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Article
Publication date: 12 February 2021

Amodith Supunmal Wijewansha, G.A. Tennakoon, K.G.A.S. Waidyasekara and B.J. Ekanayake

Despite the positive impacts of the construction sector on enhancing economic growth and ensuring societal well-being, its negative impacts on the environment from…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite the positive impacts of the construction sector on enhancing economic growth and ensuring societal well-being, its negative impacts on the environment from unsustainable resource consumption levels, emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and waste generation is monumental. Circular economy (CE) concept is identified globally as an avenue to address problems regarding adverse impacts of construction on the environment. This paper presents the principles of CE as an avenue for enhancing environmental sustainability during the pre-construction stage within Sri Lankan construction projects.

Design/methodology/approach

This research was approached through a qualitative research method. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with subject matter experts. The number of experts were limited due to lack of experts with knowledge on the subject area in Sri Lanka. Data were analysed using content analysis.

Findings

Findings revealed a range of activities under each R principle of CE, that is, reduce, reuse, recycle, redesign, reclassification and renewability that could be implemented during the pre-construction stage, thereby providing a guide for construction professionals in implementing CE at the pre-construction stage. The need to expand knowledge on CE concepts within the Sri Lankan construction sector was recognized.

Originality/value

This study provides a qualitative in-depth perspective on how 6R principles of CE could be integrated to a construction project during the pre-construction stage. By adopting the proposed activities under CE principles, construction professionals can enhance the environmental sustainability of construction projects.

Details

Built Environment Project and Asset Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2044-124X

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Article
Publication date: 1 February 1965

J. Bowler‐Reed

The factors leading to the development of automatic shot‐blasting and pre‐construction priming of heavy steel plate are described in this paper. Pre‐construction primers…

Abstract

The factors leading to the development of automatic shot‐blasting and pre‐construction priming of heavy steel plate are described in this paper. Pre‐construction primers are used to protect steel against corrosion during fabrication and to form the first coat of the final protective system. The ideal properties of a pre‐construction primer are reviewed and a general survey is made of the different types of pre‐construction primer. These are: barrier coatings, inhibitive primers and zinc primers.

Details

Anti-Corrosion Methods and Materials, vol. 12 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0003-5599

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2005

Khaled Al‐Reshaid, Nabil Kartam, Narendra Tewari and Haya Al‐Bader

It is a well‐known fact that the construction industry always passes through two distinctive problems during the construction stage: slippages of project‐schedules, i.e…

Abstract

Purpose

It is a well‐known fact that the construction industry always passes through two distinctive problems during the construction stage: slippages of project‐schedules, i.e. time‐frame, and overruns of project‐costs, i.e. budget. However, limited literature is available to solve or dilute these two problems before they even occur. It is strongly believed that the bulk of the two mentioned problems can be mitigated to a great extent, if not eliminated, provided that proper attention is paid to the pre‐construction phases of projects. Normally projects are implemented through traditionally old techniques which generally emphasize only solving “construction problems during the construction phase”. The aim of this article is therefore to unveil a professional methodology known as Project Control System (PCS) focusing on pre‐construction phases of construction projects.

Design/methodology/approach

In this article, the authors share the lessons learned during implementation of Kuwait University projects worth approximately $400 million in a span of ten years. The task of the project management/construction management (PM/CM) is being provided to the university by a joint venture team of international and local specialists.

Findings

The pre‐construction methodology ensures smooth and successful implementation during construction phases of the projects as they are generally executed in a fast‐pace, deadline‐driven and cost‐conscious environment. The intuitive proactive methods, if implemented during pre‐construction stage, automatically answer the questions that are encountered during the execution periods of projects.

Originality/value

In this article, the authors share the lessons learned during PM/CM during projects over a span of ten years, which could be of use to others.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 19 January 2015

Helen Lingard, Lance Saunders, Payam Pirzadeh, Nick Blismas, Brian Kleiner and Ron Wakefield

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between the timing with which decisions are made about how to control work health and safety (WHS) risks in…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between the timing with which decisions are made about how to control work health and safety (WHS) risks in construction project (i.e. either pre- or post-construction) and the quality of risk control outcomes.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were collected from 23 construction projects in Australia and the USA. Totally, 43 features of work were identified for analysis and decision making in relation to these features of work was mapped across the life of the projects. The quality of risk control outcomes was assessed using a classification system based on the “hierarchy of control”. Within this hierarchy, technological forms of control are preferable to behavioural forms of controls.

Findings

The results indicate that risk control outcomes were significantly better in the Australian compared with the US cases. The results also reveal a significant relationship between the quality of risk controls and the timing of risk control selection decisions. The greater the proportion of risk controls selected during the pre-construction stages of a project, the better the risk control outcomes.

Research limitations/implications

The results provide preliminary evidence that technological risk controls are more likely to be implemented if WHS risks are considered and controls are selected in the planning and design stages of construction projects.

Practical implications

The research highlights the need for WHS risk to be integrated into decision making early in the life of construction projects.

Originality/value

Previous research has linked accidents to design. However, the retrospective nature of these studies has not permitted an analysis of the effectiveness of integrating WHS into pre-construction decision making. Prospective studies have been lacking. This research provides empirical evidence in support of the relationship between early consideration of WHS and risk control effectiveness.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 22 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 25 August 2021

Michael C.P. Sing, David J. Edwards, Arthur W.T. Leung, Henry Liu and Chris J. Roberts

The accuracy and reliability of subjectively assessing a construction project's complexity at the pre-construction stage is questionable and relies upon the project…

Abstract

Purpose

The accuracy and reliability of subjectively assessing a construction project's complexity at the pre-construction stage is questionable and relies upon the project manager's tacit experiences, knowledge and background. The purpose of this paper is to develop a scientifically robust analytical approach by presenting a novel classification mechanism for defining the level of project complexity in terms of work contents (WCs), scope, building structures (BSs) and site conditions.

Design/methodology/approach

Empiricism is adopted to deductively analyze variables obtained from secondary data within extant literature and primary project data to develop project type classifications. Specifically, and from an operational perspective, a two-stage “waterfall process” was adopted. In stage one, the research identified 56 variables affecting project complexity from literature and utilized a structured questionnaire survey of 100 project managers to measure the relevance of these. A total of 27 variables were revealed to be significant and exploratory factor analysis (EFA) is adopted to cluster these variables into six-factor thematic groups. In stage two, data from 62 real-life projects (including the layout and structural plans) were utilized for computing the factor score using the six-factor groups. Finally, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) is adopted to classify the projects into collected distinctive groups and each of a similar nature and characteristics.

Findings

The developed theoretical framework (that includes a novel complex index) provides a robust “blueprint platform” for main contractors to compile their project complexity database. The research outputs enable project managers to generate a more accurate picture of complexity at the pre-construction stage.

Originality/value

While numerous research articles have provided a comprehensive framework to define project complexity, scant empirical works have assessed it at the pre-construction stage or utilized real-life project samples to classify it. This research addresses this knowledge gap within the prevailing body of knowledge.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 13 April 2015

A.M. Forster, S. Fernie, K. Carter, P. Walker and D. Thomson

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the risks of building defects associated with rapid advancement of “green” construction technologies. It identifies the methods…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the risks of building defects associated with rapid advancement of “green” construction technologies. It identifies the methods adopted by the sector for the determination of pre-construction defects that are framed within the context of, traditional; scientific; and professional design approaches. These are critically evaluated and utilised in attempts to mitigate defects arising from diffusing low carbon construction innovations.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper takes the form of an evaluative literature review. Polemic in orientation, the paper critically compares two periods of time associated with rapid advancement of innovation. The first, the post-Second World War housing boom is synonymous with a legacy of substandard buildings that in many cases rapidly deteriorated, requiring refurbishment or demolition shortly after construction. The second, is today’s “green” technology “shift” with its inherent uncertainty and increased risk of latent building defects and potential failure to deliver meaningful long-term performance. Central to this is an exploration of the drivers for innovation, and subsequent response, precautionary measures initiated, and the limitations of institutionalised systems to identify and mitigate defects. Similarities and differences between these historical periods frame a discussion around the theoretical approaches to defects and how these may be limited in contemporary low carbon construction. A conceptual framework is presented with the aim of enhancing the understanding for obviation of defects.

Findings

Sufficient commonality exists between the periods to initiate a heightened vigilance in the identification, evaluation and ideally the obviation of defects. Design evaluation is not expressly or sufficiently defect focused. It appears that limited real change in the ability to identify defects has occurred since the post-war period and the ability to predict the performance of innovative systems and materials is therefore questionable. Attempts to appraise defects are still embedded in the three principle approaches: traditional; scientific; and professional design. Each of these systems have positive characteristics and address defect mitigation within constrains imposed by their very nature. However, they all fail to address the full spectrum of conditions and design and constructional complexities that lead to defects. The positive characteristics of each system need to be recognised and brought together in an holistic system that offers tangible advantages. Additionally, independent design professionals insufficiently emphasise the importance of defect identification and holistic evaluation of problems in design failure are influenced by their professional training and education. A silo-based mentality with fragmentation of professional responsibility debases the efficacy of defect identification, and failure to work in a meaningful, collaborative cross professional manner hinders the defect eradication process.

Research limitations/implications

Whilst forming a meaningful contribution to stimulate debate, further investigation is required to tangibly establish integrated approaches to identify and obviate defects.

Practical implications

The structured discussion and conclusions highlight areas of concern for industry practitioners, policy makers, regulators, industry researchers and academic researchers alike in addressing and realising a low carbon construction future. The lessons learned are not limited to a UK context and they have relevance internationally, particularly where rapid and significant growth is coupled with a need for carbon reduction and sustainable development such as the emerging economies in China, Brazil and India.

Social implications

The carbon cost associated with addressing the consequences of emerging defects over time significantly jeopardises attempts to meet legally binding sustainability targets. This is a relatively new dimension and compounds the traditional economic and societal impacts of building failure. Clearly, blindly accepting this as “the cost of innovation without development” cannot be countenanced.

Originality/value

Much research has been undertaken to evaluate post-construction defects. The protocols and inherent complexities associated with the determination of pre-construction defects have to date been largely neglected. This work attempts to rectify this situation.

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Article
Publication date: 12 July 2013

Taufika Ophiyandri, Dilanthi Amaratunga, Chaminda Pathirage and Kaushal Keraminiyage

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the critical success factors (CSFs) of community‐based post‐disaster housing reconstruction projects (CPHRP) during the…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the critical success factors (CSFs) of community‐based post‐disaster housing reconstruction projects (CPHRP) during the pre‐construction stage.

Design/methodology/approach

An extensive literature review and interviews were undertaken to establish selected factors contributing to the success of community‐based post disaster housing reconstruction projects. Following this, a questionnaire survey was administered to key stakeholders in order to perceive their view on CSFs of CPHRP. Data were analysed by deploying statistical software.

Findings

It was found that 12 factors are considered to be the CSFs: transparency and accountability, appropriate reconstruction policy/strategy, an understanding of the community‐based method, gathering trust from the community, facilitator capacity, good coordination and communication, sufficient funding availability, implementer capacity, having a significant level of community participation/control, government support, involvement of all community members, and successful beneficiary identification.

Practical implications

The establishment of CSFs in CPHRP helps key stakeholders to identify factors that must exist and go well during pre‐construction of CPHRP, in order to ensure the success of the programme.

Originality/value

The paper is very specific as it attempts to discover the CSFs of CPHRP during the pre‐construction stage.

Details

International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the Built Environment, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1759-5908

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 7 November 2008

Ranya Essa and Chris Fortune

Considering sustainability during the cost estimating process is vital for the successful integration of sustainable features within a construction project. The UK…

Abstract

Purpose

Considering sustainability during the cost estimating process is vital for the successful integration of sustainable features within a construction project. The UK Government has adopted the principles of sustainable development, and social housing projects now have to achieve the EcoHomes “very good” rating as a prerequisite to Government grant funding. This policy has important implications for all those organisations involved in new social housing building projects and it will place sustainability and its assessments at the heart of housing procurement practice. The purpose of this paper is to examine the pre‐construction evaluation practices of sustainable housing projects in the UK.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey was undertaken to capture data regarding the importance and the cost significance of sustainable factors from a randomised sample of 600 quantity surveying, housing associations, and architectural organisations based in the UK. An initial and follow‐up administration of the postal survey generated an overall response of 41.5 per cent. Relative rankings for EcoHomes factors according to their perceived importance and their cost impact on the price of housing projects are established, and the work identifies the factors that should be considered in order to develop a model that links the project price forecasting and the evaluation of sustainability together at the feasibility stage of social housing projects.

Findings

EcoHomes factors were ranked in this survey according to their importance as follows: “energy”, “materials”, “pollution”, “water”, “health and well being”, “ecology and land use”, and finally “transport”. These results revealed that the environmental aspects of sustainability continue to be the most common aspect of sustainability to be considered, as compared to the economic or social benefits of the potential project irrespective of organisational type responding to the survey. As a result the work identified a need to develop an aid for practitioners to use when involved in the early stage evaluation of sustainable social housing projects.

Originality/value

This paper provides useful information on the pre‐construction evaluation practices of sustainable housing projects in the UK.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 15 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 January 1996

JASON MATTHEWS, ALAN TYLER and ANTONY THORPE

The use of subcontracting within the modern construction industry has become commonplace with many main contractors only undertaking the management and co‐ordination…

Abstract

The use of subcontracting within the modern construction industry has become commonplace with many main contractors only undertaking the management and co‐ordination activities. The reliance on subcontractors has put much stress on the subcontractor — main contractor relationship. As main contractors have realized that the greatest potential for cost saving lies with subcontractors, the prevalence of unfair contract conditions, dutch auctioning and other onerous practices has increased. This paper describes a procurement approach, utilizing limited competition, developed by a top UK main contractors (MC) in order to improve its relationships with subcontractors. The approach, termed semi‐project partnering, was implemented on a commercial development. The approach was supported by research which identified: what MC's employees want from subcontractors; what subcontractors want from main contractors; and a study to benchmark MC's performance with that of other main contractors. It was concluded that this approach offers a number of benefits for the client, main contractor, partnering subcontractors and professional consultants. These included an improved team approach; an improved understanding of the project; more compliant subcontractor bids; better/closer relationships; more reliable programming; less confrontation; and lower tendering costs. It was also identified through debriefing subcontractors that sub‐contractors were quoting a10% lower than normal due to this approach.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 3 no. 1/2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

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Article
Publication date: 14 January 2014

Patrick Manu, Nii Ankrah, David Proverbs and Subashini Suresh

Despite the established significance of underlying accident causes to health and safety (H&S), and the persistent reporting of the underlying accident causal influence of…

Abstract

Purpose

Despite the established significance of underlying accident causes to health and safety (H&S), and the persistent reporting of the underlying accident causal influence of construction project features (CPFs) which emanate from pre-construction decisions, no empirical research has focused on CPFs in terms of assessing their degree of potential to influence accident occurrence. The purpose of this paper is to, therefore, investigate this facet of the accident causal influence of CPFs.

Design/methodology/approach

A mixed method design was used involving semi-structured interviews, and a questionnaire survey of UK construction professionals.

Findings

CPFs generally have a moderate or a high potential to influence accident occurrence, implying a fair or severe potential to cause harm in terms of the H&S of workers. The degree of potential of CPFs to influence accident occurrence is influenced by: the extent to which certain proximate causes of accidents are common/prevalent within CPFs;and the degree of potential of those proximate causes to influence accident occurrence.

Originality/value

These findings provide insight into the H&S consequences of CPFs, awareness of which is essential if pre-construction project participants are to implement appropriate risk control measures especially in the early phases of projects to mitigate the accident causal influence of CPFs. The findings reinforce the contribution of clients and their design and project management teams to accident causation, the significance of the early planning of H&S in construction project delivery, and the importance of driving mechanisms such as the Construction (Design and Management) Regulations 2007.

Details

Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, vol. 21 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0969-9988

Keywords

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