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Article
Publication date: 8 May 2017

Zhe Zhang and Yuansi Hou

The purpose of the study is to explore the effects of two dimensions of perceived risk (functional and emotional risk) on two types of consumer information search (ongoing…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of the study is to explore the effects of two dimensions of perceived risk (functional and emotional risk) on two types of consumer information search (ongoing and pre-purchase search) in the context of innovative products and services and examine the moderating effect of innate consumer innovativeness.

Design/methodology/approach

The findings in this study are generated with a quantitative design using a multiple linear regression model and a residual centering method on data-collected survey responses related to tablet PC adoption in an online community and laboratory experiment on online bike-renting services.

Findings

The results show that functional and emotional risks influence on-going and pre-purchase search differently in innovative products and services context. On the one hand, functional risk affects on-going search negatively, whereas emotional risk affects on-going search positively; on the other hand, the effect of functional risk on pre-purchase search is not significant, and the effect of emotional risk on pre-purchase search is positive. Furthermore, these relationships are moderated by innate consumer innovativeness. For on-going search, consumer innovativeness moderates the negative effect of functional risk negatively and moderates the positive effect of emotional risk positively; for pre-purchase search, consumer innovativeness moderates the positive effect of emotional risk negatively on pre-purchase search.

Originality/value

Unlike established products and services, innovative products and services possess some elements that are unfamiliar to consumers. Companies typically pre-release innovative products and services long before officially launching them in the market, enabling consumers to assess potential risks and seek information in advance, thereby priming the market. Since innovative products and services are becoming more ubiquitous, research on the impact of perceived risk on information search is crucial for marketers. The present work is designed to be the first to consider the effects of two dimensions of perceived risk (functional and emotional risk) on two types of consumer information search (ongoing and pre-purchase search) and the moderating effect of innate consumer innovativeness. The present research is, therefore, intended to make contributions to the literature on perceived risk, information search and innovation management.

Details

Journal of Consumer Marketing, vol. 34 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0736-3761

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Article
Publication date: 8 August 2016

Patricia Liebesny Broilo, Lélis Balestrin Espartel and Kenny Basso

Because of the increasing volume of information spread in physical and online environments, a consumer intending to purchase a product or service must choose not only what…

Abstract

Purpose

Because of the increasing volume of information spread in physical and online environments, a consumer intending to purchase a product or service must choose not only what to buy but also which sources to consult when searching for information that may aid decision-making. This study aims to understand how consumers choose their sources of information in pre-purchase external searches, given the information overproduction scenario.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a qualitative approach, data collected through interviews with consumers were analyzed under the technique of content analysis, and the results were synthesized into a framework.

Findings

Consumers tend to consider few sources of information, based on a previously built perception of which sources are more or less appropriate for consultation. Choice tends to be based on pre-established evaluation criteria involving the use of heuristics in the form of socialized images regarding those sources.

Research limitations/implications

Despite the study’s exploratory nature, the proposed framework sheds light into how consumers respond to information overproduction when choosing their sources, providing interesting venues for future investigations.

Practical implications

The study identified the possible occurrence of consumer confusion associated with information sources, extending the theoretical understanding of such a concept. Moreover, it revealed the need for managers to consider specific aspects related to the sources to be included in marketing communications.

Originality/value

This is the first study to address choice of information sources associated with consumer confusion focusing the offline/online scenario.

Details

Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-7122

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Article
Publication date: 30 March 2012

Dheeraj Awasthy, Arindam Banerjee and Bibek Banerjee

Existing literature offers conflicting evidence on how prior product knowledge influences amount of information search. A majority of these studies are based on variants…

Abstract

Purpose

Existing literature offers conflicting evidence on how prior product knowledge influences amount of information search. A majority of these studies are based on variants of cost benefit frameworks where consumers engage in search until the benefits from information search exceed search costs. The purpose of this paper is to develop an expectancy theory‐based framework to model consumers' information search and its antecedents, including motivation to search as an intervening construct.

Design/methodology/approach

The framework is tested using data from real consumers engaged in their actual purchase decisions, in an emerging market context, using longitudinal survey research design. The data are analysed using structural equation modeling to test the hypothesized model. The model shows an acceptable fit with X2 (271, 487)=640.252, p < 0.00 and 0.95 CFI.

Findings

Results indicate that the relationship between prior product knowledge to information search is mediated by motivation to search. Prior product knowledge influences motivation to search through its influence on the consumer's perceived ability to search and his/her perceived value of additional information. Furthermore, perceived ability to search is the strongest predictor of motivation to search. The parsimony of the proposed framework in providing a simpler account of factors influencing the search process along with its managerial implications is discussed.

Practical implications

The findings suggest that perceived ability to search and perceived value of additional information are two important levers that managers could use for achieving desired results. Furthermore, perceived ability to search is an important mediator, which completely mediates the relationship between prior product knowledge and motivation to search. These findings also provide strong indications about the need to simplify the search process for consumers, especially in the context when novelty is predominantly marketed.

Originality/value

The paper introduces a motivational measure of search in the literature and shows that the motivational measure is indeed the proximal measure to other antecedent constructs compared to a behavioral measure of search. Perceived ability to search and perceived value of additional information are shown as important mediators between prior product knowledge and motivation to search.

Details

Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, vol. 24 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-5855

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Article
Publication date: 1 April 2005

Teemu Ylikoski

To describe consumers’ heuristic and analytical searches for a pre‐purchase information acquisition, and to assess the correspondence of flexibility of information task…

Abstract

Purpose

To describe consumers’ heuristic and analytical searches for a pre‐purchase information acquisition, and to assess the correspondence of flexibility of information task and the information found with a search.

Design/methodology/approach

Propositions based on current research in web use and consumer studies. Tracked records of searches are used for descriptive analysis of transitional patterns in the data. Regression is used for statistical verification of the information provided by searches.

Findings

Consumer searches center on chaining events, indicating heavy reliance on hyperlink navigation between web sites. Formal searches are seldom used, although when employed, tend to have a high level of diagnosticity. The emphasis on heuristic behavior is logical, as the way consumer information is currently presented on the internet rewards for this type of behavior. Use of heuristic search increases the likelihood of access to flexibly presented information.

Research limitations/implications

Consumers favor heuristic trial‐and‐error searches even in focused fact‐finding search tasks, which are typically considered the domain of analytical seeking. Consumers seem to benefit most from apparently inefficient, reactive and heuristic searches, because these are more likely to provide information in a format that the consumer can adapt. Convenience sample limits generalizability of findings.

Originality/value

While there is an increasing body of knowledge concerning internet use for finding information, fewer studies have focused on consumer uses of the web in search. This paper provides new information of online consumers, an increasingly important topic.

Details

Internet Research, vol. 15 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1066-2243

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 2005

Pierre Desmet and Emmanuelle Le Nagard

Seeks to study the effect of a low‐price guarantee (PG) on store price image and store patronage intention. Two kinds of low‐price guarantee are studied: a price‐matching…

Abstract

Purpose

Seeks to study the effect of a low‐price guarantee (PG) on store price image and store patronage intention. Two kinds of low‐price guarantee are studied: a price‐matching guarantee (PMG) where the price difference is refunded and a price‐beating guarantee (PBG) where a retailer offers an additional compensation.

Design/methodology/approach

A questionnaire is used to collect information on 180 non‐student respondents in an experimental framework where low‐price guarantee dimension is manipulated through three advertisements for printers.

Findings

Findings are: first, that PG indeed lowers store price image, increases the confidence that the store has lower prices and increases patronage intention; second, that, compared with a PMG whose effects are positive but rather small, a PBG further lowers the store price image on the low prices dimension without increasing the intention to search for lower price, this intention being already rather high in the PMG condition; third, that a larger effect is observed for non‐regular customers.

Research limitations/implications

Research limitations are associated with the data collection. For greater reality the study uses an existing retail chain, so specific effects coming from this chain could influence the results but this bias cannot be evaluated as the experiment involves one retailer only.

Practical implications

Practical implications are that price image can be manipulated without any change in pricing policy by a low‐price guarantee and that the interest to adopt a price‐beating guarantee is real.

Originality/value

The contribution of this study lies in its focus on a large PBG level that retailers already apply and in demonstrating that a PG depends on the relationship between the consumer and the retailer with a stronger effect on non‐regular customers.

Details

Journal of Product & Brand Management, vol. 14 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1061-0421

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Article
Publication date: 7 June 2011

Fred Bronner and Robert de Hoog

Information‐search for vacation decision‐making can occur in two different contexts: an individual one, in which one forms one's preferences, and a social one in response…

Abstract

Purpose

Information‐search for vacation decision‐making can occur in two different contexts: an individual one, in which one forms one's preferences, and a social one in response to discussions with partners and family members. This paper focuses on the latter.

Design/methodology/approach

By means of a longitudinal study the research investigates the main topics of discussion in couples, and the information sources couples use in their discussion. Furthermore, the research investigates whether the information sources used depend on the nature of the sub‐decision – search‐determined or experience‐determined – the couples discuss.

Findings

The research finds that there is considerable discussion between partners and that the amount of discussion varies in relation to the type of sub‐decision. During these discussions, the use of different information sources is widespread. More generally, the study confirms the overall importance of the social context: information sources used in the social context are different from sources used in the individual context. The research does not confirm the expected relationship between the nature of a sub‐decision and the type of information source used. As the decision process proceeds over time, the role of objective information sources increases in discussions.

Research limitation/implications

Compared with the classical individual approach to researching tourist information search, the social context of information‐searching needs other market research data, to provide insight into the topics of discussion. Tourism marketing messages in a social decision context should be directed to significant others, as these messages are likely to be used as important information sources during the joint vacation decision process in couples. In this respect, the use of electronic word‐of‐mouth offers new opportunities for vacation marketing.

Originality/value

A new perspective on information search: the relevance of social contexts.

Details

International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, vol. 5 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6182

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Article
Publication date: 9 November 2015

Hsin-Hui Lin

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of three price-matching guarantee (PMG) variables, including refund depth, refund period and competitive scope, on…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of three price-matching guarantee (PMG) variables, including refund depth, refund period and competitive scope, on consumer response; the moderating role of consumer search costs is also examined.

Design/methodology/approach

This study uses a scenario simulation method with a 2×2×2 factorial design to test the research model and hypotheses.

Findings

The results indicate that refund depth has a significant effect on price perception and purchase intention, while competitive scope has a significant effect on purchase intention. In addition, the effects of both refund depth and competitive scope on price perception are moderated by consumer search costs.

Originality/value

This study is a pioneering effort to explore the effects of PMGs variables on consumer response in the context of online retailing. These findings provide several important theoretical and practical implications for the PMG strategy of online retailing.

Details

Journal of Service Theory and Practice, vol. 25 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2055-6225

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Article
Publication date: 3 June 2020

Carolyn Wilson-Nash, Amy Goode and Alice Currie

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the special issue theme by exploring customer response to automated relationship management tactics on social media channels.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the special issue theme by exploring customer response to automated relationship management tactics on social media channels.

Design/methodology/approach

A total of 17 in-depth interviews of young adults, ranging from the age of 19 to 26, were conducted. From this, customer journey maps were compiled incorporating socialbots as a valuable touch point along the service delivery cycle.

Findings

The research frames the socialbot as a valued customer service agent to young adults with some favouring this over telephone and email communication methods. Younger consumers respond positively to the quick resolution offered by the socialbot mechanism with most acknowledging that the bot is only able to manage simplified requests. Human-to-human customer relationship management is preferential when the query reaches critical mass.

Research limitations/implications

Socialbots on Facebook Messenger provided the research context for this study; therefore, other platforms and owned website bots should be considered in future studies.

Practical implications

This research identifies the younger generation as a key target market for the development of customer service-related bots.

Originality/value

To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to examine the socialbot as an automated touch point in the customer journey and contributes knowledge to the growing body of literature focussed on artificial intelligence in customer service. Moreover, it provides valuable qualitative insights into how socialbots influence the customer experience and related outcome measures.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 54 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

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Article
Publication date: 8 February 2018

Eleni Papaoikonomou, Carmen Valor and Matias Ginieis

Although the role of information has been previously studied in the ethical consumer literature, practices related to information searches and interpretation have not been…

Abstract

Purpose

Although the role of information has been previously studied in the ethical consumer literature, practices related to information searches and interpretation have not been fully examined in relation to ethical consumption. The purpose of this paper is to explore the search and use of information by ethically oriented consumers in order to understand the problems involved in this process, and how ethical consumers address them by adopting a number of practices.

Design/methodology/approach

Using a qualitative approach and diaries, the paper explores how consumers carry out their informational search and interpretation over an 11-week period.

Findings

First, insights are provided about the specifics of information search and the contexts, timing and use of information. Second, the information management practices used by participants to navigate the problems they encounter are identified. These practices are discussed in relation to the maximizing vs optimizing approach adopted by the participants.

Practical implications

New technologies, such as mobile applications and geo-localization, could overcome some of the problems inherent to information searches identified in this study. The use of social networks may also prove particularly interesting for companies and NGOs that target ethically oriented consumers.

Originality/value

Information search and the use and interpretation of information are part of the efforts undertaken by ethical consumers, but they have not been the focus of past research. This study provides empirical evidence on consumer practices employed to circumvent the problems found in a context of information asymmetries, and the gradual development of consumer skills in relation to ethical information searches and management. It shows how information search and management shapes the practice of ethical consumption.

Details

Management Decision, vol. 56 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0025-1747

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Article
Publication date: 2 September 2014

Caterina Presi, Charalampos Saridakis and Susanna Hartmans

This study aims to focus on the motivation of service customers to create user-generated content (UGC) after a negative service experience. In examining this relationship…

Abstract

Purpose

This study aims to focus on the motivation of service customers to create user-generated content (UGC) after a negative service experience. In examining this relationship, the moderating role of “extraversion” personality trait is also taken into consideration. Furthermore, the paper examines how differently motivated service customers react to a firm’s service recovery strategies, whilst insights into the relationship between UGC creation and specific online platform usage are also provided.

Design/methodology/approach

Structural Equation Modeling is used to test the conceptual model, based on an empirical dataset collected from an online survey research of 239 service customers. The dataset pertains to international travellers and their UGC behaviour after a negative travel experience.

Findings

Altruistic, vengeance and economic motivations are strong drivers for UGC creation after a negative service experience. Motivations also correlate to participation in specific online platforms. Furthermore, it is shown that highly extraverted customers create more UGC after a negative service experience when motivated by vengeance. Finally, higher levels of altruistic and self-enhancement motivations correlate with a positive attitude towards a firm’s response, whereas customers who are motivated by vengeance have a negative attitude towards a firm’s response.

Practical implications

Customers who share their negative service experience by creating UGC in social media can be segmented according to their motivation. Service providers should inspect the UGC of their customers to understand the motivation behind it. The motivation to create UGC varies across platforms, and hence, customized service recovery strategies are required.

Originality/value

This paper examines UGC creation in relation to motivation, extraversion, and attitude towards a firm’s response. This is the first reported application which collectively examines important issues like these in a unified theoretical framework.

Details

European Journal of Marketing, vol. 48 no. 9/10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0566

Keywords

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