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Article
Publication date: 16 August 2021

Beatrice Zanellato Mayer and Dinora Eliete Floriani

This paper aims to analyse how the temporal dimension is conceptualised in studies of the internationalisation process of firms and its implications. Theoretical models…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to analyse how the temporal dimension is conceptualised in studies of the internationalisation process of firms and its implications. Theoretical models such as U-Model and INV explain the process of internationalisation as dynamic; nonetheless, time is approached as an underlying aspect of the process. In this essay, time is brought to the spotlight since, despite its strategic relevance, it has been treated implicitly in studies of the internationalisation processes, except in those that address the speed of internationalisation.

Design/methodology/approach

Based on a critical reassessment of the academic literature, the authors present theoretical arguments and highlight elements to be considered in the analysis of the temporal dimension throughout the internationalisation process of firms.

Findings

This essay focuses on expanding the comprehension of temporality in the internationalisation process, that underlies periods of changes, implied also in periods of stability. The paper discusses time dimension implications during the internationalisation process and reveals that there is an interaction between temporal verticality (context/events), subjective dimension of time (perception and interpretation of time) and objective dimension of time (stability and changes). Therefore, it sustains that these interactions compress past, present and future actions in the internationalisation process.

Research limitations/implications

Because of the chosen research approach, this essay did not empirically apply the theoretical model and propositions. Therefore, future studies may empirically apply the propositions and use the temporal lens to look deeper at the temporality of internationalisation process and shed further light on the mechanisms that interlink the pre-and post-entry phases.

Practical implications

The argument helps entrepreneurs understand that actions throughout the internationalisation process are also influenced by the experience of time and not only governed by rational matters. Changes in the context can alter the perception of present time as being restricted, and in turn, may alter the flux of future internationalisation actions. However, if actions are conducted in a precipitated manner it can bring forth negative results for the firm. It is essential to recognise the importance of temporal verticality and subjective dimension of time as influencers of future actions of the objective dimension of time in the process of internationalisation.

Originality/value

While most research is restricted to understanding time as speed, this essay brings a theoretical model extending the knowledge of time in the literature of international business and international entrepreneurship, by including factors that imply temporality. By explaining the relationship between temporal aspects, it is argued that temporal verticality (events and context) influences temporal subjectivity (perception of the present and interpretation of the past) to direct future actions of the temporality of internationalisation (stability and changes).

Details

critical perspectives on international business, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1742-2043

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 16 January 2017

Manish B. Ganvir and Neeraj Dwivedi

The purpose of this paper is threefold: first, to study internationalization-performance relationship of Indian born global (IBG) firms from multi-theoretical lens and…

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is threefold: first, to study internationalization-performance relationship of Indian born global (IBG) firms from multi-theoretical lens and establish the nature of this relationship; second, to highlight the role of foreign equity in moderating this relationship; and third, to establish the relevance of export intensity (EI) in determining these firms’ financial performance.

Design/methodology/approach

In total, 411 IBG firms were identified based on born global (BG) definition and post-entry internationalization age requirement of this study. A balanced panel comprising of three years from 2010 to 2012 was analyzed using pooled panel and moderated multiple regression techniques.

Findings

The authors empirically prove that though EI and financial performance are positively related at overall level, this relationship is curvilinear in nature. In presence of foreign equity this positive curvilinear relationship is moderated to inverted-U shape.

Research limitations/implications

The data sample is restricted to 411 private limited IBGs between the years 2009 and 2012. Implications of the findings are for policy makers and managers to sharpen their strategic foresight for exporting firms in its post-entry period. Also, investors can take level of internationalization into cognizance when investing in BG firms.

Practical implications

The authors believe the results have practical implications for numerous parties, such as shareholders, institutional investors, scholars, policymakers and managers. It emboldens modern day managers to make further foray into internationalization due to its positive benefits on both productivity as well as profitability. Also, firms that look for foreign equity participation have to balance their strategies for greater scale and scope into international markets.

Originality/value

This is the first study that brings out the vital relationship aspect of EI with financial performance of IBG firms in their post-entry internationalization period, adding to international business literature in area of BG firms in their post-entry internationalization period.

Details

International Journal of Emerging Markets, vol. 12 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1746-8809

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 20 November 2020

Huifeng Bai, Julie McColl, Christopher Moore, Weijing He and Jin Shi

This empirical study, from the international retailing perspective, examines the direction of retailers' further expansion after initial entry into overseas host market in…

1091

Abstract

Purpose

This empirical study, from the international retailing perspective, examines the direction of retailers' further expansion after initial entry into overseas host market in the context of the luxury fashion retail market in China.

Design/methodology/approach

The research adopts qualitative multiple case studies.

Findings

After initial entry into China, luxury fashion retailers further expand their retail operations through three directional patterns: cautious, regional and countrywide expansions. The stepwise expansion from tier-1 to tier-2 and tier-3 cities remains popular; however, the importance of the tier system of Chinese cities has been weakened because tier-3 cities in affluent regions are perceived to have more potential than some tier-2 cities in less developed regions. The retailers assess a potential local market through interrelated criteria, including location and strategic importance, economic development, available store locations and staff, a high degree of urbanisation and tourism, debatable favourable policies and offers, and popularity of e- and m-commerce. There is a positive relationship between popularity of e- and m-commerce in a city and the potential of that city to run brick-and-mortar stores.

Originality/value

The paper offers an insight into the current international retailing literature by examining the direction of luxury fashion retailers' further expansion after their initial market entry. Particularly, the research considers a set of criteria which can be used to assess a potential local market, and the impact of e- and m-commerce on local market choices for brick-and-mortar stores.

Details

International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, vol. 49 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0959-0552

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 September 2014

Nicolas Li and Pavlos Dimitratos

There is considerable literature on the firm's market servicing mode (MSM) when it enters the foreign country. However, scant research has been conducted to examine how…

2019

Abstract

Purpose

There is considerable literature on the firm's market servicing mode (MSM) when it enters the foreign country. However, scant research has been conducted to examine how business-level strategies (BLSs) affect internationalised firms to choose a multiple rather than single post-entry MSM. The purpose of this paper is to test the effect of three BLSs on firms’ selection of multiple MSMs.

Design/methodology/approach

Survey responses of 165 internationalised Greek small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) were collected capturing the types of BLSs they used during 2008-2010 and their number of MSMs in a particular foreign country in 2011. The data were analysed using logistic regression.

Findings

The findings suggest that firms that implement collaborative and differentiation strategies are more likely to use multiple rather than single MSMs. Firms that implement penetration pricing strategies are more likely to use single MSMs, although this effect is marginally significant. Overall, the validity of the strategic choice model regarding the choice of multiple MSMs is confirmed.

Originality/value

Despite its importance, the effect of BLSs influencing MSMs has not seemingly been investigated, especially in the context of internationalised SMEs as opposed to large multinational enterprises; and, for post-entry as opposed to initial modes. The findings underline the BLS significance on internationalised SME adoption of multiple vs single MSMs in the host country.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 31 no. 5
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 1 January 2012

Lisa Qixun Siebers

This paper aims to examine the important factors that influence foreign retailers' expansion in China. By doing so the paper proposes business strategies for foreign

6591

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to examine the important factors that influence foreign retailers' expansion in China. By doing so the paper proposes business strategies for foreign retailers to be successful in China and other emerging economies.

Design/methodology/approach

A case study approach is employed to build theory. Five case studies were chosen, including the world's four largest retail firms: Wal‐Mart, Carrefour, Metro and Tesco, as well as the Japanese department store Heivado.

Findings

The paper identifies six important activities in successful retail expansion: adaptation to the external environment; responses to psychic distance; establishment of business networking; localization; entry strategies into new areas; and the role of local management team. A new framework articulates the interdependent relationships between various factors embedded in retail internationalization, including external environment, internal drivers, psychic distance, and expansion strategies.

Practical implications

The findings provide directions to managers of international retail firms on how to expand successfully in an emerging market.

Originality/value

This paper offers an exploratory framework on post‐entry expansion, which provides an indispensable link between previous research on pre‐entry and entry stages of retailer expansion and future research on foreign retailers' performance.

Details

Journal of Business Strategy, vol. 33 no. 1
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0275-6668

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 23 September 2021

Xiaoxuan Li, Yue Wang, Miles M. Yang and Yanzhao Tang

This study explores the impact of owner chief executive officers' (CEO) narcissism on the exporting small to medium-sized enterprises' (SMEs) decision-making on the…

Abstract

Purpose

This study explores the impact of owner chief executive officers' (CEO) narcissism on the exporting small to medium-sized enterprises' (SMEs) decision-making on the international market expansion speed after their initial entry. Specifically, the authors use the mechanism of firms' international entrepreneurial orientation (IEO) to examine how owner CEO narcissism may influence SMEs' post-entry speed of internationalization (PSI), both directly and indirectly.

Design/methodology/approach

To test the hypotheses, the authors draw on data from a two-wave questionnaire and on archival export data from 291 Chinese exporting SMEs in three municipalities and 17 provinces from 2019 to 2020.

Findings

The results support the theoretical predictions that owner CEO narcissism shapes exporting SMEs' decisions on PSI, both directly and indirectly, through the mediation of firm-level IEO.

Originality/value

The study extends emerging research on the role of CEO narcissism in the upper echelons literature into the international marketing (IM) context. It also offers new insights into what drives exporting SMEs' IM decision-making from a psychological microfoundations perspective. Furthermore, the authors theoretically establish and empirically demonstrate the key role of a firm's IEO as a mediator to complement the existing literature's focus on the direct influence of CEO narcissism on firms' internationalization decisions.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 September 2021

Huifeng Bai, Julie McColl and Christopher Moore

From an international retailing perspective, this empirical study aims to examine luxury fashion retailers' changing marketing strategies in China.

1577

Abstract

Purpose

From an international retailing perspective, this empirical study aims to examine luxury fashion retailers' changing marketing strategies in China.

Design/methodology/approach

Using case studies of 14 luxury fashion retailers, qualitative data were collected via 31 semi-structured executive interviews.

Findings

Both standardised global and localised multinational marketing strategies were found to have initially been employed by luxury fashion retailers entering into China. Subsequently, localised multinational strategies became increasingly important for their post-entry operations and business development, particularly in terms of their product strategies. More specifically, as well as the introduction of Chinese brand names, product design has been adapted according to Chinese market conditions, and product portfolios have been adapted to satisfy regional differences. However, localised product sourcing in China is far less common.

Research limitations/implications

As the findings are generated from China, they may not explain luxury fashion retailers' marketing strategies in other markets. Despite the relatively small sample size, the 14 luxury fashion retailer case studies originate from across a wide range of countries, retail formats and ownership structures and are therefore considered to be varied enough to represent the market.

Practical implications

The study offers practitioners insights into the success that can be generated by the manipulation of marketing strategies, particularly product strategies, within the world's second biggest luxury market.

Originality/value

This paper extends the current international retailing literature by examining and comparing the motives and practices of luxury fashion retailers and the increasing localisation of their marketing strategies in China as they move from initial market entry into their post-entry operations.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 39 no. 2
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 22 October 2021

Channappa Santhosh

This paper aims to explore the moderating effect of human capital in the form of a CEO’s educational background and firm age at the time of internationalization on growth…

Abstract

Purpose

This paper aims to explore the moderating effect of human capital in the form of a CEO’s educational background and firm age at the time of internationalization on growth and survival.

Design/methodology/approach

The research study is based on primary data gathered from 102 internationalized small and medium enterprises (SMEs) belonging to the engineering industry in Bangalore district, Karnataka, India.

Findings

The results reveal that human capital significantly improves sales growth but had no impact on the survival of internationalized SMEs.

Practical implications

The paper includes practical implications for the CEOs of SMEs to successfully strategize their efforts towards growth and survival in the international market.

Originality/value

This research study enhances the importance of human capital and its impact on the growth and survival of internationalized SMEs in the context of an emerging economy where research studies are limited and largely unexplored till date.

Details

Journal of Economic and Administrative Sciences, vol. ahead-of-print no. ahead-of-print
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 1026-4116

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 28 June 2018

Byoungho Jin, Jae-Eun Chung, Heesoon Yang and So Won Jeong

Contrary to the mainstream born global (BG) perspective, some previous studies report the incremental expansion of BGs. In addition, the reasons behind BGs initiating…

1254

Abstract

Purpose

Contrary to the mainstream born global (BG) perspective, some previous studies report the incremental expansion of BGs. In addition, the reasons behind BGs initiating specific steps, if any, and BGs’ entry market choices are still unknown or rather contrasting. This study views that such contrasting findings may be attributed to the contexts in which BGs operate. Within the context of consumer goods BGs, the purpose of this paper is to examine the entry market choices and post-entry growth patterns, and investigate the underlying reasons.

Design/methodology/approach

This study adopted in-depth historiographic case research from seven Korean BGs in the consumer goods sector that demonstrated success in internationalization. Multiple sources were used to gather data from each case. A total of 14 interviews, approximately two one-on-one interviews per firm, were the major means of data collection.

Findings

The findings revealed that first entry market choices among BGs functioned largely as attempts at emergent opportunities. However, after the first wave of entry into countries with available selling opportunities, entry market choice became a simultaneous pursuit of strategic markets and emergent selling opportunities. BGs focusing on image-oriented consumer goods appeared more strategic when entering the world’s leading markets to gain brand reputation. The analyses of internationalization processes revealed three patterns, which collectively implied that each move to the next stage came from a strategic decision to solve the problems related to survival and strategic visions for growth.

Originality/value

One contribution of this paper is the provision of empirical evidence for entry market choices among consumer goods BGs. The findings suggest that BGs’ entry market choices may not be a simple matter of simultaneous expansion to the world’s lead market. Instead, they may comprise more strategic decision. While previous studies have suggested such evolutionary or path-dependent internationalization processes, this study is among the first to reveal specific growth patterns and the possible reasons behind them.

Details

International Marketing Review, vol. 35 no. 6
Type: Research Article
ISSN: 0265-1335

Keywords

Article
Publication date: 2 August 2013

Marta Frasquet, John Dawson and Alejandro Mollá

The purpose of this paper is to propose a framework, based on empirical research, to explain the strategic processes of post-entry development in international retailing…

2258

Abstract

Purpose

The purpose of this paper is to propose a framework, based on empirical research, to explain the strategic processes of post-entry development in international retailing through consideration of the dynamic capabilities attributable to retailers.

Design/methodology/approach

Case study approach of five international retail firms using secondary data and primary data gathered through interviews with firms ' executives and financial analysts.

Findings

The research findings, in the light of the existing literature, suggest a framework that makes a distinction between first level or generic dynamic capabilities relevant to the internationalization process and second level or specific dynamic capabilities that are linked to particular strategies used by individual retail firms as they internationalize.

Originality/value

Research in international retailing has focused on empirical studies despite calls for a more conceptual approach. This paper responds to this call by applying the dynamic capabilities approach to the post-entry international activity of apparel retailers.

1 – 10 of 259