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Article
Publication date: 25 September 2019

Rajesh Kumar Singh and Pravin Kumar

In complex business environment of today, organizations are trying to be flexible and agile for meeting dynamic demands of customers in terms of product variety, cost…

Abstract

Purpose

In complex business environment of today, organizations are trying to be flexible and agile for meeting dynamic demands of customers in terms of product variety, cost cutting and decreasing product life cycle. The main purpose of this paper is to identify different attributes of flexibility and to propose an approach for evaluating flexibility index of a supply chain.

Design/methodology/approach

Total 33 factors are identified from the literature and further clustered into six major groups. They are top management commitment, organizational factors, mutual understanding, flow of information, relationship and decision-making and responsiveness. On the basis of these factors, an index has been developed by using graph theory matrix approach to evaluate the flexibility intensity of the supply chain for the firm in consideration.

Findings

The proposed approach has been illustrated in context to an Indian automobile organization, and value of the flexibility index has been evaluated. Framework proposed will help the supply chain managers to evaluate the flexibility index of their respective organizations.

Research limitations/implications

As values taken for different flexibility sub-factors are based on inputs given by managers of case organization, chances of bias may be there. Therefore, a study may be validated with more case studies to validate the proposed framework. Based on the flexibility index, organizations can find their strong and weak areas for strategy development.

Originality/value

A firm can also compare the flexibility index of its own supply chain with other’s supply chain or with the best in the industry for benchmarking purpose. Benchmarking of flexibility will help organizations in developing strategies to compete in dynamic market scenario.

Details

Journal of Global Operations and Strategic Sourcing, vol. 13 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2398-5364

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 21 June 2019

Rajesh Kumar Singh, Pravin Kumar and Mahesh Chand

Today, most of the manufacturing systems are changing very fast in terms of the adoption of new technologies. New technologies being implemented are Internet of Things…

1461

Abstract

Purpose

Today, most of the manufacturing systems are changing very fast in terms of the adoption of new technologies. New technologies being implemented are Internet of Things, cyber physical systems, cloud computing, Big Data analytics and information and communication technologies. Most of the organizations in the value chain are implementing these technologies at the individual level rather than across the whole supply chain. It makes the supply chain less coordinated and causes suboptimal utilization of resources. For efficient and optimal use of modern technologies, supply chains should be highly coordinated. The purpose of this paper is to illustrate an approach for determining the index to quantify coordination in the supply chain.

Design/methodology/approach

From the literature review, total 32 factors have been identified. These factors are further clubbed into six clusters for evaluation of the coordination index. The graph theoretic approach has been used for evaluating the coordination index of a supply chain of an Indian organization.

Findings

This study has illustrated a comprehensive approach to quantify coordination of a supply chains for effective benchmarking of the supply chain performance in the Industry 4.0 era. Presently, it is observed that top management is giving more focus on organizational issues such as lean organization structure, organization culture and responsiveness factors for improving coordination in the supply chain rather than on Industry 4.0 technologies.

Originality/value

This framework can also be used for comparison, ranking and analysis of coordination issues in different supply chains in the era of Industry 4.0. Organizations can use this approach for benchmarking purpose also to improve different supply chain processes for meeting dynamic market requirements.

Details

Benchmarking: An International Journal, vol. 28 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1463-5771

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 6 November 2017

Rajesh Kr. Singh, Saroj Koul and Pravin Kumar

In the present scenario of global competition and economic recession, most of the organizations are facing tough challenge to survive in the market because of shortening…

Abstract

Purpose

In the present scenario of global competition and economic recession, most of the organizations are facing tough challenge to survive in the market because of shortening product life cycle and reducing profit margin. Customers are seeking better design, production and delivery, which have made firms to concentrate on flexibility in supply chains. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to identify major factors and develop a suitable framework for flexibility in supply chains.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on literature review, about 14 factors have been identified. To develop relationship among these factors, a team of five experts from industry and academia was formed. Based on inputs from experts, different relationships are developed among factors to form structural self-interaction matrix (SSIM). Based on this matrix, a flexibility framework is developed by interpretive structural modelling approach.

Findings

Top management commitment, strategy development for flexible SC, application of advance technology and IT tools, information sharing in SC members, trust development among supply chain members have emerged as major driving factors. Logistics and warehouse management, suppliers flexibility, distribution flexibility and manufacturing flexibility have emerged as dependent factors.

Research limitations/implications

Framework developed in this study is based on interpretive structural modelling. This framework can be further validated with some case analysis and empirical findings.

Originality/value

Findings of the study can be useful for industry professionals to develop strategies for flexible supply chains. It will help them in taking new initiatives for making supply chains more responsive and proactive for customers demand.

Details

Journal of Modelling in Management, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5664

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 5 September 2016

Rajesh Kr. Singh, Ravinder Kumar and Pravin Kumar

In the present context of a health-concious society, management of pharmaceutical supply chains has become more complex because it involves the life-saving interest of…

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Abstract

Purpose

In the present context of a health-concious society, management of pharmaceutical supply chains has become more complex because it involves the life-saving interest of human being and requires the participation of different stakeholders such as pharmaceutical manufacturers, wholesalers, distributors, customers, information service providers and regulatory agencies. Limited research is available in the area of pharmaceutical supply chains. This paper aims to find the gaps in the literature by reviewing research papers on different strategic issues of supply chain management in the pharmaceutical sector.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 136 research papers, mainly from refereed international journals, were reviewed to identify the issues of supply chain management (SCM) in the pharmaceutical supply chain. On the basis of a review, gaps are identified and research agenda is proposed.

Findings

It is observed from review that the pharmaceutical sector is not widely researched in developing countries because of many complexities in this supply chain. The share of pharmaceutical firms in the global market is also not very significant. Based on an extensive review of pharmaceutical supply chains, research gaps are identified in different areas such as inventory management, new product development, process development, capacity planning, network design, plant design, pipeline and development management, outsourcing logistics activities, reverse logistics, Lean manufacturing, green SCM and implementation of E-business processes and performance management. These strategic issues have been further classified into three broad categories, i.e. resources, processes and performance.

Originality/value

This paper explores major strategic areas of pharmaceutical supply chains for research. Findings of the paper will be highly useful for researchers to decide direction of future research.

Details

International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Healthcare Marketing, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1750-6123

Keywords

Case study
Publication date: 8 October 2014

Rajiv Gopalkrishna Divekar, Pradnya Vishwas Chitrao and Pravin Kumar Bhoyar

Strategic marketing, Downturn, Optimal utilisation of minimal resources, Consolidating profitability, Focus shift from features to benefits and cost savings.

Abstract

Subject area

Strategic marketing, Downturn, Optimal utilisation of minimal resources, Consolidating profitability, Focus shift from features to benefits and cost savings.

Study level/applicability

Management students who have knowledge of basic concepts of management discipline to derive the maximum benefit and understand the applicability; budding entrepreneurs; middle- and senior-level executives in an executive development program; people running family-owned businesses.

Case overview

In 2008-2009, the Indian manufacturing sector was facing stiff competition from China on account of the latter's ability to provide cheap labour and handle large volumes. The 2008-2009 economic down turn saw consumers cut down on their requirements with manufacturing companies getting fewer orders. Manufacturing companies therefore adopted the principle of optimal utilisation of minimal resources. Millennium Company Ltd (MCL) also succeeded in overcoming the 2008-2009 downturns through a shift in focus during the recession of 2009 from achieving pure revenue to consolidating its profitability. MCL is probably the only company in the world to have extensive expertise in both steam and control instrumentation. The dual expertise allows them to engineer industry-specific systems that focus on energy efficiency and utilities management for sectors as diverse as textiles, food processing, paper, power and chemicals etc. The company shifted its attention from features to benefits, cost savings, and profitability. MCL trained its people as to what to talk to whom. Today, MCL is a leader in India in process efficiency and energy conservation through technology tie-ups and focused investments in manufacturing and research.

Expected learning outcomes

The purpose of this case is to enable student managers to evaluate effectiveness of corporate strategies; make the student managers understand the resources–businesses–systems framework and the need for focused connection between these three through appropriate coordination and control mechanisms for a corporate strategy to deliver value; encourage students to apply their knowledge of Turnkey Projects, BCG/Porters/SWOT/Mackensys Model; encourage the students to research and find out how other companies in this field fared and what were the strategies adopted by them to overcome the recession and compete with MCL in a highly competitive market like that of India; and encourage student managers to go on field visits with the institute's help to similar organisations within the same city and if possible get live projects.

Supplementary materials

Teaching Notes are available for educators only. Please contact your library to gain login details or email support@emeraldinsight.com to request teaching notes.

Article
Publication date: 14 May 2018

Faisal Ahmed and Pravin Kumar

The purpose of this paper is to identify factors which influence participation of developing countries in the global value chains (GVC) and to present a mathematical…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify factors which influence participation of developing countries in the global value chains (GVC) and to present a mathematical modeling technique to calculate a “National Participation Index of a developing country in the GVC” (hereinafter referred to as G-NPI).

Design/methodology/approach

The paper identifies 17 factors, encompassing both country-specific and firm-specific considerations that influence a developing countries’ participation in the GVCs. These factors have been grouped into four sets of enablers, namely, macroeconomic, geo-economic, strategic and geopolitical. The national participation index (G-NPI) has been calculated using the graph theoretic modeling approach.

Findings

Besides identifying the factors of a developing country’s participation in the GVC and grouping them as enablers, the paper considers the case of India as an example and assesses the level of interactions within (i.e. among various factors of a given enabler) and among these enablers (leading to a G-NPI value) using graph theory.

Practical implications

The findings can be used to calculate G-NPI for different countries to ascertain their potential for participation and also to find the factors(s) which may be deterring their participation in the GVCs.

Social implications

This paper can help in policy advocacy to enhance the competitiveness of developing countries and consequently to improve the life of their consumers.

Originality/value

This paper introduces the concept of G-NPI and presents a unique way of assessing a developing country’s participation in the GVCs through a mathematical modeling approach.

Details

Journal of Modelling in Management, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5664

Keywords

Case study
Publication date: 9 July 2020

Jitender Kumar, Ashish Gupta, Archit Vinod Tapar and Md Chand Rashid Khan

The cases highlight the challenges in running a new start-up especially by women in a developing nation such as India in a high growth industry. The success of a business…

Abstract

Learning outcomes

The cases highlight the challenges in running a new start-up especially by women in a developing nation such as India in a high growth industry. The success of a business depends on employee motivation, sales, marketing, functional coordination and coordinated efforts from all the executives. Experten Office Supplies Pvt. Ltd. (EXOS) was women empowered entrepreneurial startup (printing) in Mumbai established themselves as a trustable brand among their clientele for their office stationeries need. At Initial stages, they started with a good pace and growth in revenue. Directors of EXOS, Komal and Upasana Sanjay Kumar, were facing a downturn, their declining sales and were stressed regarding the resignation of their core member Pravin. The reasons for the situation were many, including unplanned motivational factors, non-risk-taking ability, no proper sales management (organization structure), planning process issues, lack of reward system and dependency on a person, less marketing initiative. These issues must be resolved to come back in the business, increase its sales, better sales organization structure. After the case analysis, students should be able to: know the key role of marketing and sales as a management function. Develop motivation policies for the salesforce and key team members in the organization. Understand the salesforce retention strategies of the organization.

Case overview/synopsis

In September 2019, directors of EXOS, Komal and Upasana Sanjay Kumar were discussing the downturn of EXOS and were stressed regarding their declining sales and profit margin. Both were disappointed at the resignation of their Business Manager. They were in worry as the new deal that they were about to get which could have made them earn, but Pravin resigned from the job in short notice. The case has short- and long-term aspects. The short-term aspect is about the decision related to EXOS’s top performer, Pravin, how to retain him, which motivational factor will help him to rethink his resignation. The long-term aspect deals with framing a motivation model that will prevent the organization from a similar situation in the future. The case outlines the human resource management issues and particularly the importance of motivation to retain the talent of a small startup firm. Directors recognize the importance of Pravin and they have a realization that the deal on which Pravin is working is critical. Under this situation, Upasana has to stop Pravin.

Complexity academic level

Undergraduate, Master of Business Administration (MBA) or in the Management Development Programs.

Supplementary materials

Teaching notes are available for educators only.

Subject code

CSS: 8 Marketing.

Details

Emerald Emerging Markets Case Studies, vol. 10 no. 3
Type: Case Study
ISSN: 2045-0621

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 October 2012

Pravin Kumar and Rajesh K. Singh

The purpose of this paper is to provide an insight into the use of an integrated approach of fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (fuzzy AHP) and TOPSIS in evaluating the…

2693

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to provide an insight into the use of an integrated approach of fuzzy analytical hierarchy process (fuzzy AHP) and TOPSIS in evaluating the performance of global third party logistics service providers for effective supply chain management.

Design/methodology/approach

In this study, the integration of fuzzy AHP with TOPSIS is proposed in determining the relative importance (weight) of criteria and then ranking of 3PLs.

Findings

Findings show that the logistics cost and service quality are two most important criteria for performance rating of 3PLs. Deciding the relative importance of various criteria for 3PLs evaluation is a complex task. The superiority of one criterion over the other varies from person to person and firm to firm. Therefore, to capture the variability in decision fuzzy extended AHP is very useful tool. Finally, the preference raking of alternatives are found using TOPSIS.

Research limitations/implications

Fuzzy AHP is a complex methodology and requires more numerical calculations than the traditional AHP and hence it increases the effort. But in this paper single stage fuzzy AHP is used to simplify the process. Fuzzy AHP is integrated with TOPSIS for preference ranking of 3PL, which provides a good methodology to rank 3PLs.

Originality/value

There is a lack of research in the literature to deal directly with the uncertainty of human decisions in evaluating the relative importance of multiple criteria. Therefore, fuzzy AHP is an appropriate methodology to find the relative importance of the criteria to rank the 3PLs using TOPSIS.

Details

Journal of Modelling in Management, vol. 7 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5664

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 31 October 2008

Pravin Kumar, Ravi Shankar and Surendra S. Yadav

The purpose of this paper is to identify and evaluate the relationships among the flexibility enablers and to prepare a hierarchy of these enablers to know their…

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Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify and evaluate the relationships among the flexibility enablers and to prepare a hierarchy of these enablers to know their influences over each other in global supply chain. The framework suggests that the priority of enablers in supply chain should be determined on the basis of their driving power and dependency.

Design/methodology/approach

Various enablers used by researchers and practitioners for flexibility management of global supply chain have been identified. These enablers have been classified as strategic, operational and performance‐based enablers. Interpretive structural modeling (ISM) is used to establish mutual relationships among the flexibility enablers and to prepare a hierarchy‐based model.

Findings

It has been observed that some enablers having high‐driving power and low dependency are of strategic importance. These enablers require more attention while other enablers based on operations and performances are dependents of strategic enablers.

Practical implications

The index of enablers based on driving power and dependency provides an insight to supply chain managers to make the entire supply chain highly flexible and help them to respond to global uncertainties.

Originality/value

Presentation of enablers in the form of hierarchy using ISM and ranking them into various driving power and dependent categories is a good effort to make flexible global supply chain.

Details

Journal of Modelling in Management, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-5664

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 8 February 2011

Nasirullah, Pravin Kumar and Rizwan Shariff

Nutraceuticals which have nutritional and therapeutic properties cannot be consumed directly due to their off flavor hence, a carrier in the form of microcapsules may be a…

1106

Abstract

Purpose

Nutraceuticals which have nutritional and therapeutic properties cannot be consumed directly due to their off flavor hence, a carrier in the form of microcapsules may be a better option for their application in foods. The purpose of this paper is to describe the preparation of nutraceutical barriers as microcapsulels.

Design/methodology/approach

Nutraceutical concentrates were isolated using methanol from sesame (Sesamum indicum), linseeds (Linum usitatissimum), black mustard (Brassica napus), yellow mustard (Brassica compestris) and niger seeds (Guizotai abyssinica) employing established protocol. These concentrates were further purified, enriching active ingredients using column chromatography to remove hydrocarbons, gums and other non‐polar inactive materials. These purified concentrates were subjected for sesamol, tocopherol, polyphenol and β‐carotene estimations. Subsequently, they were converted into microcapsules using spray drying, inclusion complexation and liposomal entrapment techniques.

Findings

The scanning electron microscope image of the spray‐dried nutraceutical concentrates isolated from sesame seeds showed that microcapsules were spherical in shape with 5‐25 μm in diameter with mean particle size of 10 μm with smooth outer surface and bee net like inner structure which yielded a uniform and smooth wall of microcapsules. Thickness of the wall was found to be 2‐5 μm. Sesamol, tocopherol, polyphenol and β‐carotene found to be ranging between 35,600 and 0; 14,520 and 890; 35,800 and 5,900 and 890 and 290 ppm. The encapsulation efficiency of spray drying, inclusion complexation and liposomal entrapment was 75.5, 54 and 58 percent, respectively, which considered to be good efficiency. The moisture content of the powders were found to be between 4 and 5 percent. The difference between the highest and the lowest moisture content at each relative humidity was about 0.5 percent. The percent nutraceutical concentrate adhering to the surface of granules during above encapsulation ranged between 1 and 5.5 percent.

Originality/value

Much work has been done on the nutraceuticals but information is very scarce on nutraceutical carriers. To carry the nutraceuticals to the site of delivery in intact form, nutraceutical carriers are inevitable. This paper describes how to prepare nutraceutical carriers as microcapsules by using spray drying, complexation and liposome entrapment procedures to obtain stable granules which can be used in food applications.

Details

Nutrition & Food Science, vol. 41 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0034-6659

Keywords

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