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Article
Publication date: 1 January 2008

Guoping Huang, Yalin Zhang, Shakeh Momartin, Xuanyin Huang and Lan Zhao

The purpose of the study was to assess the relationship between child sexual abuse (CSA) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in female inmates in China. A total of…

Abstract

The purpose of the study was to assess the relationship between child sexual abuse (CSA) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in female inmates in China. A total of 471 participants were assessed for CSA, personality traits, coping strategies, and frequency of lifetime PTSD. Results demonstrated that CSA and negative coping were predictive factors for lifetime PTSD among female inmates after personality traits were controlled. The findings suggest that CSA is one potential factor contributing to lifetime PTSD among female inmates. The importance of screening for CSA among female inmates was highly emphasized. Early intervention and prevention programmes based on coping skills may be useful to forestall the development of chronic PTSD in female inmates.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 4 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

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Article
Publication date: 26 July 2012

Monica Blanaru, Boaz Bloch, Limor Vadas, Zahi Arnon, Naomi Ziv, Ilana Kremer and Iris Haimov

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), an anxiety disorder with lifetime prevalence of 7.8%, is characterized by symptoms that develop following exposure to traumatic life…

Abstract

Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), an anxiety disorder with lifetime prevalence of 7.8%, is characterized by symptoms that develop following exposure to traumatic life events and that cause an immediate experience of intense fear, helplessness or horror. PTSD is marked by recurrent nightmares typified by the recall of intrusive experiences and by extended disturbance throughout sleep. Individuals with PTSD respond poorly to drug treatments for insomnia. The disadvantages of drug treatment for insomnia underline the importance of non-pharmacological alternatives. Thus, the present study had three aims: first, to compare the efficiency of two relaxation techniques (muscular relaxation and progressive music relaxation) in alleviating insomnia among individuals with PTSD using both objective and subjective measures of sleep quality; second, to examine whether these two techniques have different effects on psychological indicators of PTSD, such as depression and anxiety; and finally, to examine how initial PTSD symptom severity and baseline emotional measures are related to the efficiency of these two relaxation methods. Thirteen PTSD patients with no other major psychiatric or neurological disorders participated in the study. The study comprised one seven-day running-in, no-treatment period, followed by two seven-day experimental periods. The treatments constituted either music relaxation or muscle relaxation techniques at desired bedtime. These treatments were randomly assigned. During each of these three experimental periods, subjects' sleep was continuously monitored with a wrist actigraph (Ambulatory Monitoring, Inc.), and subjects were asked to fill out several questionnaires concerned with a wide spectrum of issues, such as sleep, depression, and anxiety. Analyses revealed a significant increase in objective and subjective sleep efficiency and a significant reduction in depression level following music relaxation. Moreover, following music relaxation, a highly significant negative correlation was found between improvement in objective sleep efficiency and reduction in depression scale. The study‘s findings provide evidence that music relaxation at bedtime can be used as treatment for insomnia among individuals with PTSD.

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Mental Illness, vol. 4 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2036-7465

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Article
Publication date: 13 November 2020

Natnael Terefe Arega

Unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs) are known to be subjected to several potentially traumatic life events, risking more mental health problems than other populations of…

Abstract

Purpose

Unaccompanied refugee minors (URMs) are known to be subjected to several potentially traumatic life events, risking more mental health problems than other populations of same age. Evidence concerning the mental health of Eritrean URMs in Ethiopia is scarce. This paper aims to present an estimate of probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) within this group and describes its associations with traumatic life events and participants’ characteristics.

Design/methodology/approach

This cross-sectional quantitative study surveyed a random sample of 384 Eritrean URMs, aged 12–17 years, in the Shimelba refugee camp. The Stressful Life Events (SLE) questionnaire and the Reactions of Adolescents to Traumatic Stress (RATS) questionnaire were used to assess traumatic events and PTSD symptoms, respectively. Descriptive statistics, the chi-square test with the odds-ratio and stepwise regression were used to analyze data.

Findings

Large proportions of the URMs had experienced traumatic events including physical abuse (261, 68%), separation from family against will (240, 62.5%), a stressful life event in which they were in danger (198, 51.6%), and important changes in family life (196, 51%). About 38% of the URMs met the criteria for classifying probable PTSD diagnosis, suggesting that they are likely to have PTSD. The odds-ratio statistic revealed that girls and the oldest age group (15–17 years) were at a greater risk for PTSD. The total score on the SLE appeared to be the robust predictor, explaining 28% of the variance in RATS total scores.

Research limitations/implications

Self-report questionnaires used in this study yield less diagnostic information than extensive interviews. Additional information should be collected from the viewpoint of significant adults (caregivers/ teachers). Such information would be crucial in assessing the degree of impairment in daily functioning and the severity of the symptoms.

Originality/value

Awareness of the stressful experiences and the mental health status of the URMs has implications for taking preventive and curative measures to provide a broad range of intervention programs and psychosocial support.

Details

International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, vol. 17 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1747-9894

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Article
Publication date: 12 December 2016

Cassandra Perryman, Genevieve Dingle and David Clark

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the changes in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology during treatment in a drug and alcohol therapeutic community.

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the changes in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomatology during treatment in a drug and alcohol therapeutic community.

Design/methodology/approach

A repeated measures design was employed that looked at PTSD, depression, anxiety, and stress at a pre- and post-timepoint. A second sample was then evaluated at time of program completion to seven months post-treatment.

Findings

PTSD symptomatology significantly decreased in individuals who had undertaken treatment, and continued to decline post-treatment. This finding was irrespective of any PTSD-specific treatment.

Research limitations/implications

PTSD specific treatment is not necessary to lower the symptomatology. Furthermore, this provides evidence that PTSD and substance use disorders are so highly intertwined that the comorbidity can almost be considered a single, diagnosis.

Originality/value

This is a partial replication of previous research which had not previously been replicated. This research also adds to the limited research which looks at PTSD from the perspective of drug and alcohol rehabilitation.

Details

Therapeutic Communities: The International Journal of Therapeutic Communities, vol. 37 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-1866

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Book part
Publication date: 3 August 2011

Thomas DeGloma

Purpose – In this chapter, I examine the ways that various trauma carriers, including social movements, self-identified survivors, professional organizations, and…

Abstract

Purpose – In this chapter, I examine the ways that various trauma carriers, including social movements, self-identified survivors, professional organizations, and advocates make public claims about trauma and the PTSD diagnosis as they work to define moral and political issues.

Methodology/approach – Employing the method of social pattern analysis, I analyze a variety of narrative data pertaining to issues such as child sexual abuse, war, slavery, and genocide.

Findings – Trauma carriers engage in significant social memory work and collective identity work, define social problems, and practice social activism as they address the causes and consequences of psychological suffering. Within the context of modern diagnostic psychiatry, the PTSD diagnosis stands out as a unique narrative of social illness. The PTSD diagnosis is a powerful cultural script that various individuals and interest groups use to interpret mental health symptoms while attributing psychological consequences to social causes as opposed to problems rooted in the individual's psyche (as with psychoanalysis) or neurophysiology (as with modern diagnostic psychiatry). By implication, the social world must be “cured” for the individual to be healthy.

Originality/value of paper – I detail the unique sociocognitive implications of the PTSD diagnosis, highlighting its impact on our collective understanding of particular traumatic experiences and the shared nature of posttraumatic affect. I show the relevance of social memory studies, the more broadly conceived sociology of culture and cognition – especially as it pertains to collective identity and classification norms, the sociology of health-focused social movements, and the analysis of social problems claims-making to an emerging sociology of diagnosis.

Details

Sociology of Diagnosis
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-0-85724-575-5

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Article
Publication date: 19 December 2016

Russell Woodfield, Katie Dhingra, Daniel Boduszek and Agata Debowska

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the moderating role of psychopathy facets on the relationship between traumatic exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to investigate the moderating role of psychopathy facets on the relationship between traumatic exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptomology.

Design/methodology/approach

Participants were male prisoners incarcerated in the UK.

Findings

The analysis revealed differential associations between the two facets of psychopathy, with potentially traumatic events and symptoms of PTSD. Specifically, neither primary psychopathy nor trauma exposure were significantly related to PTSD, while secondary psychopathy was positively and significantly related with PTSD symptoms. Furthermore, the effect of trauma exposure on PTSD was found to depend on the level of secondary psychopathy. More specifically, trauma exposure was strongly and positively associated with PTSD symptoms for low levels of secondary psychopathy and negatively associated with PTSD symptomology for individuals with high levels of secondary psychopathy.

Originality/value

The findings clarify linkages among psychopathy facets, trauma, and PTSD, and extend the understanding of the presentation of PTSD in male prisoners.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 12 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

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Article
Publication date: 5 December 2019

Elizabeth Combs, Kaitlin Guston, Albert Kopak, Alyssa Raggio and Norman G. Hoffmann

Most research on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and offending has been conducted with special populations (e.g. veterans and female inmates) and generally overlooks…

Abstract

Purpose

Most research on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and offending has been conducted with special populations (e.g. veterans and female inmates) and generally overlooks the additive effect of panic disorder (PD) in offending patterns. The purpose of this paper is to assess the prevalence of PTSD and PD among jail inmates, while simultaneously examining the relationships between these disorders, offending types and frequency.

Design/methodology/approach

A random sample of adults recently booked into a local county jail participated in the Comprehensive Addictions and Psychological Evaluation-5 (CAAPE-5), a structured psychological assessment. The study sample was comprised of 200 male and 83 female inmates.

Findings

Indications of PTSD were observed among 44.0 percent of male inmates and 57.8 percent of female inmates. Most male inmates (78.4 percent) with positive PTSD indications also met criteria for PD, with a similar proportion (78.1 percent) of female inmates also meeting criteria for both. The combination of PTSD and PD was not associated with offending frequency, but inmates presenting indications of both PTSD and PD were more likely to be charged with a violent offense relative to those with only PTSD.

Practical implications

Inmates with PTSD who also have panic attacks may have a more severe condition with possible implications for other risks. Observations of these conditions among adults recently booked into local jails should coincide with each other.

Originality/value

Few studies have examined mental health conditions among local jail detainees, despite the ever-present need to address them. The current study considers this important population and investigates the prevalence of co-occurring conditions.

Details

International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 15 no. 4
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1744-9200

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Article
Publication date: 8 April 2014

Janetta Astone-Twerell, Keith Morgen and Chu Hsiao

The residential therapeutic community (TC) treatment modality has been shown to effectively reduce drug use and improve psychiatric/medical health among clients who are…

Abstract

Purpose

The residential therapeutic community (TC) treatment modality has been shown to effectively reduce drug use and improve psychiatric/medical health among clients who are often disproportionately impacted by medical conditions and have a co-occurring psychiatric disorder such as Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Yet not much is known regarding how clients’ health may impact their treatment satisfaction. Using path analysis, the interrelationship between PTSD, perceived health, and treatment satisfaction was examined. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

Design/methodology/approach

A survey including the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Specific (PCL-S), a perceived health rating, and a Treatment Satisfaction Scale was collected from 303 clients at three comparable long-term residential TC treatment programs in New York City.

Findings

Findings indicated that clients with PTSD rated their health significantly worse than those without PTSD. Although no direct relationship between PTSD and treatment satisfaction was found, there was a significant positive correlation between perceived health and treatment satisfaction.

Research limitations/implications

Findings likely constitute a regional sample thus generalizability is limited.

Practical implications

Simultaneously addressing addiction, PTSD, and medical issues can improve clients’ treatment satisfaction, consequently increasing treatment retention and producing greater positive post-treatment outcomes.

Originality/value

Few if any studies have examined the extent to which PTSD and perceived health impact treatment satisfaction within residential substance abuse treatment programs.

Details

Therapeutic Communities: The International Journal of Therapeutic Communities, vol. 35 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0964-1866

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Book part
Publication date: 25 August 2020

Grant J. Rich and Skultip (Jill) Sirikantraporn

After decades of focus on disaster, crisis, and trauma itself, in recent years more attention has been devoted to the study of human strengths and resilience, as reflected…

Abstract

After decades of focus on disaster, crisis, and trauma itself, in recent years more attention has been devoted to the study of human strengths and resilience, as reflected in the rise of positive psychology and strengths-based social work. In particular, psychological growth after trauma has been increasingly studied, and one of the official terms referring to the phenomenon is posttraumatic growth (PTG). The PTG literature reflects work on positive psychology, trauma recovery, and resilience. The main components associated with PTG are new possibilities, interpersonal growth, personal growth, appreciation for life, and spiritual change (Calhoun & Tedeschi, 2014). These domains have been tested and measured with a scale, the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory. While PTG and related concepts such as resilience have been studied in various populations, they have not yet been investigated extensively in Southeast Asia (SEA) populations. This chapter explores the psychological examination of resilience and PTG in the SEA context, with some discussion of the background of both positive psychological concepts and PTG research cross-culturally, and their application to the SEA region specifically. Brief relevant trauma history of the region, such as human-made and natural hazards impacting the region’s individuals and communities, and similarities and differences in the results of these traumas will be described. Implications for broader international work as well as cultural and clinical implications also will be discussed in this chapter.

Details

Resistance, Resilience, and Recovery from Disasters: Perspectives from Southeast Asia
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-83909-791-1

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Article
Publication date: 11 February 2021

Mohammad Ali Zakeri, Mahlagha Dehghan, Fatemeh Ghaedi Heidari, Hassan Pakdaman, Mehdi Mehdizadeh, Hamid Ganjeh, Mojtaba Sanji Rafsanjani and Sayed Mortaza Hossini Rafsanjanipoor

The increasing prevalence of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a global crisis that leads to physical and psychological outcomes for health-care workers, so this study…

Abstract

Purpose

The increasing prevalence of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a global crisis that leads to physical and psychological outcomes for health-care workers, so this study aims to investigate the mental health outcomes (including general health, generalized anxiety disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder) in health-care workers in Rafsanjan, Iran.

Design/methodology/approach

By using convenience sampling, this cross-sectional study was conducted on 332 health-care workers working in public hospitals in southern Iran. Data collection lasted from March to April 2020. General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28), Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7-item (GAD-7) and Impact of Event Scale were used to collect data. The data were then analyzed by using SPSS 25 and descriptive and inferential statistics (chi-square and multivariate logistic regression).

Findings

In total 45.5% of the participants had psychological disorder according to GHQ. In addition, 25.3% of the participants had GAD and 31.6% had posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The results using multivariate logistic regression showed that only income was significantly associated with psychological disorders (95% confidence interval for odds ratio: 1.32–6.45, P = 0.008).

Practical implications

According to the results, the incidence of GAD and PTSD was high among health-care workers. Therefore, it is recommended that the psychological skills of health-care workers be strengthened through counseling and training programs.

Originality/value

This paper provides a novel analysis of mental health in health-care workers in Iran.

Details

Mental Health Review Journal, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1361-9322

Keywords

1 – 10 of 362