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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1996

John N. Cooper

Focuses on good practice and ethical concerns around general occupational test usage. Exemplifies this through a UK survey of test practices and a short case study of one…

Abstract

Focuses on good practice and ethical concerns around general occupational test usage. Exemplifies this through a UK survey of test practices and a short case study of one organization in the north west of England which has evolved a sustainable quality approach. Competency‐based qualifications form the basis of a UK national standard backed by professional codes of practice. They have had a positive impact on the quality of test use and training. However, evidence is reported to suggest that a number of organizations are not operating to the desirable levels of good practice. Examines through discussion and a case study additional avenues, in particular continuing professional development, that may be explored to promote quality test usage in line with ethical and good practice.

Details

Journal of European Industrial Training, vol. 20 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0309-0590

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Article
Publication date: 22 March 2011

Torbjörn H. Netland and Erlend Alfnes

The purpose of this paper is to propose a quick maturity test to assist a company's development of a supply chain operations strategy. Maturity tests and models have been

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a quick maturity test to assist a company's development of a supply chain operations strategy. Maturity tests and models have been developed within several areas, but there is a lack of maturity tests targeting supply chain operations.

Design/methodology/approach

A literature review on maturity models is carried out in order to build the structure of the test, while a literature review on best practices in supply chain management is the basis for the test content.

Findings

The proposed maturity test is an audit scheme built on best practice statements within seven key strategic decision areas – strategy, control, processes, materials, resources, information and organisation. The test is designed with simplicity as a key feature and takes only one hour to complete. The test results are the input to strategic decisions regarding use of best practices in supply chain operations.

Practical implications

Supply chain managers ask for a simple and quick tool that can be used as an eye‐opener and a compass early in the development process of the supply chain operations strategy. The proposed test has a proven potential to point out directions for supply chain improvement areas.

Originality/value

There is a need for a quick assessment tool for mapping the maturity of a company's supply chain operations. The proposed test is a potential answer to this need.

Details

Measuring Business Excellence, vol. 15 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1368-3047

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1995

Barry R. Baker and John N. Cooper

Presents a survey‐designed study to ascertain the extent to whichorganizations employing occupational testing conformed to good practicein testing as defined by…

Abstract

Presents a survey‐designed study to ascertain the extent to which organizations employing occupational testing conformed to good practice in testing as defined by professional and advisory literature/codes of practice. Utilizes an ethical framework built around mutual contractual obligations with “limiting principles” as moral rules governing employers testing behaviour. Offers data in support of the contention that some employers are not adhering to the good advice whereby tests takers rights are assured. Concludes with a number of summary indications for future directions of research and practice.

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Personnel Review, vol. 24 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0048-3486

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 1989

Patricia A. Greenfield, Ronald J. Karren and Lawrence S. Zacharias

Every employer, unless he or she has no pool of applicants orpotential applicants to choose from, engages in hiring choices. Whilethe hiring process may vary, both from…

Abstract

Every employer, unless he or she has no pool of applicants or potential applicants to choose from, engages in hiring choices. While the hiring process may vary, both from one employer to another and from one job to another, some form of screening occurs. In recent years, students of management have noted the proliferation of screening practices in the hiring process, especially in bringing new technologies such as medical and drug testing procedures. Testing and other screening practices, while wide‐ranging both with respect to their ends and means, have raised consistent patterns of concern among job‐seekers, public policy makers and managers themselves. In this monograph a variety of methods of screening and issues of public policy raised by screening procedures are discussed. An overview of United States law regulating the screening process is provided, together with future directions in the area of screening in the US.

Details

Employee Relations, vol. 11 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0142-5455

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Article
Publication date: 13 July 2012

Anja Gerhardts, Helmut Mucha and Dirk Höfer

Disinfecting laundry processes are essential to avoid contamination of laundering machines and linen during commercial laundry reprocessing in the health care sector…

Abstract

Purpose

Disinfecting laundry processes are essential to avoid contamination of laundering machines and linen during commercial laundry reprocessing in the health care sector. Recently a bacteriophage‐charged bioindicator has been developed using MS2 as surrogate virus for testing of low‐temperature disinfecting laundry processing on efficacy against viruses related to practice. This paper therefore aims to investigate application of MS2‐bioindicators in chemothermal processes under practical conditions (phase 2/step 2) and in practice (phase 3).

Design/methodology/approach

The experimental design was developed and modified according to the German Society for Hygiene and Microbiology (DGHM) Standard Methods for Testing Chemical Disinfection Processes. Tests under practical conditions were performed at 60°C and 70°C. Additional tests in tunnel washers were carried out at 60°C and 70°C. In all experiments validated disinfecting laundry processes, recommended for bactericidal and virucidal performance (categories A and B), were applied.

Findings

The results show a temperature‐dependent gradual efficacy against the test virus MS2 up to reduction values of more than 8 log10‐steps. Therefore MS2‐bioindicators prove to be suitable as a tool to determine the performance of disinfection procedures against viruses in practice.

Originality/value

Phage‐charged bioindicators may be a tool to provide further insights into the reliability of antiviral laundry processes for health care quality management and for infection control.

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Article
Publication date: 3 April 2017

Henriette Lundgren, Brigitte Kroon and Rob F. Poell

The purpose of this paper is to explore how and why personality tests are used in workplace training. This research paper is guided by three research questions that…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to explore how and why personality tests are used in workplace training. This research paper is guided by three research questions that inquire about the role of external and internal stakeholders, the value of psychometric and practical considerations in test selection, and the purpose of personality test use in workplace training.

Design/methodology/approach

This research paper uses multiple-case study analysis. Interviews, test reports, product flyers and email correspondence were collected and analyzed from publishers, associations, psychologists and human resource development (HRD) practitioners in Germany, the UK and The Netherlands between 2012 and 2016.

Findings

Themes emerge around industry tensions among practitioners and professional associations, psychologists and non-psychologists. Ease of use is a more important factor than psychometrics in the decision-making process. Also, practitioners welcome publishers that offer free coaching support. In the process of using tests for development rather than assessment, re-labeling takes place when practitioners and publishers use positive terms for personality tests as tools for personal stocktaking and development.

Research limitations/implications

Despite extensive data collection and analysis efforts, this study is limited by its focus on a relatively small number of country cases and stakeholders per case.

Practical implications

By combining scientific evidence with practical application, stakeholders can take first steps toward more evidence-based HRD practice around personality testing in workplace training.

Originality/value

Little academic literature exists on the use of personality testing in workplace training. Without a clear understanding of the use of personality testing outside personnel selection, the current practice of personality tests for developmental purposes could raise ethical concerns about the rights and responsibilities of test takers.

Details

European Journal of Training and Development, vol. 41 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2046-9012

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Book part
Publication date: 18 July 2008

Laura S. Hamilton, Brian M. Stecher, Jennifer Lin Russell, Julie A. Marsh and Jeremy Miles

The design of the ISBA project was guided by an analysis of the SBA theory of action, its likely effect on educators’ work across levels of the educational hierarchy, and…

Abstract

The design of the ISBA project was guided by an analysis of the SBA theory of action, its likely effect on educators’ work across levels of the educational hierarchy, and prior research on the impact of SBA policies on teachers’ work. We begin placing our work in the context of theoretical accounts of school organizations and the occupational norms of teaching.

Details

Strong States, Weak Schools: The Benefits and Dilemmas of Centralized Accountability
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84663-910-4

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Article
Publication date: 29 January 2018

Ann Elisabeth Gunnulfsen and Astrid Roe

The purpose of this paper is to examine teachers’ reported experiences, practices, and attitudes on the use of national test results in a low-stakes accountability…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to examine teachers’ reported experiences, practices, and attitudes on the use of national test results in a low-stakes accountability context. Whether the stakes are high or low, teachers and school leaders have different experiences, knowledge, and beliefs concerning how to use national test results to benefit individual student learning. This paper addresses how teachers experience school leadership and policy requirements for using national test results in local schools.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper is part of a larger study conducted in a Norwegian educational context investigating school leaders’ and teachers’ enactments of policy demands via the use of national test results data. The sub-study reported in this paper is based on survey data from all lower secondary teachers (n=176) in one Norwegian municipality. Micro-policy perspectives and the concept of crafting policy coherence served as analytical tools.

Findings

Diversity between the schools was found in how teachers perceive the principals’ role. Practices and attitudes appeared restrained, somewhat conformed by, but still indifferent to the policy intention. However, there was a close relationship between the principals’ facilitation of national tests and the teachers’ practices of utilizing the results.

Originality/value

This study clarified how micro-policy works in local schools in a low-stakes context. A prominent difference was found between the policy intentions and local schools’ practice of using national test results.

Details

Journal of Educational Administration, vol. 56 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0957-8234

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 2003

Bhagaban Panigrahi, Fred O. Ede and Stephen Calcich

Data collected from 202 large and 92 small consumer goods manufacturing firms were analysed to examine the perceptions and experiences of these companies with test

Abstract

Data collected from 202 large and 92 small consumer goods manufacturing firms were analysed to examine the perceptions and experiences of these companies with test marketing as part of their new product development strategy. Seventy six per cent of the large companies and twenty four per cent of the small firms in the study test marketed their new products before full‐scale introduction. Chi‐square analysis indicated a relationship between firm size, type of business/industry, the scope of marketing operations, and whether the firm conducted test marketing or not. Cost, time constraints, and the generic nature of the product were the most prominent reasons cited by all firms for not conducting test marketing. In addition, small firms cited their size as amajor reason they did not engage in test marketing.

Details

Management Research News, vol. 26 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0140-9174

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Article
Publication date: 12 July 2019

Laura A. Taylor

By recognizing high-stakes testing as a key constraint to teacher agency, this paper aims to provide a close analysis of one teacher’s testing narrative to illustrate how…

Abstract

Purpose

By recognizing high-stakes testing as a key constraint to teacher agency, this paper aims to provide a close analysis of one teacher’s testing narrative to illustrate how emerging positioning is relative to high-stakes testing shapes perception of pedagogical agency.

Design/methodology/approach

Data were generated through a series of semi-structured interviews with an early career fourth-grade teacher, Ms Moore, in a school facing pressure to raise test scores. Using theoretical lenses of narrative positioning and a linguistic anthropological centering of constraint and emergence, 67 narratives of accountability were analyzed, with particular focus on how Ms Moore positioned herself relative to other actors involved in high-stakes testing and the consequent rights and duties these positions afforded.

Findings

In narrating the constraints of high-stakes testing, Ms Moore positioned herself relative to three groups involved in high-stakes testing: “purposefully tricky” test creators, “disjointed” administrators and “worried” students. The rights and duties associated with three positions varied with respect to two dimensions – proximity and hierarchy – in turn providing her distinct resources for responding to the pedagogical constraints of high-stakes testing.

Practical implications

Teachers might use positioning analysis as a tool to locate possibilities for agency amidst high-stakes testing, both by exploring the resources afforded by their positioning and by considering how alternative positions might afford different resources.

Originality/value

These findings suggest that high-stakes testing serves as a dynamic and perhaps malleable constraint to teacher agency. Teacher positioning, particularly relative to hierarchy and proximity, provides possible resource for responding to such constraints.

Details

English Teaching: Practice & Critique, vol. 18 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1175-8708

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