente el crecimiento de las empresas, mientras que los obstáculos institucionales reducen la cantidad de esfuerzos de innovación. A su vez, las barreras de conocimiento tienen un impacto positivo en la relevancia que las empresas asignan a las actividades de I + D. También identificamos diferentes estrategias que las empresas han puesto en marcha para superar las barreras que enfrentan. Finalmente, discutimos las implicaciones de política de nuestros hallazgos.

Originalidad/valor

Las tecnologías de AP contribuyen a una agricultura sustentable y ofrecen una oportunidad al surgimiento de proveedores locales de equipamiento y servicios, basados en ciencia de datos, inteligencia artificial e Internet de las Cosas. Para los autores, este es el primer estudio que explora los obstáculos al crecimiento y a la innovación en firmas de AP. Las contribuciones de este estudio son relevantes tanto para futuras investigaciones como para hacedores de políticas interesados en promover el surgimiento de clusters high-tech en países en desarrollo.

Palabras clave

Obstáculos a la innovación, Política de innovación, Agricultura de precisión

Objetivo

O objetivo deste artigo é estudar os fatores que atuam como obstáculos à inovação em tecnologias emergentes, tomando o caso da agricultura de precisão na Argentina.

Design/metodologia/abordagem

O caso da agricultura de precisão na Argentina é estudado combinando técnicas econométricas e análises qualitativas. Com base numa pesquisa com 67 empresas que desenvolvem tecnologias de agricultura de precisão na Argentina, examinamos o impacto de diferentes tipos de obstáculos nas atividades de crescimento e inovação das empresas. Esta análise é complementada com as conclusões que emergem de uma série de entrevistas com diferentes partes interessadas (gestores das empresas, responsáveis políticos, especialistas, agricultores, etc.).

Resultados

Descobrimos que os fatores de mercado e custo afetam negativamente o crescimento das empresas, enquanto os obstáculos institucionais reduzem a quantidade de esforços de inovação. Além do mais, as barreiras do conhecimento impactam positivamente na relevância que as empresas atribuem às atividades de P & D. Também identificamos diferentes estratégias que as empresas implementaram para superar as barreiras que enfrentam. Finalmente, discutimos as implicações políticas de nossos resultados.

Originalidade/valor

As tecnologias de AP contribuem para a agricultura sustentável e oferecem uma oportunidade para o surgimento de fornecedores locais de equipamentos e serviços, baseados na ciência de dados, inteligência artificial e na Internet das Coisas. Para os autores, este é o primeiro estudo que explora os obstáculos ao crescimento e inovação nas firmas de PA. As contribuições deste estudo são relevantes tanto para pesquisas futuras quanto para formuladores de políticas interessados em promover o surgimento de clusters de alta tecnologia em países em desenvolvimento.

Palabras clave

Obstáculos à inovação, Política de inovação, Agricultura de precisão

Details

Management Research: Journal of the Iberoamerican Academy of Management, vol. 17 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1536-5433

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