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Book part
Publication date: 20 May 2017

Prabal K. De

Child immunization is widely recognized as a cost-effective preventive medicine. Unfortunately, in India about 50% of the eligible children aged 12–23 months miss some…

Abstract

Child immunization is widely recognized as a cost-effective preventive medicine. Unfortunately, in India about 50% of the eligible children aged 12–23 months miss some essential vaccination. Though a positive association between maternal education and markers of child health like immunization has been long established, the literature has struggled to find a causal relationship, mainly because education is inextricably correlated with other socioeconomic variables like income. In this chapter, I propose a new instrument for women’s education in India using the following facts. First, due to lack of sanitary facilities in schools, particularly rural schools, large number of girls drop out of school once they reach puberty. Second, age at menarche is largely determined by biological factors and not social factors. Together, age at menarche can explain variations in schooling, yet be independent of outcome variables like child immunization. I find that additional years of maternal schooling (conditional on strictly positive years of schooling) do increase the probability of complete immunization of children.

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Human Capital and Health Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-466-2

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Book part
Publication date: 20 May 2017

Abstract

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Human Capital and Health Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-466-2

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Book part
Publication date: 20 May 2017

Abstract

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Human Capital and Health Behavior
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-78635-466-2

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Article
Publication date: 28 October 2019

Jaideep Roy and Prabal Roy Chowdhury

In a global environment where terrorist organisations based in a poor country target a rich nation, this paper aims to study the properties of a dynamically incentive…

Abstract

Purpose

In a global environment where terrorist organisations based in a poor country target a rich nation, this paper aims to study the properties of a dynamically incentive compatible contract designed by the target nation that involves joint counter-terror tasks with costly participation by each country. The counter-terror operations are however subject to ex post moral hazard, so that to incentivise counter-terror, the rich country supplies developmental aid. Development aid also helps avoid unrest arising from counter-terror activities in the target nation. However, aid itself can be diverted to non-developmental projects, generating a novel interlinked moral hazard problem spanning both tasks and rewards.

Design/methodology/approach

The authors use a dynamic model where the aid giving countries and aid receiving countries behave strategically. Then they solve for the sub game perfect Nash equilibrium of this game.

Findings

The authors characterise the optimal contract, showing that the dynamic structure of counter-terror resembles the shock-and-awe discussed by military strategists. The authors then prove that it is not necessarily the case that a more hawkish (resp. altruistic) donor is less pro-development (resp. softer on terror). In addition, the authors show that it may be easier to contract for higher counter-terror inputs when the recipient is more sympathetic to terrorists. The authors also discuss other problems faced by developing nations where this model can be readily adopted and the results can endorse appealing policy implications.

Originality/value

The authors characterise the optimal contract, showing that the dynamic structure of counter-terror resembles the shock-and-awe discussed by military strategists. It is proved that it is not necessarily the case that a more hawkish (resp. altruistic) donor is less pro-development (resp. softer on terror). In addition, the authors show that it may be easier to contract for higher counter-terror inputs when the recipient is more sympathetic to terrorists. Other problems faced by developing nations are also discussed where this model can be readily adopted, and the results can endorse appealing policy implications. These results have important policy implications, in particular in today’s world.

Details

Indian Growth and Development Review, vol. 13 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8254

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Article
Publication date: 26 October 2018

Ajay Kumar Chhabra and Prabal Talukdar

This paper aims to develop a numerical model to investigate coupled conduction radiation heat transfer in a multilayer semi-transparent polymeric foam.

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to develop a numerical model to investigate coupled conduction radiation heat transfer in a multilayer semi-transparent polymeric foam.

Design/methodology/approach

The model uses a multi-phase approach in which the radiative transfer is determined by solving the radiative transfer equation explicitly in the whole medium incorporating an interface condition valid in the geometric optics rgime. This is executed by using a combination of ray splitting and a discrete curved ray tracing technique. Both partial photon reflection and total internal reflection at the interface are considered in the present investigation.

Findings

The directional distribution of intensity within the whole medium can be determined, which is used to obtain the detailed temperature profile inside the domain. The performance of the proposed methodology has been tested by simulating the modelled foam at ambient conditions. The results obtained from the simulations are in good agreement with the published results and shows that there is a global non-linearity in the temperature profile in problems where conduction to radiation parameter is small.

Originality/value

Specular nature of radiative transfer at the interface is accounted for in the present analysis. Instead of working with direction integrated quantities (as in the case of P1 approximation), each bundle of rays is treated separately within the whole medium. This model serves as a starting point for a detailed spatially three dimensional study of heat transfer in foams and the mathematical nature of the formulation is such that it may result in an implementation to three-dimensions.

Details

International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow, vol. 29 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0961-5539

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Article
Publication date: 18 September 2017

Prabal Barua, Syed Hafizur Rahman and Morshed Hossan Molla

Climate change is affecting people displacement in Bangladesh by both sudden environmental events and gradual environmental change. This paper aims to assess the…

Abstract

Purpose

Climate change is affecting people displacement in Bangladesh by both sudden environmental events and gradual environmental change. This paper aims to assess the sustainable adaptation measures for resolving the displacement problem induced by climate change considering the socioeconomic differences between the past and the present location of living places for island dwellers of the south-eastern coast of Bangladesh.

Design/methodology/approach

Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were adopted for conducting the study. The main tool of the household survey was a questionnaire survey. In addition to the estimate of displacement, the authors have used hazard impact analysis, weightage analysis and sustainable adaptation analysis with various ranking. Meaningful data were analyzed through SPSS software and presented through statistical techniques.

Findings

Climate change-induced different natural disasters, such as cyclone, tidal surge, tidal flood and coastal erosion, were frequent in the study areas and responsible for mass displacement. After displacement, people lost not only their identity but also social and cultural harmony and faced different economic and environmental crises. However, nearly 20 types of adaptation options were identified for protection from the displacement of coastal people.

Practical implications

The study prescribed 11 specific criteria and 4 principles of sustainable adaptation options for resolving the climate displacement problem. Moreover, seven adaptation practices showed high sustainability, ten showed medium sustainability and five showed low sustainability in terms of effectiveness, efficiency and implementation ability.

Originality/value

The study would help to establish sustainable adaptation measures through the combination of environment, economic and social harmony with regard to the Sustainable Development Goals.

Details

International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, vol. 9 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1756-8692

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 27 July 2021

Prabal Barua, Syed Hafizur Rahman and Maitri Barua

The nature of farm animals in the marginalized group of people is varying hurriedly. Livestock is used to add to cash earnings and increase food security, hence helping as…

Abstract

Purpose

The nature of farm animals in the marginalized group of people is varying hurriedly. Livestock is used to add to cash earnings and increase food security, hence helping as a vital component in the household’s source of revenue strategies, particularly at marginal planter’s level. The present study was conducted to assess the numbers of livestock farmers in the study areas, their livelihood options, the value chain of the farmers in different marketing channels and recommendation for the sustainable value chain of the livestock production cycle.

Design/methodology/approach

The study precise the baseline condition of marginal livestock farmers for access to value chain activities in terms of inputs, outputs, support services, production, yield, income and enabling environment to enhance livestock farming in the study area. The study was conducted through stratified random sampling of the context using some research tools like in-depth interviews, household surveys, expert opinions and focus group discussions. Structured questionnaires were developed to address issues, such as current livestock farming practices, access to support services, capacity and income.

Findings

The study revealed that this particular context is lagging behind to establish goat value chain activities in the targeted areas. The farmers do not have basic knowledge of goat farming, and the value chain actors are not working properly. The support services are not appropriate to turn the goat farming production to a standard level. Value chain of livestock and livestock products and their goals are essential to develop an idea on learning, investment, market access, sales assurance and quality. Variation in institutional contexts of end markets is linked to different types of coordination and control of enabling environment throughout the chains.

Practical implications

Livestock is an integral component of the complex farming system in Bangladesh as it serves as not only a source of meat protein but also a major source of farm power services as well as employment. Strong private sector alliance along with public–private ventures can bring sustainable agriculture value chain development in these most vulnerable coastal communities in Bangladesh. Strengthening the weak financial structure, reducing power imbalances in the governance structures and low political intervention in community-level organizations, and resolving socio-cultural and environmental concerns are the major concerns on the development of value chains in Bangladesh.

Originality/value

Geographical position and climatic condition of Bangladesh have made her coastal areas one of the highly productive areas for livestock production in the world. The study was conducted through qualitative and quantitative analysis, and after finding the authors recommended for sustainable value chain approach for livestock production to a marketing channel for improving the financial condition and self-employment for the communities.

Details

Modern Supply Chain Research and Applications, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2631-3871

Keywords

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Book part
Publication date: 3 June 2021

Abstract

Details

Productivity Growth in the Manufacturing Sector
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-80071-094-8

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Article
Publication date: 10 August 2015

Naqeeb Ur Rehman

The purpose of this paper is to identify the drivers of firm’s growth such as research and development (R & D), absorptive capacity, knowledge management…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to identify the drivers of firm’s growth such as research and development (R & D), absorptive capacity, knowledge management, organisation culture, access to finance, internationalisation and so forth. As far as the contribution is concerned, two objectives have been achieved from this empirical paper. First, this paper fills an important gap in the literature by determining the drivers of firm’s growth. Second, this study analysed the Pakistani software industry at micro level by investigating the firm’s knowledge-based assets and their significant association with labour productivity growth. Based on a face to face interview of 69 software firms, this study found that firm size, access to finance, internationalisation (exporting and outward foreign direct investment), business improvement methods and knowledge management have a positive impact on the firm’s labour productivity growth. In comparison, firm undertaking R & D and absorptive capacity showed negative association with labour productivity growth. This study implies that these software firms have low investment in knowledge-based assets. In summary, this empirical study suggests that high sunk costs, low investment in knowledge-based assets and shortage of skills generally affect the labour productivity of these software firms.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey analysis, using cross section data analysis.

Findings

This study found that firm size, access to finance, internationalisation (exporting and outward FDI), business improvement methods and knowledge management have a positive impact on the firm’s labour productivity growth. In comparison, firm undertaking R & D and absorptive capacity showed negative association with labour productivity growth. In summary, this empirical study suggests that high sunk costs, low investment in knowledge-based assets and shortage of skills generally affect the labour productivity of these software firms.

Research limitations/implications

Additionally, suggestions for future research would be to investigate the relationship between drivers of firm growth and innovation performance. The survey analysis could be extended to other parts of country such as Karachi and Lahore for resolving causality.

Originality/value

First, this paper fills an important gap in the literature by determining the drivers of firm’s growth. Second, this study analysed the Pakistani software industry at micro level by investigating the firm’s knowledge-based assets and their significant association with labour productivity growth.

Details

Journal of Management Development, vol. 34 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0262-1711

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 2 June 2021

Prabal Barua, Syed Hafizur Rahman and Maitri Barua

This paper is designed to assess the sustainable value chain approaches for marketing channel development opportunities for agricultural products in coastal Bangladesh to…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper is designed to assess the sustainable value chain approaches for marketing channel development opportunities for agricultural products in coastal Bangladesh to combat climate change through an approach of community-based adaptation options.

Design/methodology/approach

The study was designed to select the potential value chain candidate and to analyze and establish a value chain map to benefit the crop farmers. In this connection, the resources of the whole context were evaluated. The approach uses few tools to generate three outputs, the last of which are the final list of value chains selected for in-depth assessment to design interventions as community-based adaptation practices of the study to combat climate change in the study areas.

Findings

The study demonstrated that the difference in the institutional circumstances of the end markets of the agriculture products is connected to the different categories of harmonization and control of the facilitating environment throughout the supply chains. National and local networks improve the value chain in terms of the value addition of the agriculture products, technology improvement, market access and profitability of the products. Strengthening the weak financial structure, focus more on formal financial systems and resolving sociocultural and climate change-induced hazard concerns are the major concerns on the development of value chains in the countries. Apparently, guarantee for good governance, checking illegal and unregulated market contexts, proper mitigation measures to climate change are some paramount important issues for the sustainable management of livelihood, yield, income and development.

Practical implications

All kinds of stakeholders of the agriculture product value chain should focus on competitiveness and productivity and look for and exploit multiple ways to add value once initial success has been attained with a single deal. Ensuring sustainability within the value chains is an important feature to cater to the challenges and changing demands of the age.

Originality/value

The study will help to established a sustainable value chain approach in response to climate change, which process will help to existent opportunities for firms to manage the issue of climate risk by codeveloping and employing adaptation options that may be more preferred or accepted by consumers across the entire chain for the sustainable management of livelihood, yield, income and development.

Details

Modern Supply Chain Research and Applications, vol. 3 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2631-3871

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