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Article
Publication date: 10 December 2019

Seema Negi, Athul Arun Nambolan, Sajan Kapil, Prathamesh Shreekant Joshi, Manivannan R., K.P. Karunakaran and Parag Bhargava

Electron beam-based additive manufacturing (EBAM) is an emerging technology to produce metal parts layer-by-layer. The purpose of this paper is to systematically address…

Abstract

Purpose

Electron beam-based additive manufacturing (EBAM) is an emerging technology to produce metal parts layer-by-layer. The purpose of this paper is to systematically address the research and development carried out for this technology, up till now.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper identifies several aspects of research and development in EBAM.

Findings

Electron beam has several unique advantages such as high scanning speed, energy efficiency, versatility for several materials and better part integrity because of a vacuum working environment.

Originality/value

This paper provides information on different aspects of EBAM with the current status and future scope.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 26 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 May 2003

Ashok V. Kumar and Anirban Dutta

A method for rapid prototyping based on electrophotographic powder deposition was investigated to study its potentials and to identify design and implementation…

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1122

Abstract

A method for rapid prototyping based on electrophotographic powder deposition was investigated to study its potentials and to identify design and implementation challenges. This technique is referred to here as the electrophotographic rapid prototyping (ERP). In this technique, powder is printed layer‐by‐layer in the shape of the cross‐sections of the part using electrophotography a very widely used non‐impact printing method. Each layer of powder is consolidated by fusing before the next layer of powder is printed. A fully automated test bed was constructed that consists of a printing system, fusing/heating plate, build platform that has two‐degrees of freedom as well as software that drives the system.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 9 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

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Article
Publication date: 16 March 2015

Johannes Glasschroeder, Emanuel Prager and Michael F. Zaeh

The purpose of this paper is to show a possibility of how new functions can be integrated in parts, created by the powder-bed-based 3D-printing technology. One big…

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1427

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to show a possibility of how new functions can be integrated in parts, created by the powder-bed-based 3D-printing technology. One big advantage of additive manufacturing technologies is the possibility to create function-integrated parts during the manufacturing process. This applies to mechanical functions like movable elements, thermodynamic functions like contour near cooling channels in a part as well as electrical functions like conductive lines and electrical components.

Design/methodology/approach

A powder-bed-based 3D-printer is utilized to process polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) as base material. To enable new functionalities, an automated exhausting mechanism was implemented into the test system. The created cavities can be filled with new components or rather new materials.

Findings

Three different approaches are shown in this paper. The first one was the integration of screw nuts to enhance bolted joints compared to threads, directly created in the part. The average tensile strength could be raised from 200 to 430 N/mm. The second approach was the integration of different reinforcement elements like carbon or metallic fibers. Here again a reinforcement of the tensile strength of approximately 27 per cent could be reached. The last approach shows a method to integrate conductive material as well as electrical components in a part to create simple electrical circuits.

Originality/value

The paper demonstrates how to extend an additive powder-bed-based technology with a powder-exhausting mechanism. The possibilities of this technology are illustrated by three examples, integrating mechanical as well as electrical functions in a part.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 21 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 8 June 2012

K.P. Karunakaran, Alain Bernard, S. Suryakumar, Lucas Dembinski and Georges Taillandier

The purpose of this paper is to review additive and/or subtractive manufacturing methods for metallic objects and their gradual evolution from prototyping tools to rapid…

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3548

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to review additive and/or subtractive manufacturing methods for metallic objects and their gradual evolution from prototyping tools to rapid manufacture of actual parts.

Design/methodology/approach

Various existing rapid manufacturing (RM) methods have been classified into six groups, namely, CNC machining laminated manufacturing, powder‐bed technologies, deposition technologies, hybrid technologies and rapid casting technologies and discussed in detail. The RM methods have been further classified, based on criteria such as material, raw material form, energy source, etc. The process capabilities springing from these classifications are captured in the form of a table, which acts as a database.

Findings

Due to the approximation in RM in exchange for total automation, a variety of multi‐faceted and hybrid approaches has to be adopted. This study helps in choosing the appropriate RM process among these myriad technologies.

Originality/value

This review facilitates identification of appropriate RM process for a given situation and sets the framework for design for RM.

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Article
Publication date: 4 October 2018

Yajuan Zhang, Xiaoyan Song, Haibin Wang and Zuoren Nie

The purpose of this paper is to propose a novel method to prepare pure Ti powder for 3D printing with tailorable particle size distribution.

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194

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a novel method to prepare pure Ti powder for 3D printing with tailorable particle size distribution.

Design/methodology/approach

The main procedures of the present method consist of gas state reaction to synthesize TiH2 nanoparticles, agglomeration to obtain micronscale powder particles by spray drying, and densification of particle interior by heat treatment.

Findings

The prepared Ti powder has a specific bimodal particle size distribution in a range of small sizes, good sphericity and high flowability. Particularly, this new technique is capable of controlling powder purity and adjusting particle size.

Originality/value

To the best knowledge of the authors, the approach for preparing 3D printing metallic powders from nanoparticles has not been reported in the literature so far. This work provides a novel method that is particularly applicable to prepare 3D printing metallic powders which have small initial particle sizes and high reactivity in the air.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 24 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 August 1973

Americus

The Federation of Societies for Paint Technology authorised Levinson to do a study on powder coating, electrocoating and radiation. In an article [Journal of Paint

Abstract

The Federation of Societies for Paint Technology authorised Levinson to do a study on powder coating, electrocoating and radiation. In an article [Journal of Paint Technology, July (1972) p. 37] Levinson describes the advantages and disadvantages of powder coating, the technology involved, the economics of the various systems, the relationship to ecology, the manufacture of powders, the resins which are useful, and future trends.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 2 no. 8
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 1 October 1972

Bryan Shaw Rogers

Powder technology has spread like the proverbial wildfire in the space of a few short years from Europe, where it all began, to North America, Africa, Japan, Australia…

Abstract

Powder technology has spread like the proverbial wildfire in the space of a few short years from Europe, where it all began, to North America, Africa, Japan, Australia, Eastern Europe, and beyond. This coating revolution has been accompanied by an information explosion of such magnitude that there is no segment of our industry which is still unaware of the existence of powder coating. Just five years ago, I couldn't have said that. Indeed, two years ago, the North American Finishing Industry was still largely unaware of the existence of powder, let alone the fantastic advantages offered by it.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 1 no. 10
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 18 April 2016

Jan Patrick Deckers, Khuram Shahzad, Ludwig Cardon, Marleen Rombouts, Jozef Vleugels and Jean-Pierre Kruth

The purpose of this paper is to compare different powder metallurgy (PM) processes to produce ceramic parts through additive manufacturing (AM). This creates the potential…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to compare different powder metallurgy (PM) processes to produce ceramic parts through additive manufacturing (AM). This creates the potential to rapidly shape ceramic parts with an almost unlimited shape freedom. In this paper, alumina (Al2O3) parts are produced, as Al2O3 is currently the most commonly used ceramic material for technical applications.

Design/methodology/approach

Variants of the following PM route, with indirect selective laser sintering (indirect SLS) as the AM shaping step, are explored to produce ceramic parts: powder synthesis, indirect SLS, binder removal and furnace sintering and alternative densification steps.

Findings

Freeform-shaped Al2O3 parts with densities up to approximately 90 per cent are obtained.

Research limitations/implications

The resulting Al2O3 parts contain inter-agglomerate pores. To produce higher-quality ceramic parts through indirect SLS, these pores should be avoided or eliminated.

Originality/value

The research is innovative in many ways. First, composite powders are produced using different powder production methods, such as temperature-induced phase separation and dispersion polymerization. Second, four different binder materials are investigated: polyamide (nylon-12), polystyrene, polypropylene and a carnauba wax – low-density polyethylene combination. Further, to produce ceramic parts with increased density, the following densification techniques are investigated as additional steps of the PM process: laser remelting, isostatic pressing and infiltration.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 22 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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Article
Publication date: 1 July 1985

Americus

As technology becomes more complex, the need for coatings of specialised functions continues to increase. The electronics industry, for example, makes demands on the…

Abstract

As technology becomes more complex, the need for coatings of specialised functions continues to increase. The electronics industry, for example, makes demands on the coating industry for both conductive and insulation coatings. Highly temperature‐resistant coatings played a key role in the aerospace industry. Fire retardants contribute to consumer safety and coatings for plastics serve a number of protective and decorative functions.

Details

Pigment & Resin Technology, vol. 14 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0369-9420

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Article
Publication date: 5 June 2020

Lai Jiang, Xiaobo Peng and Daniel Walczyk

This paper aims to summarize the up-to-date research performed on combinations of various biofibers and resin systems used in different three-dimensional (3D) printing…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to summarize the up-to-date research performed on combinations of various biofibers and resin systems used in different three-dimensional (3D) printing technologies, including powder-based, material extrusion, solid-sheet and liquid-based systems. Detailed information about each process, including materials used and process design, are described, with the resultant products’ mechanical properties compared with those of 3D-printed parts produced from pure resin or different material combinations. In most processes introduced in this paper, biofibers are beneficial in improving the mechanical properties of 3D-printed parts and the biodegradability of the parts made using these green materials is also greatly improved. However, research on 3D printing of biofiber-reinforced composites is still far from complete, and there are still many further studies and research areas that could be explored in the future.

Design/methodology/approach

The paper starts with an overview of the current scenario of the composite manufacturing industry and then the problems of advanced composite materials are pointed out, followed by an introduction of biocomposites. The main body of the paper covers literature reviews of recently emerged 3D printing technologies that were applied to biofiber-reinforced composite materials. This part is classified into subsections based on the form of the starting materials used in the 3D printing process. A comprehensive conclusion is drawn at the end of the paper summarizing the findings by the authors.

Findings

Most of the biofiber-reinforced 3D-printed products exhibited improved mechanical properties than products printed using pure resin, indicating that biofibers are good replacements for synthetic ones. However, synthetic fibers are far from being completely replaced by biofibers due to several of their disadvantages including higher moisture absorbance, lower thermal stability and mechanical properties. Many studies are being performed to solve these problems, yet there are still some 3D printing technologies in which research concerning biofiber-reinforced composite parts is quite limited. This paper unveils potential research directions that would further develop 3D printing in a sustainable manner.

Originality/value

This paper is a summary of attempts to use biofibers as reinforcements together with different resin systems as the starting material for 3D printing processes, and most of the currently available 3D printing techniques are included herein. All of these attempts are solutions to some principal problems with current 3D printing processes such as the limit in the variety of materials and the poor mechanical performance of 3D printed parts. Various types of biofibers are involved in these studies. This paper unveils potential research directions that would further widen the use of biofibers in 3D printing in a sustainable manner.

Details

Rapid Prototyping Journal, vol. 26 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1355-2546

Keywords

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