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Open Access
Article
Publication date: 25 January 2010

Britt-Marie Stålnacke

Psychological factors such as post-traumatic stress and depression may play an important role in the recovery after whiplash injuries. Difficulties in psychosocial…

Abstract

Psychological factors such as post-traumatic stress and depression may play an important role in the recovery after whiplash injuries. Difficulties in psychosocial functioning with limitations in everyday life may dominate for some time after the injury. Our study therefore investigates the relationships between pain, post-traumatic stress, depression, and community integration. A set of questionnaires was answered by 191 persons (88 men, 103 women) five years after a whiplash injury to assess pain intensity (visual analogue scale, VAS), whiplash-related symptoms, post-traumatic stress (impact of event scale, IES), depression (Beck depression inventory, BDIII), community integration (community integration questionnaire, CIQ), life satisfaction (LiSat-11). One or more depressive symptoms were reported by 74% of persons; 22% reported scores that were classified as mild to severe depression. The presence of at least one post-traumatic symptom was reported by 70% of persons, and 38% reported mild to severe stress. Total scores of community integration for women were statistically significantly higher than for men. The total VAS score was correlated positively to the IES (r=0.456, P<0.456), the BDI (r=0.646, P<0.001), and negatively to the CIQ (r=-0.300, P<0.001). These results highlight the view that a significant proportion of people experience both pain and psychological difficulties for a long time after a whiplash injury. These findings should be taken into consideration in the management of subjects with chronic whiplash symptoms and may support a multi-professional rehabilitation model that integrates physical, psychological, and psychosocial factors.

Details

Mental Illness, vol. 2 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2036-7465

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 26 August 2022

Lukasz Stasielowicz

Wars can lead to massive migration waves, e.g. the Syrian Civil War that began in 2011 led to the European refugee crisis. Discussions about labour integration often…

Abstract

Purpose

Wars can lead to massive migration waves, e.g. the Syrian Civil War that began in 2011 led to the European refugee crisis. Discussions about labour integration often accompany huge spikes in asylum applications. Since many refugees experience traumatic events, such as torture, health problems must be considered in the work context. Unfortunately, the relevance of the post-traumatic experiences of refugees to specific job performance facets has mainly been ignored. To close the research gap, a study with refugees living in Germany was conducted to examine to what extent trauma-related variables are relevant to performance variables.

Design/methodology/approach

The relationship between post-traumatic stress (PTS), post-traumatic growth (PTG) and adaptive performance (social and task-oriented adaptive performance) was examined as, nowadays, many activities require dealing with changes (e.g. new colleagues, new technologies). Sixty-nine people met the inclusion criteria (e.g. refugee status, traumatic experiences) and completed the survey. Data were analysed using the Bayesian approach.

Findings

Bayesian analyses revealed that PTG might promote both social and task-oriented adaptive performance. In contrast, PTS was negatively related to task-oriented adaptive performance. Furthermore, there was no substantial evidence that PTG moderates the relationship between PTS and adaptive performance. Furthermore, there is preliminary evidence that refugees do not differ substantially from the general population with respect to social adaptive performance.

Originality/value

The present study demonstrates for the first time the relevance of post-traumatic experiences to the adaptive performance of refugees.

Details

International Journal of Workplace Health Management, vol. 15 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1753-8351

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 29 January 2020

Clare S. Allely and Bob Allely

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may have a detrimental impact on the individual’s ability to benefit from rehabilitative prison-based programmes, and studies have…

Abstract

Purpose

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may have a detrimental impact on the individual’s ability to benefit from rehabilitative prison-based programmes, and studies have also found that there is an association between PTSD and higher rates of re-offending. Studies have also found that a significant number of cases of trauma and PTSD go undetected and therefore untreated in individuals who are incarcerated.

Design/methodology/approach

A literature review was carried out exploring studies that have investigated PTSD in incarcerated populations to identify current clinical considerations and recommendations.

Findings

This paper explores the key findings from the literature and highlights the important clinical implications and recommendations.

Originality/value

To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first paper focusing specifically on how the findings from the literature can inform clinical practice and also what factors need to be given greater consideration, going beyond the current systematic and literature reviews in the field.

Details

Journal of Criminal Psychology, vol. 10 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2009-3829

Keywords

Book part
Publication date: 30 December 2004

Bettie Posey Bullard and Donna Power Rogers

Questions about the short- and long-term effects of the trauma of 9/11 on students with special needs and the coping strategies used by their teachers to deal…

Abstract

Questions about the short- and long-term effects of the trauma of 9/11 on students with special needs and the coping strategies used by their teachers to deal satisfactorily with the effects prompted the creation of a survey to examine these issues. While the survey was in its inception and before its completion, a consultation was held with a counselor from the Behavioral Studies program at the University of South Alabama to ensure that the survey was thorough and relevant to post-traumatic stress.

Details

Administering Special Education: In Pursuit of Dignity and Autonomy
Type: Book
ISBN: 978-1-84950-298-6

Article
Publication date: 24 January 2022

Wayne Hochwarter, Samantha Jordan, Christian Kiewitz, Patrick Liborius, Antonia Lampaki, Jennifer Franczak, Yufan Deng, Mayowa T. Babalola and Abdul Karim Khan

The authors investigated a psychological process that links characteristics of events related to the coronavirus disease (2019) COVID-19 pandemic (i.e. perceived novelty…

Abstract

Purpose

The authors investigated a psychological process that links characteristics of events related to the coronavirus disease (2019) COVID-19 pandemic (i.e. perceived novelty, disruptiveness and criticality) to compassion fatigue [(CF), a form of caregiver burnout] and subsequent post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in nurses.

Design/methodology/approach

Administering two online surveys (October and November 2020) resulted in matched data from 175 nurses responsible for patient care during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Findings

Perceived disruptiveness and criticality of COVID-19 events were positively associated with nurses' CF, which also mediated those characteristics' effects on PTSD instigated by COVID-19. Contrary to the authors' hypothesis, the perceived novelty of COVID-19 events was not significantly associated with CF nor was the indirect effect of perceived novelty on PTSD mediated by CF.

Originality/value

The authors extend event system theory by investigating the psychological processes linking event features and resultant outcomes while providing practical implications on preparations for future unexpected and potentially life-altering events.

Details

Journal of Managerial Psychology, vol. 37 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0268-3946

Keywords

Content available
Article
Publication date: 27 February 2007

456

Abstract

Details

Health Education, vol. 107 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-4283

Article
Publication date: 3 May 2022

Noelle Blackman, Konstantinos Vlachakis, Anna Annes, Sally Griffin and Peter Baker

Research and anecdotal clinical work indicate that complex post-traumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) in families that have children and adults who have a learning disability…

Abstract

Purpose

Research and anecdotal clinical work indicate that complex post-traumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) in families that have children and adults who have a learning disability and/or are autistic may be prevalent. This paper aims to provide a preliminary formulation of complex trauma in families.

Design/methodology/approach

This report is based on a review of clinical psychotherapeutic work with six families. The themes are derived from the assessment period through examining the assessment reports and clinical supervision notes for thematic patterns.

Findings

This report suggests that the prevalence of CPTSD in families of people who have a learning disability and/or are autistic needs to be researched across the family lifecycle and that there are specific factors that mediate complex trauma symptomatology.

Originality/value

CPTSD symptomatology in these families is inadequately conceptualised and this is one of the first papers suggesting this as a potentially helpful framework to consider the experiences of families.

Details

Tizard Learning Disability Review, vol. 27 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1359-5474

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 September 1994

Laurence Barton

Literature of trauma in the workplace after an organizationalcatastrophe often focuses on various aspects of a critical incidentwhere data are more readily available…

958

Abstract

Literature of trauma in the workplace after an organizational catastrophe often focuses on various aspects of a critical incident where data are more readily available because of organizational “pressure points” – public relations, technology and the financial impact of a disaster on a corporation. Highlights the fact that external public rarely express concern or even interest in the mental health of workers in an organization perceived as being responsible for a catastrophe. Provides results from recently published studies that reveal workers experience some trauma after a critical incident, ranging from mild depression, to the onset of manic disease, to suicidal thoughts. Scrutinizes the impact on departmental and organizational morale, production and sustainability of key projects to comprehend the organizational behaviour dimension of critical incidents in an appropriate context. Overviews the relationship of organizational behaviour to crisis management and analyses the impact of trauma upon workers at one department of large oil exploration company operating in Alaska. Reaches beyond anecdotal surveys to include an analysis of employee turnover in the immediate department of that company after four workers had been badly injured in a serious industrial accident. Results suggest attention must be paid to stress and trauma by employees who witness organizational catastrophes.

Details

Disaster Prevention and Management: An International Journal, vol. 3 no. 3
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0965-3562

Keywords

Open Access
Article
Publication date: 17 January 2022

Stephanie Brick

Service members of the US Department of Defense (DoD) have alarmingly high rates of depression, anxiety, probable stress disorders and suicidality, all of which are…

1164

Abstract

Purpose

Service members of the US Department of Defense (DoD) have alarmingly high rates of depression, anxiety, probable stress disorders and suicidality, all of which are negative health conditions exacerbated by various external stressors. High-stress work conditions – to include shift work, hazardous territories, high-stakes mission sets and generally disconnected sites – require a work environment that facilitates, rather than inhibits, stress reduction and mental well-being. This paper aims to present “salutogenic design” as an innovative approach: Salutogenic design offers demonstrated architectural solutions that improve health and well-being.

Design/methodology/approach

This paper describes salutogenic design strategies beginning with the need for such an approach, the call to action to implement strategic and tactical solutions and the challenges and financial impacts of such a broad and innovative strategy to improve workplace health, well-being and performance in the DoD and beyond. Examples of these strategies, via biophilic design solutions, are presented in the central Table 1 as an easy-to-reference tool and supported by the voluminous literature as referenced, in part, through this research paper.

Findings

Salutogenic design strategies offer innovative, financially viable solutions to help mitigate stress and improve workforce well-being while maintaining the highest level of building security requirements in access-controlled spaces and disconnected sites, such as military installations and government compounds.

Research limitations/implications

Issues of mental and physical health are complex and multi-faceted, and they require complex and multi-faceted solutions. Salutogenic design is presented as one facet of that solution: a tangible solution to an often-intangible issue. Further, as a novel approach to address a critical DoD issue, Table 1 bridges the common gap between high-concept design theory and practical construction-application solutions, with positive value to the health, performance, quality-of-life and well-being of service members.

Originality/value

To the best of the author’s knowledge, this paper is the first to approach the DoD’s imperative to reduce service members’ mental stress with “salutogenic design.”

Details

Facilities , vol. 40 no. 15/16
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0263-2772

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 18 January 2021

Scott Williams and Jonathan Williams

While a return to work following trauma exposure can be therapeutic, this is not always so. As with many topics related to traumatic stress in organizations, several…

Abstract

Purpose

While a return to work following trauma exposure can be therapeutic, this is not always so. As with many topics related to traumatic stress in organizations, several contingency factors complicate the effort to draw an overarching conclusion about whether returning to work is therapeutic. The purpose of this paper is to present important determinants of whether work is therapeutic or triggering for those with traumatic stress conditions. The need for contingency approaches in the study of traumatic stress in organizations is illustrated.

Design/methodology/approach

Literature on traumatic stress in organizations is reviewed.

Findings

Three of the key determinants of whether a return to work is therapeutic or triggering for traumatic stress sufferers are trauma-type contingencies, condition-type contingencies and work-setting contingencies. For instance, human-caused and task-related traumas are more likely than natural disasters to make a return-to-work triggering. Additionally, the time since developing a traumatic stress condition is inversely related to the degree of improvement in that condition through the experience of working. Moreover, managerial actions can affect how therapeutic an employee’s return to work is.

Practical implications

These findings suggest the challenges of reintegrating a traumatized employee to the workplace can be highly situation-specific. Careful consideration of the traumatic event suffered by each traumatic stress victim, their traumatic stress condition, and the work setting to which they would return are recommended.

Social implications

Promoting mental health in organizations can contribute to employers’ social performance.

Originality/value

Examination of the factors that complicate predicting whether work is therapeutic posttrauma demonstrates how contingency approaches can advance research on trauma in organizations.

Details

Management Research Review, vol. 44 no. 7
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 2040-8269

Keywords

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